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Chapter 13-14 vocab
Definition + historical significance
Terms in this set (21)
Election of 1824
In 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President after the election when the House of Representative chose the winner. The Democratic-Republican party splintered as 4 separate candidates sought the presidency. The election was the only time since the 12th Amendment was passed that an election was decided by the House.
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State. Andrew Jackson had won a higher percentage of the popular vote and a larger electoral vote, but still lost; thus, he denounced the outome of the election a "Corrupt Bargain".
Revolution of 1828
The 1828 election saw Andrew Jackson face John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson won the election and Jacksonian Democracy came to power, thus marking the transition from the First Party System (which reflected Jeffersonian Democracy) to the Second Party System. Many historians argue this marked the beginning of modern American Politics, with the establishment of democracy and the two-party system.
Also known as Jacksonian Democracy, this type of democaracy held that all white men could vote (though property rules applied), belief in manifest destiny, the spoils system, strict constructionism, laissez-faire economics, and no government-granted monopolies to banks.
john c. calhoun
(1782-1850) A leading politician and political theorist from SC. Calhoun was a modernizer, nationalist, and proponent of strong national government and tariffs. After 1840, he switched his views to states' rights, limited government, nullification, and free trade, and original defence of slavery, inventing a theory of minority rights in a democracy, and for pointing the South toward secession. He was a VP for John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.
Henry Clay (1777-1852) A lawyer, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the Senate and in the House of Representatives. He served 3 different terms as Speaker of the House of Representatives and was also Secretary of State from 1825-1829. In the election of 1824, as speaker of the house he made a deal with John Quincy Adams in the event known as the "Corrupt Bargain".
An event in 1832 where a sectional crisis occurring in Andrew Jackson's Presidency when South Carolina created the Ordinance of Nullification. The ordinance declared by the power of the state that the 1828 Tariff and 1832 Tariff were unconstitutional, and thus null and void in South Carolina. The Tariff of 1828 was highly protective and many called in the "Tariff of Abominations". The tariff was opposed in the South and parts of New England. People hoped the tariff would be significantly reduced after the election of Andrew Jackson. The 1820s saw the US in an economic downturn and many in SC blamed misfortunes on the tariff policies. Later compromises with SC would fail and lead to conflict.
Tariff of 1828
A protective tariff passed by Congress in 1828, it was designed to protect industry in the northern US. Southern detractors labeled it the "Tariff of Abominations" due to its impact on the pre-war southern economy. The tariff meant to protect the American goods from cheaper imported goods by taxing them. The South, however, was harmed as they had to pay higher prices on goods that the South did not produce, and the lack of exportation of British goods into the US made it difficult for the British to buy Southern cotton. Reaction in the South, particularly in SC would lead to the Nullification Crisis.
Spoils system (and relation to the kitchen cabinet)
A practice where a political party, having won an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for victory in the election. This was an incentive to keep working for the party. This system contrasted with one based on merit, independent of political activity. The term arrose from NY senator William L. Marcy after the 1828 election of Andrew Jackson when he remarked, "to the victor belong the spoils". When Jackson assumed office, he removed many people and replaced them with supporters. Before the 1828 election, moderation had prevailed in transfer of political power. The kitchen cabinet was a term used by political opponents of Andrew Jackson to describe the number of unnoficial advisors he consulted parallel to the US Cabinet.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Also known as the Petticoat Affair, the affair was a scandal in 1830-31 US scandal involving members of Andrew Jackson's cabinet and their wives. Originally a private matter, the affair affected the political careers of several men and resulted in the informal "Kitchen Cabinet".
A famous 1830 debate between senator Daniel Webster from MA and senator Robert Y. Hayne of SC over the issue of protectionalist tariffs. The debate centered around the Nullification Crisis issues. Hayne saw the Constitution as little more than a treaty among independent states while Webster saw the US a Union bound by the Constitution. The debate was not prepared ahead of time, and the debate reflected the issues of the time between the North and South.
The Force Bill was passed by Congress in 1833 during Andrew Jackson's Presidency. The act allowed for Jackson to use whatever force necessary to enforce federal tariffs. The bill was passed to supress SCs refusal to collect tariffs during the Nullifcation Crisis. Opponents called the bill the "War Bill" and "Bloody Bill". Unsurprisingly, many saw this as an infringement of states's rights and was unconstitutional. The Force Bill was the first piece of legislation that publicly denied the right of secession to individual states.
A pejoritive term for state banks selected by the US Department of Treasury to receive surplus government funds in 1833. The term implied the banks were controlled by Jackson. The banks gained currency from the US Treasury not because of monetary fitness but on the basis of the spoils system. Most of the banks failed. Because many of the banks flooded the country with paper currency, which was unreliable, Jackson started the Specie Circular. The Spece Circular required all public lands be bought with gold and/or silver. This contributed to the Panic of 1837 when a major dip in the economy due to increased deby created by this banking system.
The Cherokee nation, established in the 19th century, includes people involuntarily relocated from the SE Indian Territory to Oklahoma by an event known as the Trail of Tears. The ToT was part of the 1830 Indian Removal Act under Andrew Jackson. The Seminoles are a group of native Americans originally from Florida. From 1818-1858, the US fought the Seminoles in the Seminole Wars. Many Seminoles were relocated west of the Mississippi River as as part of the Indian Removal Act.
Trail of Tears/Indian Removal Act
The Trai lof Tears was a name given to the relocation and movement of Native American nations from the Southeastern part of the US following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was an Act strongly supported by the South, as the state could gain access to the lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes. President Jackson hoped removing Cherokee Natives in Georgia would end a land dispute there. The Act was very controversial. Thousands were subsequently moved west to lands west of the Mississippi.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs was created in 1824 within the US Department of the Interior. It was formd in 1824 by Secretary of War John C. Calhoun. The Bureau is responsible for administering and managing of land held in trust by the US for Native Americans in the US.
A pivotal moment in the Texas Revolution, in 1836 the Battle of the Alamo was the culmination of a 13-day siege. All but 2 of the Texian defenders were killed and the perceived cruelty inflicted upon the the defenders by the Mexican Army inspired many to join the Texian Army. The Texian Army soon defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto in 1836. The Republic of Texas was then formed in 1836 and bvecame a US state in 1846.
Anti-Masonic Party (1828)
The first "Third Party" in the US. The party strongly opposed Freemasonry and was founded as a single-issue party that aspired to become a majority party. New innovations that the party introduced were nominating conventions and adoption of party platforms. Their main principals were social conservatism, anti-freemasonry, and economic nationalism. Dissolved in 1838, succeeded by Whig Party.
The Whigs were founded in 1833 and dissolved in 1856. They were primarily conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, modernization, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster. They were formed in opposition to the policies of Andrew Jackson.
Panic of 1837
A financial crisis in the US built on speculative fever. The end of the 2nd Bank of the US created runaway inflation. But, in NYC, every bank began to accept payment only in gold and silver coinage that forced a dramatic and deflationary backlash. This was based on the assumption of former president, Andrew Jackson, that the government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value. the panic was followed by a five-year depression that ivolved the failure of banks and then record-high unemployment rates.
van Buren v. Harrison
In the election of 1840 saw President Martin van Buren run for re-election against an economic depression and Whig Party unified for the first time by war hero William Henry Harrison and his "log cabin campaign", despite being quite wealthy. The election was unique as electors caste votes for four men who had or would become President: Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler, and Polk.
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