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Columbus
he began the first migration since the Paleo Indians in 1492. He was a deeply religious man, who was obsessed with getting support for his voyage to sail across the Atlantic Ocean to get to China. Columbus hoped to be honored and elevated to the aristocracy for his daring and bold travels across the Atlantic to America.
Drake
Francis Drake was an English Sea Captain. He was a politician during the Elizabethan Era. Elizabeth the I crowned him to knighthood. He was and English hero and a Spanish pirate.
Raleigh
in 1585 he made plans to settle in Roanoke Island, and after the explorers left there were no more colonists until two years later. In 1594 he heard of a "city of gold" in South America, and Sailed to find it. Throughout his trip he wrote a book called El Dorado.
William Bradford
he was a leader of the separatists, who were a group of people who tried to break away from the church. He thought that the pilgrims needed to move to America for the children . He was elected the governor of the pilgrims. He was also a signer of the Mayflower compact.
Joseph Smith
(1805-1844) Founder/propher of Latter Day Saints. "Restoration" - restored Church of Christ rather than founding new religion.
Lord Baltimore
(1605-1675) Sir Cecil Calvert. Separation of church/state, freedom of religion, founded Maryland.
William Penn
(1644-1718) Quaker who founded Pennsylvania . King Charles granted Penn land because of a debt with Penn's father.
New Amsterdam
West India Company ran the colony. Dutch allowed religious freedom and open trade.
Why did Europe colonize the New World?
-There was a huge availability of land and little resistance to European conquest.
-There were also many other opportunities for gaining wealth: new crops and easy tobacco land, for example.
-The trip across the Atlantic became easier and more routine after Columbus' crossing.
Treaty of Tordesillas
-A treaty through which Spain and Portugal divided their claims to the New World. It was signed in 1494. The treaty stated an imaginary line 1100 miles west of the Canary Islands - all land to the west of that line would belong to Spain, and all land to the east of it would belong to Portugal.
English colonial domination of eastern America
-The British had naval might that surpassed even Spain.
-After the first colonies, the British royalty took a vested interest in the success of American colonization.
-Virginian tobacco farms gave England a huge source of revenue. The Navigation Act reinforced this by making sure that all tobacco went to England.
St. Augustine
-A Spanish outpost on the Atlantic coastline of Florida, founded in September of 1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés under the orders of the Spanish monarchy. This was the first permanent European settlement within the current boundaries of the United States. By 1600, Saint Augustine had a population of about 500 people and was the only remaining Spanish beachhead on the Atlantic shoreline.
Jamestown
King James I granted a charter to a group of London entrepreneurs in 1606 ...the Virginia Company, in order to establish a English settlement in the Chesapeake region of North America. By December 1606, 104 settlers had sailed from London with instructions to settle Virginia, find gold, and find a water route to the Orient.
Plymouth
The colony was founded by a group of separatists who would later be known as the Pilgrim Fathers. along with Jamestown, Virginia, Plymouth Colony was one of the earliest successful colonies founded by the English in North America and the first large English settlement in the New England region that was permanent. The colony was aided by a Native American of the Patuxet people named Squanto. the colony was eventually able to establish a treaty with Chief Massasoit which helped ensured the colony's success.
Virgina House of Burgesses
It was the first representative government group in the American colonies. Famous delegates included Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington. The House met for the first time in Jamestown, July 30, 1619. The House of Burgesses at first met only once per year had the ability to make laws that could then be vetoed by the governor or the directors of the Virginia Company.
Mayflower Compact
The Mayflower Compact consisted of the signatures of 41 of the 102 passengers on the Mayflower, 37 of whom were Separatists fleeing religious persecution in Europe. The compact established the first basis in the new world for written laws.
New England Town Meetings
a meeting where the population of an entire geographic area is invited to participate in a gathering, often for a political, administrative, or legislative purpose. It is a form of democratic rule that has been used primarily in the United States since the 1600s. Traditionally, a town meeting is a time when community members come together to legislate policy and budgets for their town. However, politicians in the United States have been using the term to represent a forum for voters to ask questions. The Puritans who believed in Congregationalist church governance established town meetings In New England when they established the various New England colonies.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 14, 1638/39. The orders describe the government set up by the Connecticut River towns, setting its structure and powers. It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution in the Western tradition,[3] and thus earned Connecticut its nickname of The Constitution State. John Fiske, a Connecticut historian, was the first to claim that the Fundamental Orders were the first written Constitution, a claim disputed by some modern historians.[4] The orders were transcribed into the official colony records by the colony's secretary Thomas Welles. It was a Constitution for the colonial government of Hartford and was similar to the government Massachusetts had set up. However, this Order gave men more voting rights and opened up more men to be able to run for office positions.
New England Confederation
a political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. Established May 29, 1643,[1] its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against the Native Americans. It was established as a direct result of a war which started between the Mohegan and Narragansetts. It also provided for the return of fugitive criminals and indentured servants, and served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes.
Bacon's Rebellion
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against Native American raids on the frontier; some historians also consider it a power play by Bacon against the Royal Governor of Virginia, William Berkeley, and his policies of favoring his own cohort. This was one of the first times that poor North American whites and poor blacks were united in a cause.[citation needed] Their alliance disturbed the ruling class, who responded by hardening the racial caste of slavery.[1][2] While the farmers did not succeed in their goal of driving Native Americans from Virginia, the rebellion did result in Berkeley's being recalled to England.
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Zenger Case
1715- 1746- Colonial editor brought to trial under the charges of printing false and seditious comments about colonial officials. Andre Hamilton defended him, and was shown to be not guilty. The case is important for being one of the first cases of freedom of the press and was a precedent set for other colonial Americans regarding their freedoms as citizens.
Jonathan Edwards
1730-1745- fire and brimstone preacher that was the central figure of the First Great Awakening in the United States beginning in the 1730s. Most importantly, his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" brought much attention to the supposed growing vices in the colonies.
Anne Hutchinson
1620- 1643-Settler of the Massachusetts Bay Colony that was a religious dissenter and socially challenged the woman's role in early colonial society. She was eventually banished from the colony and became associated with the founding of Rhode Island on the basis of religious freedom.
Montezuma
1502-1520- Ruler of the Aztecs, Montezuma's reign saw the Spanish fully take control of Mexico and the surrounding regions. Hernan Cortes is associated with him due to their clashes and the ultimate defeat of Montezuma by Cortes' armies.
King Philip
Metacom, known to the English as "King Philip", became Sachem of the Pokanoket and Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Confederacy after the mysterious death of his older brother, the Grand Sachem Wamsutta, in 1662. King Philip's War, sometimes called Metacom's War or Metacom's Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675-1676. The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side, Metacomet, Metacom, or Pometacom, known to the English as "King Philip."[2] It continued in northern New England (primarily on the Maine frontier) even after King Philip was killed, until a treaty was signed at Casco Bay in April 1678.
Pocahontas
a Virginia Indian chief's daughter notable for having assisted colonial settlers at Jamestown in present-day Virginia. She converted to Christianity and married the English settler John Rolfe. After they traveled to London, she became famous in the last year of her life. She was a daughter of Wahunsunacawh, better known as Chief or Emperor Powhatan (to indicate his primacy), who headed a network of tributary tribal nations in the Tidewater region of Virginia (called Tenakomakah by the Powhatan). These tribes made up what is known as the Powhatan Chiefdom and were part of the Algonquian language family
Salutary Neglect
an undocumented, though long-standing British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. Prime Minister Robert Walpole stated that "If no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish"[citation needed]. This policy, which lasted from about 1607 to 1763, allowed the enforcement of trade relations laws to be lenient. Walpole did not believe in enforcing the Navigation Acts, established under Oliver Cromwell and Charles II and designed to force the colonists to trade only with England, Scotland and Ireland. Successive British governments ended this policy through acts such as the Stamp Act and Sugar Act, causing tensions within the colonies.

Salutary neglect occurred in three time periods. From 1607 to 1696, England had no coherent imperial policy. From 1696 to 1763, England (and after 1707 Britain) tried to form a coherent policy (navigation acts), but did not enforce it. Lastly, from 1763 to 1775 Britain began to try to use a coherent policy.
Roger Williams
an American Protestant theologian, and the first American proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state, In 1636 , he began the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Williams started the First Baptist Church in America Providence before leaving to become a Seeker. He was a student of Indian languages and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans.
John Winthrop
obtained a royal charter, along with other wealthy Puritans, from King Charles for the Massachusetts Bay Company and led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630.[1] He was elected the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony the year before. Between 1639 and 1648, he was voted out of the governorship and then re-elected a total of 12 times. Although Winthrop was a respected political figure, he was criticized for his obstinacy regarding the formation of a general assembly in 1634, and he clashed repeatedly with other Puritan leaders like Thomas Dudley, Rev. Peter Hobart and others.
Albany Congress
a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island). Representatives met daily at Albany, New York from June 19 to July 11 to discuss better relations with the Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French.

The Congress is notable for producing Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union, an early attempt to form a union of the colonies that would remain under the authority of the British crown. Part of the Albany Plan was used in writing the Articles of Confederation, which kept the States together from 1781 until the Constitution. It was the first time that all the colonies had been together.
Albany Plan of Union
proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 in Albany, New York. It was an early attempt at forming a union of the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes"[1] during the French and Indian War. Franklin's plan of union was one of several put forth by various delegates of the Albany Congress.The Plan was promptly rejected by both sides. "The colonial assemblies and most of the people were narrowly provincial in outlook, mutually jealous, and suspicious of any central taxing authority."Many in the British government, already wary of some of the strong-willed colonial assemblies, disliked the idea of consolidating additional power into their hands. Instead, they preferred that the colonists' focus remain on the forthcoming military campaign. The Board of Trade never sought official approval for the Plan from the Crown. Instead, they proposed that colonial governors, along with some members of their respective councils, order the raising of troops and building of forts, using money from Treasury of Great Britain which would later be repaid by an Act of Parliament laying a tax on America.

The proposed Galloway Plan that was proposed at the First Continental Congress bore striking resemblance to the Albany plan.It was submitted by conservative loyalists and quickly rejected in favour of more radical proposals.
Mercantilism
an economic theory, considered to be a form of economic nationalism,[1] that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital, and that the global volume of international trade is "unchangeable". Economic assets (or capital) are represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state, which is best increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations (exports minus imports).

The theory assumes that wealth and monetary assets are identical. Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance these goals by playing a protectionist role in the economy by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, notably through the use of tariffs and subsidies.[2] The theory dominated Western European economic policies from the 16th to the late-18th century.[1]
Navigation Acts
A series of laws passed by the English Parliament in order to restrict foreign trade in the Colonies. They restricted trade in the following ways: Only British ships could transport imported and exported goods from the colonies, The only people who were allowed to trade with the colonies had to be British citizens, Commodities such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton wool which were produced in the colonies could be exported only to British ports. This was built on the theory of Mercantilism, because it helped Britain to gain more goods. This upset the colonies because they had to sell and buy products from Britain no matter what the prices were in other places. This contributed to the American Revolution.
Causes of the French and Indian War
Britain had had control of the Ohio Valley, but France attempted to take that land. France marched a force of men into the area and told the British that France was claiming control of the land and they had to leave. To counter their presence, Dinwiddie sent George Washington to deliver a message to the French warning them to leave. When the French refused to leave, Dinwiddie attacked.
Effects of the French and Indian War
Britain gained control of Canada. France gained control of the Caribbean Islands. France and Britain both suffered economically because of the war. The war nearly double Britain's national debt. In order to pay off the debt, Britain had to impose new taxes on the colonies, which caused the colonies to despise Britain more and more, and eventually led up to the American revolution.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
This ended the French and Indian War. Britain emerged from this as the world's leading colonial empire. It caused France to cede Canada and all North American claims east of the Mississippi river to Britain, except for New Orleans. It caused France to gain the Caribbean Islands. It involved Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal.
Proclamation of 1763
In 1763 a royal proclamation was made by Britain stating all colonists could not go westward past an imaginary line running along the Appalachian Mountains. The British government had two reasons for issuing this proclamation. First off they wished to avoid war with Indians, not because they respected the Indians, but because war would be costly to the British Empire. Secondly this kept all of the colonists along the east coast keeping them next to the sea where Britain could regulate all trade occurring.
Sugar Act
Also known as the American Revenue Act of 1764, this act was just a harsher reinforcement of a previous act, the Sugar and Molasses Act that was passed in 1733. The Sugar Act of 1764 was established because the old act was about to expire and many colonists were avoiding the tax because of corruption. This hurt the British West Indies market because colonists were not using their products. With the passing of the act a lot more imports were taxed and it hurt the colonial market quite a bit. Also the British Navy had been instructed to be more active in enforcing the new Sugar Act.
Stamp Act
was passed by the British Parliament on March 22, 1765. The tax was imposed on the colonists forcing them to pay a tax on every sheet of paper used in the colonies. In return, Britain said that they would use the money to protect the colonists from the Indians. This tax infuriated the colonists, not because it was a very heavy tax, but because this was the first tax issued by the British government to raise money off of the colonists and the British government did not listen to colonial legislation before passing the Stamp Act.
Quartering Act
In 1765, Parliament passed the Quartering Act to deal with the issue of troop deployment in the colonies. This ac would allow British soldiers to invade a colonist's home, and then sleep at that home while the colonist had to provide them with food and bedding. Also the colonist had to pay for all of the expenses of what it cost to have someone stay in their home for an extended period of time. This was not well received in the colonies mostly because they did not want to have to pay for the soldiers to stay in their homes, and they did not want the British Army constantly watching over them.
Writs of Assistance
Orders issued by a court, that instruct a law enforcement official to carry out a certain task. These writs were significant in colonial America, because in 1760, Britain began to enforce some aspects of the Navigation acts by granting writs to customs officers, allowing them to search private property without a reason, in order to prevent smuggling, which had become an issue in the colonies. By law, these officers needed a reason to search private property, so the colonists felt that these writs violated their rights as British subjects. All writs expired six months after the death of the king who granted them. So, on December 27 2760, when news reached America that King George II had died in October 1760, crisis began when the colonists realized that all writs would be canceled in April of 1761. Parliament affirmed the legality of writs of assistance in the Townshend Acts in 1767, however most colonial courts refused to use writs.
Townshend Acts
A series of acts passed starting in 1767 by British Parliament that related to the North American colonies. Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, proposed these acts. The five acts that usually fall under this title are the Revenue Act of 1767, the Indemnity Act, the Commissioners of Customs Act, the Vice Admiralty Court Act, and the New York Restraining Act. The aim of these acts was to raise revenue for the colonies so that they could pay their judges and governors and become independent of colonial control, so that enforcement of trade regulation would be easier. With these acts, Britain wanted to show the colonists that they had the right and power to tax them, and these acts were met with opposition from the colonists, that resulted in the presence of British troops in Boston in 1768, and the Boston Massacre in 1770.
Boston Massacre
The shooting and killing of five colonists, and injuring of several others in Boston, on March 5, 1770. At the time, the British had heavy military presence in Boston, and the civilians were protesting the soldiers presence and insulting them. A riot ensued, leading to the British soldiers to draw their muskets and fire several rounds into the crowd, on the orders of British Captain Preston. Henry Pelham, an artist from Boston, famously depicted this event, dramatizing it for anti-British Propaganda, which Paul Revere escalated with his closely-copied engraving of the scene, which made the event look like much more of a massacre than it actually was. This event was one of the defining moments in America's road to revolution, and created an even stronger sense of resentment towards British authority throughout the colonies.
Boston Tea Party
An act of protest against the British government by colonists in Boston, on the night of December 16, 1773. Between 30 and 130 Sons of Liberty, some dressed as Native Americans, raided a British tea ship and threw all of the taxed tea into the Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act that the British government had been imposing on the colonies, because they believed that the only had the right to be taxed by their own elected representatives. Samuel Adams was one of the leaders of support for this act, claiming that colonists had to defend their constitutional rights. This event was another milestone in the development of the American Revolution, that further increased the colonists disdane for Britain. The British government responded to this act of protest with the Intolerable Acts, which made tensions in Boston even worse, bringing the eventual start of the war in Boston in 1775.
Intolerable Acts
Four Acts that the British Parliament released after the Boston Tea Party. (Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Quartering Act, and Quebec Act) All of these acts were punishments to the American colonists.
American Revolution Causes
The causes of the American Revolution began with the French and Indian War. However, the colonists aggression began to heighten after the British imposed new taxes onto the colonies. This sparked the Sons of Liberty formation which ignited the colonists attitude toward Britain.
First Continental Congress
A response to the Coercive Acts in 1774, a group of delegates met in Philadelphia to consider options, including an economic boycott of British trade; publish a list of rights and grievances; and petition King George for redress of those grievances.
Second Continental Congress
A 1775 meeting of American delegates to create the Olive Branch Petition, Declaration of Independence, and Articles of Confederation.
Declaration of Independence
the proclamation of America declaring their freedom from Britain, signed on July 4th, 1776. Written by Thomas Jefferson, its preamble included principles of natural rights, equality, the right of revolution, and the belief that a government could not exist without its people's agreement. Then, the document goes on to include more than twenty-four complaints about King George. On July 4th, Congress officially approved the document.
Treaty of Paris
of 1783, signed on 3 September 1783, formally ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the Colonies. Representatives from France, Britain, and America met in Paris for six months to negotiate the treaty's articles of peace: Britain's acknowledgment of the United States as separate and free, the western boundary of America at the Mississippi River, the promise that creditors on both sides could collect debts that were owed to them in real money, and the removal of Britain's troops (which didn't happen).
Battle of Trenton and Princeton
The Americans', led by George Washington, surprise attack on British troops at Trenton, New Jersey. Washington and his men crossed the icy Delaware River on Christmas Day, 1776, and attacked the next day, completely surprising the British. It was the first American victory of the war, and helped to restore American morale. Princeton= On January 3, 1777, George Washington again crossed into New Jersey, this time outflanking British forces in Princeton. The American army, reduced to 1, 200 men, attacked disorganized British troops at Princeton with modest success. The victories at Trenton and Princeton helped outmaneuver the British conquest of northern New Jersey and marked the turning point of the Revolutionary War.
Battle of Saratoga
decisive American victory resulting in the surrender of a British army of 9,000 men invading New York from Canada during the Revolutionary War. The surrender of General John Burgoyne, who was surrounded by much larger American militia forces, took place after his retreat to Saratoga. The battle secured the northern American states from further attacks out of Canada and prevented New England from being isolated. A major result was that France entered the conflict on behalf of the Americans, thus dramatically improving the Americans' chances in the war.
Battle of Yorktown
took place in 1781 in Yorktown Virginia, it was a decisive victory by combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by General Rochambeau over a British army commanded by Lieutenant General Cornwallis. It was the last major land battle of the American Revolution, as the surrender of Cornwallis's army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the war.
Articles of Confederation
is the first constitution of the United States. The Second Continental Congress appointed a committee to draft the Articles in June 1776. They appointed a committee of thirteen men to prepare a draft of a constitution for a confederate type of union. The Second Continental Congress approved them for ratification by the States on November 15, 1777, in York, Pennsylvania after a year of debate. The final draft of the Articles served as the de facto system of government used by Congress until it became de jure by final ratification on March 1, 1781; at which point Congress became the Congress on the Confederation. The Articles set the rules for operations of the United States confederation. The confederation was capable of making war, negotiating diplomatic agreements, and resolving issues regarding the western territories
Annapolis Convention
a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland of 12 delegates from New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia. It called for a constitutional convention. The convention was to fix barriers that limited trade or commerce between the largely independent states under the Articles of Confederation. The convention met from September 11 to September 14, 1786. The commissioners felt that there were not enough states represented to make any substantive agreement. They convention produced a report which was sent to the Congress and to the states. The report asked support for a broader meeting to be held the next May in Philadelphia. It expressed the hope that more states would be represented and that their delegates would be authorized to examine areas broader than simply commercial trade. The result of this convention was the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Shays' Rebellion
an armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. The rebellion is named after Daniel Shays a veteran of the American Revolution. Most of Shays' followers were poor farmers angered by debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in imprisonment or the claiming of property by the government. The rebellion started on August 29, 1786, and by January 1787, over 1000 people had been arrested. There was a lack of an institutional response to the uprising, which energized calls to reevaluate the Articles of Confederation and gave strong momentum to the Philadelphia Convention. Shays' Rebellion produced fears that the Revolution's democratic impulse had gotten out of hand.
Whiskey Rebellion
a resistance movement in the western frontier of the United States in the 1790s, during the presidency of George Washington. The conflict was rooted in the dissatisfaction in western counties with various policies of the eastern-based national government. The name of the uprising comes from the Whiskey Act of 1791, an excise tax on whiskey that was a central grievance of the westerners. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to centralize and fund the national debt.

The tax proved to be unpopular among small farmers in the western states, where government officials were prevented through violence and intimidation from collecting the tax. Resistance came to a climax in July 1794, when a U.S. marshal arrived in western Pennsylvania to serve writs to distillers who had not paid the excise. The alarm was raised, and more than 500 armed Pennsylvanians attacked the fortified home of tax inspector General John Neville. The Washington administration responded by sending peace commissioners to western Pennsylvania to negotiate with the rebels, while at the same time raising a force of militia to suppress the violence. The insurrection collapsed before the arrival of the army; about 20 people were arrested, but all were later acquitted or pardoned.

The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the willingness and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws. The whiskey excise remained difficult to collect, however. The events contributed to the formation of political parties in the United States, a process already underway. The whiskey tax was repealed after Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party, which opposed Hamilton's Federalist Party, came to power in 1800.
Constitutional Convention
took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was from the outset to create a new government rather than "fix" the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution. The Convention is one of the central events in the history of the United States.
The Great Compromise
The Connecticut Compromise, also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman's Compromise, was an agreement between large and small states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It proposed a bicameral legislature, resulting in the current United States Senate and House of Representatives.
3/5 Compromise
a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.

Delegates opposed to slavery generally wished to count only the free inhabitants of each state. Delegates supportive of slavery, on the other hand, generally wanted to count slaves in their actual numbers. Since slaves could not vote, slaveholders would thus have the benefit of increased representation in the House and the Electoral College. The final compromise of counting "all other persons" as only three-fifths of their actual numbers reduced the power of the slave states relative to the original southern proposals, but increased it over the northern position.

The three-fifths compromise is found in Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the United States Constitution:
" Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
Commerce Compromise
Created in the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the Compromise allows the government to tax imports but not exports
Indirect Vote for President (in Constitutional debates)
Basically the definition of the electoral college, Indirect Vote is the act of voting for someone to vote for you, such as voting for our representatives to vote for our choice for president
Branches of the Government
There are three main branches of the US government, the Legislative, who makes laws, the executive, who enforces laws, and the judicial, who determines if the laws are just
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution and a brain-child of James Madison. The Bill of Rights protects our basic liberties, and allowed the Constitution to be passed and the Articles of Confederation to be done away with.
George Washington's presidency
The Electoral College elected Washington unanimously in 1789, and again in the 1792 election; he remains the only president to have received 100% of the electoral votes. John Adams was elected vice president. Washington took the oath of office as the first President under the Constitution for the United States of America on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City although, at first, he had not wanted the position. [45]The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789. Washington, already wealthy, declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary. Washington reluctantly served a second term as president. He refused to run for a third, establishing the customary policy of a maximum of two terms for a president, which later became law by the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution. [47] Washington was not a member of any political party and hoped that they would not be formed, fearing conflict and stagnation. His closest advisors formed two factions, setting the framework for the future First Party System. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton had bold plans to establish the national credit and build a financially powerful nation, and formed the basis of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, founder of the Jeffersonian Republicans, strenuously opposed Hamilton's agenda, but Washington favored Hamilton over Jefferson.The Residence Act of 1790, which Washington signed, authorized the President to select the specific location of the permanent seat of the government, which would be located along the Potomac River. The Act authorized the President to appoint three commissioners to survey and acquire property for this seat. Washington personally oversaw this effort throughout his term in office. In 1791, Congress imposed an excise on distilled spirits, which led to protests in frontier districts, especially Pennsylvania. By 1794, after Washington ordered the protesters to appear in U.S. district court, the protests turned into full-scale riots known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The federal army was too small to be used, so Washington invoked the Militia Act of 1792 to summon the militias of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and several other states. The governors sent the troops and Washington took command, marching into the rebellious districts. There was no fighting, but Washington's forceful action proved the new government could protect itself. It also was one of only two times that a sitting President would personally command the military in the field. These events marked the first time under the new constitution that the federal government used strong military force to exert authority over the states and citizens. In 1793, the revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Edmond-Charles Genêt, called "Citizen Genêt," to America. Genêt issued letters of marque and reprisal to American ships so they could capture British merchant ships. He attempted to turn popular sentiment towards American involvement in the French war against Britain by creating a network of Democratic-Republican Societies in major cities. Washington rejected this interference in domestic affairs, demanded the French government recall Genêt, and denounced his societies. Hamilton and Washington designed the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Britain, remove them from western forts, and resolve financial debts left over from the Revolution. John Jay negotiated and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794. The Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington and Hamilton, however, mobilized public opinion and won ratification by the Senate by emphasizing Washington's support. The British agreed to depart their forts around the Great Lakes, the Canadian-U.S. boundary was adjusted, numerous pre-Revolutionary debts were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to American trade. Most importantly, the treaty delayed war with Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade with that country. This angered the French and became a central issue in political debates.
Hamilton
(January 11, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding Father, economist, and political philosopher. Aide-de-camp to General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War, he was a leader of nationalist forces calling for a new Constitution; he was one of America's first Constitutional lawyers, and wrote most of the Federalist Papers, a primary source for Constitutional interpretation. He was the financial expert of Washington's administration; the Federalist Party formed to support his policies. Hamilton supporte the idead of a national bank, as well as a foreign policy based on extensive trade and friendly relations with Britain, especially the Jay Treaty Hamilton's opposition to his fellow Federalist John Adams hurt the party in the 1800 elections. When Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied in the electoral college, Hamilton helped defeat his bitter personal enemy Burr and elect Jefferson as president. With his party's defeat, Hamilton's nationalist and industrialization ideas lost their former national prominence. Hamilton's intense rivalry with Burr resulted in a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded.
Jefferson
(April 13, 1743 - July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801-1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and—for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States—one of the most influential Founding Fathers. Jefferson envisioned America as the force behind a great "Empire of Liberty"that would promote republicanism and counter theimperialism of the British Empire. Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806), as well as escalating tensions with both Britain and France that led to war with Britain in 1812, after he left office. As a political philosopher, Jefferson was a man of the Enlightenment andknew many intellectual leaders in Britain andFrance. He idealized the independent yeoman farmer as exemplar of republican virtues, distrusted cities and financiers, and favored states' rights and a strictly limited federal government. Jefferson supportedth separation of church and stateand was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779, 1786). He was the eponym of Jeffersonian democracy and the cofounder and leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, which dominated American politics for 25 years. Jefferson served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779-1781), first Unite States Secretary of State (1789-1793), and second Vice President of the United States (1797-1801).
First party system
The party system formed primarily due to the conflicting views of Hamilton and Jefferson. The controversy over the ratification of the Constitution also divided people into the Federalists and the Anitfederalists. Although Washington felt that a party system would only divide the nation, continued efforts by both Hamilton, and especially, Jefferson to draw in supporters resulted in a divide that could no longer be represented without the formation of defined political groups.
Federalists
Was a political party formed by Alexander Hamilton at the twilight of the Washington Presidency. Federalists in general supported big government, federal powers, and advocated Hamiltonian economics. Their push for the ratification of the Constitution led to publishing of their most famous documents, the Federalists Papers, written by John Jay, Hamilton, and James Madison
Anti-federalists
Was obviously the opposition party during the ratification of the Constitution. The main tenets being state power over federal power. The anti-federalists held true to the ideals of the Articles of Confederation by strongly opposing the Constitution. Patrick Henry was one of the main anti-federalist. The group eventually lost their campaign against the Constitution.
Bank of the United States
Was the first national bank of America. The initial idea and execution of the Bank was the brain-child of Alexander Hamilton. It was initially a private bank that was administrated by the government. The First Bank of the United States last until Andrew Jackson's presidency, when his congress voted to not renew the Bank.
John Marshall
Was the longest serving Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; his tenure lasted a whopping 34 years, from 1801-1835. Marshall was one of the prominent figures of the Federalist party and his Court reflected these sentiments as he continuously supported federal over states rights. Marshall is also attributed at shaping the model and power of the Judiciary branch of American government.
Marbury v. Madison
occurred in 1803, was a landmark Supreme Court decision that established the doctrine of judicial review when John Marshall, the Chief Justice, called William Marbury's request unconstitutional, giving the Supreme Court the ability to interpret and contemplate the law. It came as a result of Marbury being appointed Justice of the Peace in Washington D.C. by John Adams, the current president, in his "Midnight Appointments" and not receiving his appointment papers from Adam's Secretary of State James Madison. This case forever changed the way that the Supreme Court was structured and established the principle of judicial review
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
occurred in 1819, was a landmark Supreme Court decision that established the difference between public and private contracts, while leading to the rise of the American corporation. It came as a result of the New Hampshire state legislature attempting to transform Dartmouth University into a public institution. The trustees of the university sued, claiming that the state was violating the Contract Clause, which protected private contracts from public interference. The Supreme Court sided with the trustees and more clearly established the nature of the private contract and its protection from public influence.
McCullough v. Maryland
occurred in 1819, was a landmark Supreme Court case that established that Congress held implied powers and that a state could not block these implied powers. It came as a result of the state of Maryland attempting to tax all banknotes from the Second National Bank in Maryland, which was at the time the only non-state bank. The Supreme Court sided with James McCullough, a cashier in the Maryland branch, and blocked the tax by claiming that Congress had the right to establish a bank through the Necessary and Proper Clause
Gibbons v. Ogden
occurred in 1824, was a landmark Supreme Court case that established that Congress held the power to regulate interstate commerce through the Commerce Clause in the Constitution. It came as a result of Thomas Gibbons' steamboat company, which competed against Aaron Ogden's company. Ogden filed a complaint to the state of New York, who pulled Gibbons' license and shut him down. Gibbons' repealed and eventually reached the Supreme Court where they sided with him by saying that states could not regulate interstate commerce, as it was the power of Congress.
Causes and effects of the War of 1812
Caused by Britain's disapproval of enemy France and neutrality America trading, America as a growing naval threat to Britain, and Britain's impressments of natural born American citizens. By defeating Britain, America proved itself as an independent nation able to defend itself from the world's dominant military power, increased industrial productions, raised American moral, and begun the Era of Good Feelings.
Louisiana Purchase
$15 million purchase of French land made by Thomas Jefferson in 1803. Louisiana had just switched hands from Spain to France, and Jefferson sent Robert Livingston to purchase New Orleans from France. France had just lost new world economic beneficiary Haiti to a slave revolt, and decided not to develop a presence in the New World without the Haitian sugar trade.
Aaron Burr
3rd Vice President of the United States, affiliated with the Democratic-Republican Party lost a 36 time run-off against Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1800. He later killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804. Later in life he moved to the West and rumors started that he wanted to secede from the union to form his own monarchy. He was charged for treason in 1807 and was sent to Europe.
Jefferson presidency
1801-1809, continued Hamilton's national bank and tarriff system, decreased the size of the military, and negotiated the Louisiana Purchase which expanded the Western frontier. He started the Barbary War, but stayed neutral during the Napoleonic conflicts. Jefferson also created the Embargo Act to eliminate trade with Britain, but this plan backfired because America was more dependent on American-European trade than England or France
Monroe Doctrine
In order to keep Spain and France from conquering the newly independent colonies of Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico, James Monroe came up with what was later called the Monroe Doctrine. He declared in his annual message to Congress in December 1823 that the American Continents, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain," are no longer subject to any future colonization by any European power and any attempt against to colonize will be seen as a direct "unfriendly disposition towards the United States."
Era of Good Feelings
After James Monroe's first victory in the election of 1816 (he was reelected in 1820), the apparent collapse of the Federalist Party at the national level led one overly optimistic newspaper to proclaim the arrival of the "Era of Good Feelings," as though a period of one-party government was destined to be harmonious. The harmony did not last long. Monroe and his wife sharply cut social gatherings at the White House, driving the hard work of social networking into different and competing channels. There were other ill feelings towards the admission of Missouri into the Union and foreign policy questions involving European claims to Latin America. John Quincy Adams was elected in 1824 and the one-party system failed and then fractured.
Virginia Dynasty
The Virginia Dynasty marked the era of the first presidents of the United States who were all from Virginia. It consisted of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. The presidency of James Monroe marked the end of this era.
John Calhoun
A member of Monroe's cabinet. He was a South Carolinian who spoke for the planter aristocracy as secretary of war. He was also unopposed for the election of vice president under John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. (much more to it than that - GR)
Henry Clay
Elected as a representative in 1811. Within the same year of being elected as a representative, he was elected speaker of the house. Henry Clay remained in until 1850s. Clay had ideal that defined Whig party during secretary job for John Quincy Adams. Clay hoped to promote that US was a healthy trading entity & overcome sectional differences present in North and South. Southerners thought raising imports and tariffs would hurt south, favor north. Wanted to make British goods more expensive so the south will have to buy northern goods
Daniel Webster
Whig. Worked closely with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Tried to keep union together. Attempted presidency 3 times but lost everytime.
Albert Gallatin
Anti federalist. Voted into senate but removed after being accused of not having been a citizen for the correct amount of time. Voted into house of representatives where he became the majority leader for the democrat-republican party. Went against Hamilton's idea of a national bank.
The antebellum industrial North
This was a major wave of industrial advancement that helped America flourish in its economic aspects.
The antebellum slave South
dominated by the white male, women had no voice and slaves were not human; all whites were better than slaves, even though the poorest white had nothing they were still better off than slaves; slaves/ cotton drove the economy and the slave economy dominated nearly all southern legislation; remained agricultural b/c there was no need to develop industry; fear of slave rebellion was high and many were falsely accused and killed
Manifest Destiny
the moral obligation/ justification to spread democracy and freedom across the nation at all cost; to conquer more land to have more places to spread democracy to; accomplished by Mormons, the winning of the Mexican War, the wagon trails, and the race to populate and conquer territories
President Jackson
a war hero beloved by the lower American classes, ran in 1824 (lost b/c Adams struck a deal with the speaker of the House, Clay), 1828 (won, but wife died and he was forever changed), ushered in populous politics because of his widespread popularity and the decrease in voting restrictions
spoils system
began w/ Jackson; the practice of bestowing political favors (positions) to people who voted for him/ strongly support him/ are his friends
Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis
first published July 12, 1893, in a paper read in Chicago to the American Historical Association during the Chicago World's Fair. In it, he stated that the spirit and success of the United States is directly tied to the country's westward expansion. According to Turner, the forging of the unique and rugged American identity occurred at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness. This produced a new type of citizen - one with the power to tame the wild and one upon whom the wild had conferred strength and individuality.[1]
Susan B. Anthony and Temperence
In the era before the American Civil War, Anthony took a prominent role in the New York anti-slavery and temperance movements. In 1836, at age 16, Susan collected two boxes of petitions opposing slavery, in response to the gag rule prohibiting such petitions in the House of Representatives.[4] In 1849, at age 29, she became secretary for the Daughters of Temperance, which gave her a forum to speak out against alcohol abuse, and served as the beginning of Anthony's movement towards the public limelight.

In late 1850, Anthony read a detailed account in the New York Tribune of the first National Women's Rights Convention in Worcester, Massachusetts. In the article, Horace Greeley wrote an especially admiring description of the final speech, one given by Lucy Stone. Stone's words catalyzed Anthony to devote her life to women's rights.[5] In the summer of 1852, Anthony met both Greeley and Stone in Seneca Falls.[6]

In 1851, on a street in Seneca Falls, Anthony was introduced to Elizabeth Cady Stanton by a mutual acquaintance, as well as fellow feminist Amelia Bloomer. Anthony joined with Stanton in organizing the first women's state temperance society in America after being refused admission to a previous convention on account of her sex, in 1851. Stanton remained a close friend and colleague of Anthony's for the remainder of their lives, but Stanton longed for a broader, more radical women's rights platform. Together, the two women traversed the United States giving speeches and attempting to persuade the government that society should treat men and women equally.

Anthony was invited to speak at the third annual National Women's Rights Convention held in Syracuse, New York in September 1852. She and Matilda Joslyn Gage both made their first public speeches for women's rights at the convention.[7] Anthony began to gain notice as a powerful public advocate of women's rights and as a new and stirring voice for change. Anthony participated in every subsequent annual National Women's Rights Convention, and served as convention president in 1858.

In 1856, Anthony further attempted to unify the African-American and women's rights movements when, recruited by abolitionist Abby Kelley Foster,[8] she became an agent for William Lloyd Garrison's American Anti-Slavery Society of New York. Speaking at the Ninth National Women's Rights Convention on May 12, 1859, Anthony asked "Where, under our Declaration of Independence, does the Saxon man get his power to deprive all women and Negroes of their inalienable rights?"
Missouri Compromise
an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30' north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. Prior to the agreement, the House of Representatives had refused to accept this compromise and a conference committee was appointed. The United States Senate refused to concur in the amendment,[clarification needed] and the whole measure was lost.
Compromise of 1850
an intricate package of five bills, passed on September 4, 1850, defusing a four year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North that arose from expectation of territorial expansion of the United States with the Texas Annexation (December 29, 1845) and the following Mexican-American War (1846-1848). It avoided secession or civil war at the time and quieted sectional conflict for four years until the divisive Kansas-Nebraska Act.

The Compromise was greeted with relief, although each side disliked specific provisions. Texas surrendered its claim to New Mexico but received debt relief and the Texas Panhandle, and retained the control over El Paso that it had established earlier in 1850. The South avoided the humiliating Wilmot Proviso but did not receive desired Pacific territory in Southern California or a guarantee of slavery south of a territorial compromise line like the Missouri Compromise Line or the 35th parallel north. As compensation, the South received the possibility of slave states by popular sovereignty in the new New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory, which, however, were unsuited to plantation agriculture and populated by non-Southerners; a stronger Fugitive Slave Act, which in practice outraged Northern public opinion; and preservation of slavery in the national capital, although the slave trade was banned there except in the Virginia portion of the District of Columbia that rejoined Virginia.

The Compromise became possible after the sudden death of President Zachary Taylor, who, although a slaveowner himself, tried to implement the Northern policy of excluding slavery from the Southwest. Whig Senator Henry Clay (Kentucky) designed a compromise, which failed to pass in early 1850. In the next session of Congress, Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas (Illinois) and Whig Senator Daniel Webster (Massachusetts) narrowly passed a slightly modified package over opposition by extremists on both sides, including Senator and former Vice-President John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. On August 7, 1789, the U.S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution.

Arguably the single most important piece of legislation passed by members of the earlier Continental Congresses other than the Declaration of Independence, it established the precedent by which the United States would expand westward across North America by the admission of new states, rather than by the expansion of existing states.

Further, the banning of slavery in the territory had the effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory in the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. This division helped set the stage for the balancing act between free and slave states that was the basis of a critical political question in American politics in the 19th century until the Civil War.
Florida Purchase
also known as the Adams-Onis Treaty, and, alternately, the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power in the New World. In addition to ceding Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.
Oregon Territory
Area in the Northwest occupied by both Britain and America because of their "joint occupation" agreement from 1818. The territory became a target for Manifest Destiny, and settlers began to travel to Oregon by the Oregon trail.
Gadsden Purchase
In 1853, James Gadsden negotiated a $15 million purchase of 30,000 sq. miles of land south of the Gila River (south Arizona/ New Mexico area). This purchase completed Americans modern boundaries.
Mexican War
Polk wanted to buy Mexican territory, but Mexico refused to sell the land, so Polk decided to use force. Polk played up the war by claiming that Mexicans had stolen American territory and killed Americans in US territory. The northern Whigs were against the war, and in effort to undercut national support they labeled the war "Mr. Polk's War." Still, most of the nation supported the war. The Americans won battle after battle, but they needed to take the capital to win. On August 1847, General Winfield Scott began fighting in Mexico City. At the battle of Churubusco, the most brutal battle of the war, officials persuaded Santa Anna to evacuate the city, and Mexico fell.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
On February 2, 1848, America and Mexico signed this treaty. Mexico agreed to give of all claims to Texas north of the Rio Grande and ceded the provinces of New Mexico and California. The US agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and $3.25 million in claims that US citizens had against Mexico.
Nicholas Biddle
President of the Bank of the United States before Andrew Jackson shut it down. His careers in finances began when he helped the renewal of the charter of the US national bank. President James Monroe appointed him to the position of Government Director, but when the president of the bank resigned shortly, Biddle became the President of the Bank in 1822.
Second National Bank of the United States
chartered in 1816, five years after the First Bank of the United States lost its own charter. The Second Bank of the United States was initially headquartered in Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, the same as the First Bank, and had branches throughout the nation.

The Second Bank was chartered by many of the same congressmen who in 1811 had refused to renew the charter of the original Bank of the United States. The predominant reason that the Second Bank of the United States was chartered was that in the War of 1812, the U.S. experienced severe inflation and had difficulty in financing military operations. Subsequently, the credit and borrowing status of the United States were at their lowest levels since its founding.

Like the First Bank, the Second Bank was also chartered for 20 years, and also failed to get its charter renewed. It existed for 5 more years as an ordinary bank before going bankrupt in 1841.
Causes for the Civil War
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Abolitionists: William Lloyd Garrison, Beecher, Beecher-Stowe
In eleven States constituting the American South, slavery was a social and powerful economic institution, integral to the agricultural economy. By the 1860 United States Census, the slave population in the United States had grown to four million.[1]. American abolitionism labored under the handicap that it was accused of threatening the harmony of North and South in the Union. The abolitionist movement in the North was led by social reformers such as William Lloyd Garrison, founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society; writers such as John Greenleaf Whittier and Harriet Beecher Stowe; former slaves such as Frederick Douglass; and free blacks such as brothers Charles Henry Langston anProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0

John Mercer Langston, who helped found the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society.[2]

The 1860 presidential victory of Abraham Lincoln, who opposed the spread of slavery to the Western United States, marked a turning point in the movement. Convinced that their way of life was threatened, the Southern states seceded from the Union, which led to the American Civil War. In 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves held in the Confederate States; the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1865) prohibited slavery throughout the country. Slavery was abolished in most of Latin America during the Independence Wars (1810-1822), but slavery remained a practice in the region up to 1888 in Brazil, as well as having long life in the remaining Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico. In some parts of Africa and in much of the Islamic world, it persisted as a legal institution well into the 20th century.
Nat Turner Slave Rebellion
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National Fugitive Slave Law
an American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 56[1] deaths among their victims, the largest number of white fatalities to occur in one uprising in the antebellum southern United States. He gathered supporters in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner's killing of whites during the uprising makes his legacy controversial. For his actions, Turner was convicted, sentenced to death, and executed. In the aftermath, the state executed 56 blacks accused of being part of Turner's rebellion. Two hundred additional blacks were beaten and killed, white militias and mobs reacting with violence. Virginia and other southern states passed legislation reducing rights of free blacks and slaves. Across the South, state legislators passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States, so much in the latter case that the novel intensified the sectional conflict leading to the American Civil War.[1]

Stowe, a Connecticut-born preacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist, focused the novel on the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering black slave around whom the stories of other characters—both fellow slaves and slave owners—revolve. The sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings.[2][3][4]

Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century,[5] and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible.[6] It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s.[7] In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The book's impact was so great that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the Civil War, Lincoln is often quoted as having declared, "So this is the little lady who made this big war."[8]

The book, and even more the plays it inspired, also helped create a number of stereotypes about black people,[9] many of which endure to this day. These include the affectionate, dark-skinned "mammy"; the "pickaninny" stereotype of black children; and the Uncle Tom, or dutiful, long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool."[10]
Underground Railroad
an informal network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists who were sympathetic to their cause.[2] The term is also applied to the abolitionists who aided the fugitives.[3] Other various routes led to Mexico or overseas.[4] Created in the early nineteenth century, the Underground Railroad was at its height between 1850 and 1860.[5] One estimate[5] suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the "Railroad". Canada was a popular destination with over 30,000 people arriving there to escape enslavement via the network at its peak,[6] though US Census figures only account for 6,000.[7]
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries. The initial purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to create opportunities for a Mideastern Transcontinental Railroad. It became problematic when popular sovereignty was written into the proposal. The act was designed by Democratic Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.

The act established that settlers could vote to decide whether to allow slavery, in the name of popular sovereignty or rule of the people. Douglas hoped that would ease relations between the North and the South, because the South could expand slavery to new territories but the North still had the right to abolish slavery in its states. Instead, opponents denounced the law as a concession to the slave power of the South. The new Republican Party, which was created in opposition to the act, aimed to stop the expansion of slavery and soon emerged as the dominant force throughout the North.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
a decision by the United States Supreme Court that ruled that people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants[2]—whether or not they were slaves—were not protected by the Constitution and could never be citizens of the United States. It also held that the United States Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories. The Court also ruled that because slaves were not citizens, they could not sue in court. Lastly, the Court ruled that slaves—as chattel or private property—could not be taken away from their owners without due process. The Supreme Court's decision was written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney.

Although Dred Scott was never overruled by the Supreme Court itself, in the Slaughter-House Cases of 1873 the Court stated that at least one part of it had already been overruled in 1868 by the Fourteenth Amendment:

The first observation we have to make on this clause is, that it puts at rest both the questions which we stated to have been the subject of differences of opinion. It declares that persons may be citizens of the United States without regard to their citizenship of a particular State, and it overturns the Dred Scott decision by making all persons born within the United States and subject to its jurisdiction citizens of the United States.[3][4]
John Brown
an American abolitionist, who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to end all slavery. He led the Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856 in Bleeding Kansas and made his name in the unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859.

President Abraham Lincoln said he was a "misguided fanatic" and Brown has been called "the most controversial of all 19th-century Americans."[1] Brown's actions are often referred to as "patriotic treason", depicting both sides of the argument.

John Brown's attempt in 1859 to start a liberation movement among enslaved African Americans in Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) electrified the nation. He was tried for treason against the state of Virginia, the murder of five proslavery Southerners, and inciting a slave insurrection and was subsequently hanged. Southerners alleged that his rebellion was the tip of the abolitionist iceberg and represented the wishes of the Republican Party. Historians agree that the Harpers Ferry raid in 1859 escalated tensions that, a year later, led to secession and the American Civil War.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
These seven debates began after a fairly unknown Republican, Lincoln, challenged Douglas, a Democrat, to a debate during their race for Senate. Completely opposite in appearance, these men debated slavery and freedom. Soon their debates became known nationwide. Lincoln tried to get Douglas to admit whether or not he wanted the spread of slavery and also denounce popular sovereignty which Douglas had instated with the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Douglas said it was up to the people, to which Lincoln said that he didn't care about the issue. Douglas retaliated by calling Lincoln an abolitionist. Lincoln said that he acknowledged the white race as superior, yet the issue was not the equality of races but of morality and future of slavery.
Election of 1860
Northern Republicans nominated Lincoln since he had moderate views concerning slavery, national recognition, fair judgment, and an important home state; Northern Democrats nominated Douglas. Southern Democrats nominated Breckinridge because, unlike Douglas, he supported a federal protection of slavery in the territories; a southern Constitutional Party nominated Bell. The largest percentage of eligible men showed up to vote- 82% in the north and 70% in the south. Southerners did not permit Lincoln's name on the ballot in ten of fifteen slave states. Regardless, he won the race because of his amount of electoral votes. Even if the votes of the other three candidates had been combined, Lincoln still would have won because he carried the votes of the free states, which contained a majority of electoral votes.
Confederate Government
Though the Confederacy was led by a more experienced leader (Davis was a West Point graduate, had served in the U.S. Senate, was a veteran and a war hero, and was a former secretary of war) , Jefferson Davis had no gift for military strategy even though he interfered in military matters. He also had no gift for politics. His pride and aggression made many enemies for the Confederacy. He also did not delegate his work. Yet his leadership was not all to blame for the downfall of the Confederacy. State Sovereignty, protected by the Confederate Constitution, made Davis' job of organizing a new nation and fighting a war difficult. Davis also had to build an army from scratch. His men were ill-equipped as the South had to struggle to make factories to produce necessities. Food was also hard to come by because railroads were being destroyed.
Lincoln, however, proved to be an expert politician and leader. He appointed able men to his cabinet, even if they were rivals or critics. Lincoln also had an innate understanding of military strategy. His eloquence also helped gain support from the North. The North already had an army, superior numbers, and industrial resources to support the war. The northern navy was also much better-equipped than that of the South.
Fort Sumter
One of the last two forts held by the Union in the South, Fort Sumter was located on a small island at the entrance to Charleston Harbor. It was hated by the South because it flew the Union flag, and they wanted the Union out. To the North, the fort was a beacon affirming federal sovereignty in seceded states. Lincoln decided to hold the fort, for in his inaugural address he promised to defend federal property and to avoid using military force unless first attacked. Therefore Lincoln authorized a peaceful expedition to bring supplies, but not military reinforcements, to the fort. To assert territorial integrity of the Confederacy, Davis decided to send Confederate troops to take the fort, which they did April 12 to 14 of 1861.
Emancipation Proclamation
After a Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, on September 22, 1862, Lincoln announced his Emancipation Proclamation, which was to take effect January 1, 1863. His Proclamation freed the slaves in the seceding states. With this action, Lincoln made slavery the central issue of the Civil War. Lincoln believed that the Proclamation was a military necessity. It would strike at the heart of the war. Emancipation would deprive the Confederacy of valuable slave laborers, shorten the war, and thus save lives. The Proclamation also made helping the Confederacy unappealing to Britain and France, who had long ago banned slavery. If they were to help the Confederacy, they would seem like hypocrites.
Major Battles of the Civil War
Major battles include the First (1861) and Second(1862) Battles of Bull Run, Antietam(1862), Shiloh (1862), Chancelorsville(1863),Vicksburg(1863), Gettysburg(1863), Atlanta(1864), and Petersburg/ Appomatox Courthouse (1864).
Homestead Act (1862)
Act signed signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862 that gave any man who had never taken arms against the US government, including free slaves, a freehold title of up to 160 acres of land outside the original thirteen colonies.
Pacific Railroad Acts (1862-1864)
Acts authorized by Abraham Lincoln that aided in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military and other purposes.
Sharecropping
a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e.g., 50% of the crop).
Reconstruction
period from 1863-1877 following the Civil War. During this period, the South was completely transformed from its previous agricultural, aristocratic state with the reconstruction of state and society in the former Confederacy and the addition of three amendments to the Constitution.
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan
plan by Abraham Lincoln proposed in 1863 that granted amnesty to all rebels who took an oath of loyalty to the the Unionamd only 10 % of a state's population had to take the oath in order to be readmitted into Congress.
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
plan by Vice President Andrew Johnson that would Pardon those who took a loyalty oath, not give pardons to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000,required a state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted, and required a state must repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
The Radicals' Reconstruction Plan
After the election of 1866, Radical Republicans held the majority in Congress, both houses, and could pass whatever laws they wanted for the Reconstruction. They passed the First Reconstruction Act in 1867 that reduced the secessionist states into conquered territory by dividing them into five military districts under martial law. The Southern states also had to redraft their constitutions, ratify the fourteenth amendment, and provide suffrage for blacks.
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
Bill that made every person born in the US full citizens. This bill was aimed at freedmen and was a major policy during Reconstruction.
Thirteenth Amendment
officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was adopted on December 6, 1865, and was then declared in a proclamation of Secretary of State William H. Seward on December 18. It was the first of the Reconstruction Amendments.

Many people, including President Abraham Lincoln, were concerned that the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared the freedom of slaves in ten Confederate states still in rebellion in 1863, would be seen as a temporary war measure. They supported this amendment in order to outlaw slavery throughout the United States.
Fourteenth Amendment
dopted after the Civil War as one of the Reconstruction Amendments on July 9, 1868.

The Fourteenth Amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights.

Its Due Process Clause has been used to apply most of the Bill of Rights to the states. This clause has also been used to recognize substantive due process rights, such as parental and marriage rights, and procedural due process rights. Certain steps are required before depriving a person of their life, liberty, or property.

The amendment's Equal Protection Clause requires states to provide equal protection under the law to all people within their jurisdictions. This clause later became the basis for Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court decision which precipitated the dismantling of racial segregation in the United States.

The amendment also includes a number of clauses dealing with the Confederacy and its officials.
Fifteenth Amendment
prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (i.e., slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.

The Fifteenth Amendment is one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Ku Klux Klan
The first Klan was founded in 1865 in Tennessee by veterans of the Confederate Army. Although it never had an organizational structure above the local level, similar groups across the South adopted the name and methods. Klan groups spread throughout the South as an insurgent movement after the war. As a secret vigilante group, the Klan reacted against Radical Republican control of Reconstruction by attempting to restore white supremacy by threats and violence, including murder, against black and white Republicans. In 1870 and 1871 the federal government passed the Force Acts, which were used to prosecute Klan crimes. Prosecution of Klan crimes and enforcement of the Force Acts suppressed Klan activity. In 1874 and later, however, newly organized and openly active paramilitary organizations, such as the White League and the Red Shirts, started a fresh round of violence aimed at suppressing Republican voting and running Republicans out of office. These contributed to white conservative Democrats' regaining political power in all the Southern states by 1877.
Prevention of Voting after 1877
The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.

Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms and restaurants for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated. These Jim Crow Laws were separate from the 1800-66 Black Codes, which had also restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964[1] and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Jefferson Davis
an American military officer, statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as the president of the Confederate States of America for its entire history, 1861 to 1865.

A West Point graduate, Davis fought in the Mexican-American War as a colonel of a volunteer regiment, and was the United States secretary of war under President Franklin Pierce. Both before and after his time in the Pierce administration, he served as a U.S. senator representing the State of Mississippi. As a senator he argued against secession, but believed each state was sovereign and had an unquestionable right to secede from the Union.

Davis resigned from the Senate in January 1861[1] after receiving word that Mississippi had seceded from the Union. The following month, he was provisionally appointed President of the Confederate States of America and was elected to a six-year term that November. During his presidency, Davis was not able to find a strategy to defeat the more populous and industrially-developed Union, even though the South only lost roughly one soldier for every two Union soldiers on the battlefield.

After Davis was captured May 10, 1865, he was charged with treason, though not tried, and stripped of his eligibility to run for public office. This limitation was posthumously removed by order of Congress and President Jimmy Carter in 1978, 89 years after his death. While not disgraced, he was displaced in Southern affection after the war by its leading general, Robert E. Lee.
Stephen Douglas
an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Northern Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. He lost to the Republican Party's candidate, Abraham Lincoln, whom he had defeated two years earlier in a Senate contest following a famed series of debates. He was nicknamed the "Little Giant" because he was short of stature but was considered by many a "giant" in politics. Douglas was well-known as a resourceful party leader, and an adroit, ready, skillful tactician in debate and passage of legislation.

As chairman of the Committee on Territories, Douglas dominated the Senate in the 1850s. He was largely responsible for the Compromise of 1850 that apparently settled slavery issues. However, in 1854 he reopened the slavery question by the highly controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act that allowed the people of the new territories to decide for themselves whether or not to have slavery (which had been prohibited by earlier compromises). The protest movement against this became the Republican Party.

Douglas supported the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision of 1857, and denied that it was part of a Southern plot to introduce slavery in the Northern states; but also argued it could not be effective when the people of a territory declined to pass laws supporting it.[1] When President James Buchanan and his Southern allies attempted to pass a Federal slave code, to support slavery even against the wishes of the people of Kansas, he battled and defeated this movement as undemocratic. This caused the split in the Democratic Party in 1860, as Douglas won the nomination but a breakaway southern faction nominated their own candidate, Vice President John C. Breckinridge. Douglas deeply believed in democracy, arguing the will of the people should always be decisive.[2] When civil war came in April 1861, he rallied his supporters to the Union with all his energies, but he died a few weeks later.
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Millard Fillmore
the 13th President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office. He was the second Vice President to assume the presidency upon the death of a sitting president, succeeding Zachary Taylor, who died of what is thought to be acute gastroenteritis. Fillmore was never elected president; after serving out Taylor's term, he failed to gain the nomination of the Whigs for president in the 1852 presidential election, and, four years later, in the 1856 presidential election, he again failed to win election as the Know Nothing Party and Whig candidate.
President Hayes
an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881). Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876. Losing the popular vote to his opponent, Samuel Tilden, Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission.

During his otherwise uneventful presidency, he ordered federal troops to suppress The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and he ended Reconstruction.
Ulysses Grant
the 18th President of the United States (1869-77) as well as military commander during the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction periods. Under the command of Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the Confederate States of America. His image as a war hero was tarnished by corruption scandals during his presidency. Grant began his life long career as a soldier after graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1843. Fighting in the Mexican American War, he was a close observer of the techniques of generals, Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. He retired from the Army in 1854, then struggled to make a living in St. Louis. After many financial setbacks, he finally moved to Galena, Illinois where he worked as a clerk in his father's tannery shop; he made Galena his permanent legal home.

In 1861, after the American Civil War broke out he joined the Union war effort, taking charge of training new regiments and then engaging the enemy near Cairo, Illinois. In 1862 he fought a series of major battles, captured two large Confederate armies, and seized control of most of Kentucky and Tennessee, earning a reputation as one of the most aggressive generals of the war. In July 1863, after a long complex campaign he captured Vicksburg and took control of the Mississippi River, splitting the Confederacy and opening the way for more Union victories and conquests. Lincoln promoted him, and gave him charge of all the Union Armies. As general in chief of the Union Armies from 1864 to 1865, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of very high casualty battles known as the Overland Campaign that ended in a stalemate seige at Petersburg. During the siege, Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns launched by William Tecumseh Sherman, Philip Sheridan, and George Thomas. Finally breaking through Lee's trenches at Petersburg, the Union Army captured Richmond, the Confederate capital in April 1865. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox; the Confederacy collapsed and the Civil War ended.

During Reconstruction, Grant remained in charge of the Army and implemented the Congressional plans to reoccupy the South and hold new elections in 1867 with black voters that gave Republicans control of the Southern states. Enormously popular in the North after the Union's victory, he was elected to presidency in 1868. Reelected in 1872, he became the first president to serve two full terms since Andrew Jackson did so forty years earlier. As president, he led Reconstruction by signing and enforcing civil rights laws and fighting Ku Klux Clan violence. He helped rebuild the Republican Party in the South, an effort which resulted in the election of African Americans to Congress and state governments for the first time. Despite these civil rights accomplishments, Grant's presidency was marred by economic turmoil and multiple scandals. His response to the Panic of 1873 and the severe depression that followed was heavily criticized. His low standards in Cabinet and federal appointments; lack of accountability; generated corruption and bribery in seven government departments. In 1876, his reputation was severely damaged by the graft trials of the Whiskey Ring. He left office at the low point of his popularity. [1][2]

After leaving office, Grant embarked upon a two-year world tour that was received favorably with many royal receptions. In 1880 he made an unsuccessful bid for a third presidential term. In 1884, broke and dying of cancer, he wrote his enormously successful memoirs. Presidential historians have ranked his Administration poorly due to tolerance of corruption. His presidential reputation has improved among scholars impressed by the Administration's support for civil rights for freed slaves.
Industrial Revolution
The United States originally used horse-powered machinery to power its earliest factories, but eventually switched to water power, with the consequence that industrialisation was essentially limited to New England and the rest of the Northeastern United States, where fast-moving rivers were located. Horse-drawn production proved to be economically challenging and a more difficult alternative to the newer water-powered production lines. However, the raw materials (cotton) came from the Southern United States. It was not until after the Civil War in the 1860s that steam-powered manufacturing overtook water-powered manufacturing, allowing the industry to fully spread across the nation.

Samuel Slater (1768-1835) is popularly known as the founder of the American cotton industry. As a boy apprentice in Derbyshire, England, he learned of the new techniques in the textile industry and defied laws against the emigration of skilled workers by leaving for New York in 1789, hoping to make money with his knowledge. Slater, among the Cabot Brothers and investors, started the Beverly Cotton Manufactory in Beverly, Massachusetts. This was the first cotton mill in America. This cotton mill was designed to utilize horse-powered production. The mill operators quickly learned that the economic stability of their horse-drawn platform was unstable, and had fiscal issues for years after it was built. Despite the losses, the Manufactory served as a playground of innovation, both in turning a large amount of cotton, but also developing the water-powered milling structure used in Slater's second mill[76], Slater's Mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793. He went on to own thirteen textile mills.[77] Daniel Day established a wool carding mill in the Blackstone Valley at Uxbridge, Massachusetts in 1810, the third woollen mill established in the U.S. (The first was in Hartford, Connecticut, and the second at Watertown, Massachusetts.) The John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor retraces the history of "America's Hardest-Working River', the Blackstone. The Blackstone River and its tributaries, which cover more than 45 miles (72 km) from Worcester to Providence, was the birthplace of America's Industrial Revolution. At its peak over 1100 mills operated in this valley, including Slater's mill, and with it the earliest beginnings of America's Industrial and Technological Development.

While on a trip to England in 1810, Newburyport merchant Francis Cabot Lowell was allowed to tour the British textile factories, but not take notes. Realising the War of 1812 had ruined his import business but that a market for domestic finished cloth was emerging in America, he memorised the design of textile machines, and on his return to the United States, he set up the Boston Manufacturing Company. Lowell and his partners built America's second cotton-to-cloth textile mill at Waltham, Massachusetts, second to the Beverly Cotton Manufactory After his death in 1817, his associates built America's first planned factory town, which they named after him. This enterprise was capitalised in a public stock offering, one of the first uses of it in the United States. Lowell, Massachusetts, utilising 5.6 miles (9.0 km) of canals and ten thousand horsepower delivered by the Merrimack River, is considered by some to be a major contributor to the success of the American Industrial Revolution. The short-lived utopia-like Lowell System was formed, as a direct response to the poor working conditions in Britain. However, by 1850, especially following the Irish Potato Famine, the system had been replaced by poor immigrant labour.

The industrialisation of the watch industry started 1854 also in Waltham, Massachusetts, at the Waltham Watch Company, with the development of machine tools, tools, gauges and assembling methods adapted to the micro precision required for watches.
Knights of Labor
the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th Century. It was established in 1869 and reached a peak membership of nearly three-quarters of a million members by the middle of the 1880s, before beginning a period of rapid decline in size and influence, being supplanted by the American Federation of Labor in the 1890s. Remnants of the Knights of Labor continued in existence until 1949, when the group's last 50 member local was absorbed into the AF of L.
American Federation of Labor
one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention and was reelected every year except one until his death. As the Knights of Labor faded away, the AFL coalition gradually gained strength. In practice, AFL unions were important in industrial cities, where they formed a central labor office to coordinate the actions of different AFL unions. Most strikes were assertions of jurisdiction, so that the plumbers, for example, used strikes to ensure that all major construction projects in the city used union plumbers. To win they needed the support of other unions, hence the need for AFL solidarity.

Gompers promoted harmony among the different craft unions that comprised the AFL. Focused on higher wages and job security, the AFL fought against socialism and the Socialist party. After 1907 it formed alliances with the Democratic party at the local, state and national levels. The AFL enthusiastically supported the war effort in World War I, and saw rapid growth in union membership and wage rates. The AFL unions lost membership in the 1920s, and did not recover from the doldrums until the New Deal passed the Wagner Act in 1935. The AFL enthusiastically supported the New Deal Coalition led by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt.

John L. Lewis led a group of industrial unions to break away in the 1930s to form the CIO. The two federations competed for new members furiously, even violently. The AFL was always larger, and added more members in the very rapid growth period in the late 1930s and World War II era, while avoiding the radicalism of the CIO. William Green was president (1925-1952), but after 1940 the dominant leader was William Meany (1894-1980).

The AFL was always hostile to Communists, especially as they were powerful inside the rival CIO. The AFL boycotted the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) because of its decision to admit Soviet trade unions. The AFL was instrumental in establishing a rival federation, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), which eventually won the allegiance of all labor federations save those of the Soviet Union and its satellites. The AFL hailed the Truman administration's Cold War policies and strongly supported American military intervention in the Korean War. Corruption in labor unions became a major political issues in the 1950s. Meany convinced the AFL expel the racketeer-influenced International Longshoremen's Association (ILA) in 1953, and several other corrupt affiliates, most notably the Teamsters union, several years later. The AFL was at its peak in 1955, when it reunited with the CIO to form the AFL-CIO, which has lost members but remains in place today.
Progressives
a broadly-based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class and reformist in nature. It arose as a response to the vast changes brought by modernization, such as the growth of large corporations and railroads, and fears of corruption in American politics. In the 21st century self-styled progressives continue to embrace concepts such as environmentalism and social justice[not in citation given][1]. Social progressivism, which states that governmental practices ought to be adjusted as society evolves, forms the ideological basis for many American progressives.

One historian defined progressivism as the "political movement that addresses ideas, impulses, and issues stemming from modernization of American society. Emerging at the end of the nineteenth century, it established much of the tone of American politics throughout the first half of the century."[2]
Populists
short-lived political party in the United States established in 1887. The party did not remain a lasting feature most probably because it had been so closely identified with the free silver movement which was not meaningful for urban voters. Currency ceased to become a major issue as the U.S came out of the recession of the 1890s.[1] The very term "populist" has since become a generic term in the U.S. for politics which appeals to the common in opposition to established interests.
W. J. Bryan/ Cross of Gold
This speech, delivered on July 9, 1896 at the
Democratic National Convention in Chicago by Nebraska congressman, William Jennings Bryan, addressed coining silver. This would have increased inflation by increasing the money in circulation. The day after the speech, Bryan was nominated for President.
Munn v. Illinois
In this case, Illinois legislation which regulated the use of grain warehouses and elevators. Munn argued that this violated the 14th amendments of warehouse and elevator owners. The court ruled in Illinois favor, saying that the states may regulate private property "when such regulation becomes necessary for the public good."
Sherman Antitrust Act
July 2, 1890-- limits monopolies, and requires the federal government to investigate companies and bans trusts (or monopolies). Named for senator Sherman who proposed it. Not heavily used until Teddy Roosevelt's presidency. Used to dissolve Standard Oil Co.
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) deemed the LA law of separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites was constitutional. Legalized segregation. Overturned by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas in 1954
147. Clayton Antitrust Act- 1914, passed to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act, it legalized strikes and picketing, and continued the war on trusts/monopolies
Clayton Antitrust Act
enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies and cartels). The Clayton act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures.

Passed during the Wilson administration, the legislation was first introduced by Alabama Democrat Henry De Lamar Clayton, Jr. in the U.S. House of Representatives, where the act passed by a vote of 277 to 54 on June 5, 1914. Though the Senate passed its own version on September 2, 1914 by a vote of 46-16, the final version of the law (written after deliberation between Senate and the House), did not pass the Senate until October 5 and the House until October 8 of the same year.

Like the Sherman Act, much of the substance of the Clayton Act has been developed and animated by the U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court.
Seward's Folly
The Alaska Purchase was the purchase of Alaska by the United States from the Russian Empire in 1867. The purchase, made at the initiative of United States Secretary of State William H. Seward, gained 586,412 square miles of new United States territory. Originally organized as the Department of Alaska, the area was successively the District of Alaska and the Alaska Territory before becoming the modern state of Alaska upon being admitted to the United States in 1959.
Annexation of Hawaii
In January 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a Provisional Government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Controversy filled the following years as the queen tried to re-establish her throne. The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliʻuokalani was illegal. The U.S. government first demanded that Queen Liliʻuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress followed with another investigation, and submitted the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894, which found all parties (including Minister Stevens) with the exception of the queen "not guilty" from any responsibility for the overthrow.[37] The accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports has been questioned by partisans on both sides of the debate over the events of 1893.[36][38][39][40]

In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton, apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.[40] It is the first time in American history that the United States government has apologized for overthrowing the government of a sovereign nation.
ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii.

The Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894, replaced by the Republic of Hawaii.After William McKinley won the presidential election in 1896, Hawaii's annexation to the U.S. was again discussed. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He met with annexationists from Hawaii Lorrin Thurston, Francis Hatch and William Kinney. After negotiations, in June 1897, McKinley agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[41] The president then submitted the treaty to the U.S. Senate for approval.

The Newlands Resolution in Congress annexed the Republic to the United States and it became the Territory of Hawaii. Despite some opposition in the islands, the Newlands Resolution was passed by the House June 15, 1898, by a vote of 209 to 91, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21.

In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained ʻIolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners and key capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions, or "factors," known as the Big Five, found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various states.
Spanish-American War
a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States.[6] Revolts had been endemic for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans; there had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873. By 1897-98 American public opinion grew more angry at reports of Spanish atrocities, and, after the mysterious sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor, pushed the government headed by President William McKinley, a Republican, into a war McKinley had wished to avoid. Compromise proved impossible; Spain declared war on April 23, 1898; the U.S. Congress on April 25 declared the official opening as April 21.

Although the main issue was Cuban independence, the ten-week war was fought in both the Caribbean and the Pacific and was notable for a series of one-sided American naval and military victories. The outcome by late 1898 was a peace treaty favorable to the U.S., followed by temporary American control of Cuba and indefinite colonial authority over Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. Spain, whose politics had become highly unstable, managed to get rid of a very expensive empire with honor (the U.S. paid Spain $20 million). The victor gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of imperialism.[7]
"Remember the Maine"
USS Maine (ACR-1), was the United States Navy's second pre-dreadnought battleship, although she was originally classified as an armored cruiser. She is best known for her catastrophic loss in Havana harbor. Maine had been sent to Havana, Cuba to protect U.S. interests during the Cuban revolt against Spain.[1] On the evening of 15 February 1898, she suddenly exploded, and swiftly sank, killing nearly three quarters of her crew.[2] Though then, as now, the etiology and responsibility for her sinking were unclear; popular opinion in the U.S. blamed Spain, and the sinking (popularized in the phrase Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain!) was one of the precipitating events of the Spanish-American War.[2][3] Her sinking remains the subject of speculation, with various authors proposing that she sank due to the results of an undetected fire in one of her coal bunkers,[2] that she was the victim of a naval mine,[2] and that she was deliberately sunk for the purposes of driving the U.S. into a war with Spain. The cause of the explosion that sank the ship remains a mystery.[2]
Treaty of Paris (1898)
Spanish-American War. The United States gained almost all of Spain's colonies in the treaty, including the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico.[54] The treaty came into force in Cuba April 11, 1899, with Cubans participating only as observers. Having been occupied as of July 17, 1898, and thus under the jurisdiction of the United States Military Government (USMG), Cuba formed its own civil government and attained independence on May 20, 1902, with the announced end of USMG jurisdiction over the island. However, the United States imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved the right to intervene. The US also established a perpetual lease of Guantanamo Bay.
Why did America get involved in WWI?
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What were the effects of American involvement in WWI?
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President T. Roosevelt
the 26th President of the United States. He is well remembered for his energetic personality, range of interests and achievements, leadership of the Progressive Movement, model of masculinity, and his "cowboy" image. He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the short-lived Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party of 1912. Before becoming President (1901-1909) he held offices at the municipal, state, and federal level of government. Roosevelt's achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician.

Born to a wealthy family, Roosevelt was an unhealthy child suffering from asthma who stayed at home studying natural history. In response to his physical weakness, he embraced a strenuous life. He attended Harvard, where he boxed and developed an interest in naval affairs. A year out of Harvard, in 1881 he ran for a seat in the state legislature. His first historical book, The Naval War of 1812, published in 1882, established his reputation as a serious historian. After a few years of living in the Badlands, Roosevelt returned to New York City, where he gained fame for fighting police corruption. He was effectively running the US Department of the Navy when the Spanish American War broke out; he resigned and led a small regiment in Cuba known as the Rough Riders, earning himself a nomination for the Medal of Honor. After the war, he returned to New York and was elected Governor; two years later he was nominated for and elected Vice President of the United States.

In 1901, President William McKinley was assassinated, and Roosevelt became president at the age of 42, taking office at the youngest age of any U.S. President in history.[3] Roosevelt attempted to move the Republican Party in the direction of Progressivism, including trust busting and increased regulation of businesses. Roosevelt coined the phrase "Square Deal" to describe his domestic agenda, emphasizing that the average citizen would get a fair shake under his policies. As an outdoorsman and naturalist, he promoted the conservation movement. On the world stage, Roosevelt's policies were characterized by his slogan, "Speak softly and carry a big stick". Roosevelt was the force behind the completion of the Panama Canal; he sent out the Great White Fleet to display American power, and he negotiated an end to the Russo-Japanese War, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize.[4] Roosevelt is the first American to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Roosevelt declined to run for re-election in 1908. After leaving office, he embarked on a safari to Africa and a trip to Europe. On his return to the US, a rift developed between Roosevelt and his anointed[5][6] successor as President, William Howard Taft. Roosevelt attempted in 1912 to wrest the Republican nomination from Taft, and when he failed, he launched the Bull Moose Party. In the election, Roosevelt became the only third party candidate to come in second place, beating Taft but losing to Woodrow Wilson. After the election, Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition to South America; the river on which he traveled now bears his name. He contracted malaria on the trip, which damaged his health, and he died a few years later, at the age of 60. Roosevelt has consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.
William Howard Taft
the 26th President of the United States. He is well remembered for his energetic personality, range of interests and achievements, leadership of the Progressive Movement, model of masculinity, and his "cowboy" image. He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the short-lived Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party of 1912. Before becoming President (1901-1909) he held offices at the municipal, state, and federal level of government. Roosevelt's achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician.

Born to a wealthy family, Roosevelt was an unhealthy child suffering from asthma who stayed at home studying natural history. In response to his physical weakness, he embraced a strenuous life. He attended Harvard, where he boxed and developed an interest in naval affairs. A year out of Harvard, in 1881 he ran for a seat in the state legislature. His first historical book, The Naval War of 1812, published in 1882, established his reputation as a serious historian. After a few years of living in the Badlands, Roosevelt returned to New York City, where he gained fame for fighting police corruption. He was effectively running the US Department of the Navy when the Spanish American War broke out; he resigned and led a small regiment in Cuba known as the Rough Riders, earning himself a nomination for the Medal of Honor. After the war, he returned to New York and was elected Governor; two years later he was nominated for and elected Vice President of the United States.

In 1901, President William McKinley was assassinated, and Roosevelt became president at the age of 42, taking office at the youngest age of any U.S. President in history.[3] Roosevelt attempted to move the Republican Party in the direction of Progressivism, including trust busting and increased regulation of businesses. Roosevelt coined the phrase "Square Deal" to describe his domestic agenda, emphasizing that the average citizen would get a fair shake under his policies. As an outdoorsman and naturalist, he promoted the conservation movement. On the world stage, Roosevelt's policies were characterized by his slogan, "Speak softly and carry a big stick". Roosevelt was the force behind the completion of the Panama Canal; he sent out the Great White Fleet to display American power, and he negotiated an end to the Russo-Japanese War, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize.[4] Roosevelt is the first American to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Roosevelt declined to run for re-election in 1908. After leaving office, he embarked on a safari to Africa and a trip to Europe. On his return to the US, a rift developed between Roosevelt and his anointed[5][6] successor as President, William Howard Taft. Roosevelt attempted in 1912 to wrest the Republican nomination from Taft, and when he failed, he launched the Bull Moose Party. In the election, Roosevelt became the only third party candidate to come in second place, beating Taft but losing to Woodrow Wilson. After the election, Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition to South America; the river on which he traveled now bears his name. He contracted malaria on the trip, which damaged his health, and he died a few years later, at the age of 60. Roosevelt has consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.
President Wilson
He was the 28th president of the United States during the Progressive Era during 1913-1917. Wilson believed that America's system of checks and balances was the cause of the problems in American government. Wilson secured the passage of the Federal Reserve System in late 1913. Wilson had tried to find a middle ground between conservative Republicans and the Democratic Party, and used tariff, currency, and anti-trust laws to get the economy working again.
Fourteen Points
A speech delivered by Wilson to Congress on January 8, 1918. It was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause, and for peace in Europe. It became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated in the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919 for his efforts.
Treaty of Versailles
This was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on June 28, 1919. One of the most important provisions required Germany to take responsibility for causing the war and to pay reparations to certain countries. The total cost of war amounted to 132 billion marks, then $31.4 billion, in 1921.
Roaring Twenties/Optimism
A time in the United States when politics returned to normal, jazz music and art became popular, and was ended by the Stock market crash which ended the era and led to the Great Depression. Optimism played a role in the stocks; people bought more than they could afford by purchasing stocks on margin, so that when the stock market crashed the banks also did because the stocks were worth nothing. Optimism is possibly one of the causes of the stock market crash.
Red Scare
These are periods of anti-communism in the United States... the First Red Scare, from 1917 to 1920, and the Second Red Scare, from 1947 to 1957. The First Red Scare focused mainly on the worker's revolution, the second focused more on the fear of foreign communists influencing American government.
Return to normalcy/Warren Harding
the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack in 1923. A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential newspaper publisher. He served in the Ohio Senate (1899-1903) and later as the 28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio (1903-1905) and as a U.S. Senator (1915-1921).

His conservative stance on issues such as taxes, affable manner, and campaign manager Harry Daugherty's 'make no enemies' strategy enabled Harding to become the compromise choice at the 1920 Republican National Convention. During his presidential campaign, in the aftermath of World War I, he promised a return to "normalcy". In the 1920 election, he and his running-mate, Calvin Coolidge, defeated Democrat and fellow Ohioan James M. Cox, in what was then the largest presidential popular vote landslide in American history since the popular vote tally began to be recorded in 1824: 60.36% to 34.19%.

Harding headed a cabinet of notable men such as Charles Evans Hughes, Andrew Mellon, future president Herbert Hoover and Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, who was jailed for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal. In foreign affairs, Harding signed peace treaties that built on the Treaty of Versailles (which formally ended World War I). He also led the way to world Naval disarmament at the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22.

Because of multiple scandals in his administration, polls of historians and scholars consistently rank Harding as one of the worst Presidents.
Causes of the Great Depression
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Effects of the Great Depression
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Works Progress Administration (WPA)
the largest New Deal agency, employing millions to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects. It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. Almost every community in the United States had a park, bridge or school constructed by the agency, which especially benefited rural and Western populations. Expenditures from 1936 to 1939 totaled nearly $7 billion.[1]

Created by order of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the WPA was funded by Congress with passage of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 on April 8, 1935. The legislation had passed in the House of Representatives by a margin of 329 to 78, but was delayed by the Senate.[1]

The WPA continued and extended relief programs similar to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), which was established by Congress in 1932 during the administration of Roosevelt's predecessor Herbert Hoover. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. Between 1935 and 1943, the WPA provided almost eight million jobs.[2]

Until ended by Congress and war employment during 1943, the WPA was the largest employer in the country. Most people who needed a job were eligible for at least some of its jobs.[3] Hourly wages were the prevailing wages in each area; the rules said workers could not work more than 30 hours a week, but many projects included months in the field, with workers eating and sleeping on worksites. Before 1940, there was some training involved to teach new skills and the project's original legislation had a strong emphasis on training.
First New Deal
(March 8 1933) dealt with banking groups, industrializations, and farming. It was written by Franklin Roosevelt. He thought it would jump start the economy. Franklin did this within his first hundred days as president.
Franklin Roosevelt
he was the President during one of America's biggest economic crisis' and World War. He was elected more then two terms of office, and he died while in office. He helped save Americas economic decline into a political decline.
Second New Deal
(1935, Franklin Roosevelt) Lots of different acts, such as the Works Progress Administration (created jobs), Nation Youth Administration (gave jobs to students), the Social Security Act (insurance for aged, unemployed, disabled), etc. was in 1934-1935 this supported Labor Unions, Works Progress Administration, social security act, and aid to help farmers. It tried to order a higher employment rate.
Causes of WWII
war debts that Germany + Austria couldn't pay off from WWI. Britain and Germany were in a naval race (kept building a lot of ships). Japan invaded China. France tricked US into pledging commitment in case France needed help. Hitler invaded Poland. --- all these lead up to the war.
Effects of WWII
America came out stronger after war, economy boomed, military was great. the discovery of concentration camps during WWII led to the Cold War. Germany was divided into different zones of occupation. Japan was under US's rule. England was very hurt by the war, needed help from America. Russians were very powerful ebcause of the army they had built for the war. Atomic bomb created.
1930s American neutrality
In the 1930s, Congress, with some trepidation from President Roosevelt, passed the Neutrality Acts to respond to the rumblings of war in Europe that would lead to World War II. They were expressive of the not-so-new American isolationist ideals spurred by the costly World War I, and were intended to keep the US out of any imminent European war. In the end, they were unsatisfactory, limiting America in its defense of its allies by treating both the aggressor and the responder as "belligerents". They were repealed in 1941 after the initiation of force by Germany and Japan through submarine attacks and the attack on Pearl Harbor, respectively.
Lend-Lease Act
The Lend-Lease Act, lasting from 1941 to 1945, broke the US's neutrality by allowing America to supply Allied countries with war materials in the fight against Nazi Germany. In total, over $759 billion (at modern rates) worth of war materials were lent to various allies, most significantly Great Britain. This was critical to the war effort, as the Allies bore the brunt of the war until the US were drawn in by the attack on Pearl Harbor. From the attack, the US did not fully enter the war in terms of sending mass troops until late 1943, and so these war materials were crucial to the Allies' ability to hold off Nazi Germany until the US entered the war to support them.
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor was a US naval base on Hawaii, and the site of the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese that drew the United States into World War II. On the morning of December 7, 1941, six Japanese aircraft carriers released a total of 353 aircraft onto the base. The operation was intended as a preventative suppression strike to keep the US Pacific Fleet from entering the war Japan intended to start against Britain and the Netherlands through Southeast Asia. Four US battleships were sunk, two of which were raised and repaired for later use in the war, and the other four battleships were damaged. The Japanese also sank 8 other ships, destroyed 188 aircraft, killed 2402 men and wounded 1282. The Japanese lost 29 aircraft and 5 submarines, and took 65 casualties. Following this, the majority of US citizens stopped supporting isolationism and supported entering the war. Germany then declared war on the US, which it was not treaty-bound to do by Japan. In history, the attack on Pearl Harbor has been denigrated, being an example of the sound but cruel military tactic of sneak attack. Roosevelt famously proclaimed December 7 as a "date which will live in infamy."
War Production Board (WPB)
A government agency created by Franklin D. Roosevelt designed to regulate production and materials used for military purposes.
War Labor Board (WLB)
Created in 1918 by Woodrow Wilson, the WLB is a government agency that controlled disputes between employees for productive production during the war. It was disbanded in 1919.
Douglas Macarthur
an American general, and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. and Douglas MacArthur were the first father and son to each be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army and the only one to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.

The son of Arthur MacArthur, Jr., an Army officer who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in the American Civil War, Douglas MacArthur was raised as a military brat in the American Old West. He attended the West Texas Military Academy, where he was valedictorian, and the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he was First Captain and graduated top of the class of 1903. During the 1914 U.S. occupation of Veracruz he conducted a daring reconnaissance mission for which he was nominated for the Medal of Honor. In 1917 he was promoted from major to colonel and became chief of staff of the 42nd (Rainbow) Division. In the fighting on the Western Front during World War I he rose to the rank of brigadier general, was again nominated for the Medal of Honor, and awarded the Distinguished Service Cross twice and the Silver Star seven times for gallantry.

From 1919 - 1922, MacArthur served as Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he attempted to undertake a series of reforms. His next assignment was in the Philippines, where in 1924 he was instrumental in quelling a mutiny that had broken out amongst the Philippine Scouts at Fort McKinley. In 1925 he became the Army's youngest major general. He served on the court martial of Brigadier General Billy Mitchell and was president of the United States Olympic Committee during the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. In 1930 he became Chief of Staff of the United States Army. As such, he was involved with the expulsion of the Bonus Army protesters from Washington, D.C. in 1932, and the establishment and organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps. He retired from the U.S. Army in 1937 to become Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines.

MacArthur was recalled to active duty in 1941 as commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East. A series of disasters followed, starting with the destruction of his air force on December 8, 1941 and the invasion of the Philippines by the Japanese. MacArthur's forces were soon compelled to withdraw to Bataan, where they held out until May 1942. In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left Corregidor in four PT boats, and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. For his defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor. After more than two years of fighting in the Pacific, he fulfilled a promise to return to the Philippines. He officially accepted Japan's surrender on September 2, 1945, and oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. He led the United Nations Command in the Korean War from 1950 to 1951. On April 11, 1951, MacArthur was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman for disagreeing with Truman's policy on the war.
Dwight Eisenhower
The widely successful 34th President of the United States, whose presidency was defined by a general sense of prosperity. Eisenhower's career started in the military, rising to prominence as the 5-star general who served as the leader of Allied forces and planned the invasion of Normandy. After becoming President (mainly on his laurels as general), Eisenhower implemented some of the first Republican policies in America for over two decades.
Marcus Garvey
Perhaps one of the greatest and influential Jamaicans to ever live, Garvey advocated a philosophy of Pan-Africanism. Garvey preached of a world-wide exodus back to Africa. His teachings became both immensely popular and controversial. His teachings are so influential to certain parts of the African population that the Nation of Islam and the Rastafarians describe him as a prophet. He is Jamaica's national hero.
Charles E. Hughes
Was a prominent figure in American politics in the early 20th century. His first stint in politics occurred as the Governor of New York. After a brief spell as associate Justice on the Supreme Court, Hughes ran as the Republican candidate in 1916 against Woodrow Wilson. After losing to Harding, he returned to the Supreme Court under Harding, but this time as Chief Justice.
George Marshall
Was the Chief of Staff of the American Army during WWII and served as Secretary of State. One of the main architects of Allied victory, his reputation starkly rose because of his success in the war. Ironically, the general was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953 for his Marshall Plan, which was essentially the Allied agreement to provide aid to West Germany after the war.
Marshall Plan
1947-1951 was the primary program, of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger economic foundation for the countries of Western Europe. The plan was named for Secretary of State George Marshall and was largely the creation of William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan. The Marshall Plan was one of the first elements of European integration, as it erased trade barriers and set up institutions to coordinate the economy on a continental level. The plan was developed at a meeting of the participating European states and was established on June 5, 1947. It offered the same aid to the USSR and its allies, but they did not accept it. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. During that period $13 billion in economic and technical assistance were given to help the recovery of the European countries.
Sacco/Vanzetti
They were Italian immigrants who were accused and convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery in Massachusetts. After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the men were executed on August 23, 1927. The case is controversial because some believe that the men were not actually guilty and if they actually were guilty were their trials fair. There were many small details and contradictory evidence in the case.
United Nations
is an international organization whose goals are facilitating cooperation international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achieving of world peace. It was founded in 1945 after WWII to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for conversation. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization was begun under the sponsorship of the U.S. State Department in 1939. Franklin D. Roosevelt first coined the term 'United Nations' as a term to describe the allied countries. The term was first officially used on January 1, 1942 when 26 governments signed the Atlantic Charter, pledging to continue the war effort. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification by France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. The first United Nations meeting took place in Westminster Central Hall in London in January 1946.
Bretton Woods Conference
Preparing to rebuild the international economic system as World War II was still raging, 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The delegates deliberated upon and signed the Bretton Woods Agreements during the first three weeks of July 1944. Setting up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system, the planners at Bretton Woods established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which today is part of the World Bank Group. The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
was an international conference at which the United Nations was formulated and negotiated. It was held from 21 August to 7 October 1944 in Dumbarton Oaks, a mansion in Washington, DC, United States, and was attended by representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and China. The conference's discussions on the creation of the UN included which states would be invited to be members, the formation of the United Nations Security Council, and the right of veto that would be given to the Security Council's permanent members.
Truman Doctrine
is the common name for the Cold War strategy of containment versus the Soviet Union and the expansion of communism. This doctrine was first promulgated by President Harry Truman in an address to the U.S. Congress on March 12, 1947. President Truman appeared before Congress and used Kennan's warnings in the "Long Telegram" as the basis for what became known as the Truman Doctrine. Prime Minister of Greece visited Washington in December 1946 to ask for additional American assistance. Aid was agreed by the United States government to be given to both Greece and Turkey. Truman insisted that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they needed, they would inevitably fall to Communism with consequences throughout the region.
Causes of the Cold War
There were deep-rooted ideological, economic and political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union before the Second World War. These differences were intensified as a result of their mutual suspicions immediately after the Second World War. Some of the causes of the Cold War include American fear of communist attack, Truman's dislike of Stalin, Russia's fear of the American's atomic bomb, Russia's dislike of capitalism, Russia's actions in the Soviet zone of Germany, America's refusal to share nuclear secrets, Russia's expansion west into Eastern Europe plus broken election promises, Russia's fear of American attack, Russia's need for a secure western border, and Russia's aim of spreading world communism. After the Second World War, with the decline of Europe, power was largely shared between the Soviet Union and the United States. As one wanted to dominate the other, conflicts were inevitable.
"X" Article
Published by a US ambassador to the USSR, it outlined 5 points that stated why the USSR functioned the way it did. In short, the USSR despised capitalism, sought out allies of Marxism, and the state's structure "prohibited views of an external reality."
National Security Act
Created after WWII in 1947, it consolidated the US military under the Secretary of Defense and created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Berlin Blockade
(24 June 1948 - 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War and the first such crisis that resulted in casualties. During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under their control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.
In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin Airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin. The over 4,000 tons per day required by Berlin during the airlift totaled, for example, over ten times the volume that the encircled German 6th Army required six years earlier at the Battle of Stalingrad. The Royal Air Force, other Commonwealth nations, and the recently formed United States Air Force, flew over 200,000 flights providing 13,000,000 tons of food to Berlin in an operation lasting almost a year. [1] By the spring of 1949, the effort was clearly succeeding, and by April the airlift was delivering more cargo than had previously flowed into the city by rail.
The success of the Airlift was claimed to be humiliating to the Soviets, who had repeatedly claimed it could never work. The blockade was lifted in May, 1949. One lasting legacy of the Airlift is the three airports in the former western zones of the city, which served as the primary gateways to Berlin for another fifty years.
NATO
The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and the United Kingdom is considered the precursor to the NATO agreement. The treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. [7] However, participation of the United States was thought necessary in order to counter the military power of the USSR, and therefore talks for a new military alliance began almost immediately.These talks resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states, as well as the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous; some Icelanders commenced a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949. The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 was crucial for NATO as it raised the apparent threat level greatly (all Communist countries were suspected of working together) and forced the alliance to develop concrete military plans. [8] The 1952 Lisbon conference, seeking to provide the forces necessary for NATO's Long-Term Defence Plan, called for an expansion to 96 divisions. However this requirement was dropped the following year to roughly 35 divisions with heavier use to be made of nuclear weapons. At this time, NATO could call on about 15 ready divisions in Central Europe, and another ten in Italy and Scandinavia. [9] Also at Lisbon, the post of Secretary General of NATO as the organization's chief civilian was also created, and Baron Hastings Ismay eventually appointed to the post. [10] Later, in September 1952, the first major NATO maritime exercises began; Operation Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway. Greece and Turkey joined the alliance the same year, forcing a series of controversial negotiations, in which the United States and Britain were the primary disputants, over how to bring the two countries into the military command structure. [11] Meanwhile, while this overt military preparation was going on, covert stay-behind arrangements to continue resistance after a successful Soviet invasion ('Operation Gladio'), initially made by the Western European Union, were being transferred to NATO control. Ultimately unofficial bonds began to grow between NATO's armed forces, such as the NATO Tiger Association and competitions such as the Canadian Army Trophy for tank gunnery. In 1954, the Soviet Union suggested that it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe. [12] The NATO countries, fearing that the Soviet Union's motive was to weaken the alliance, ultimately rejected this proposal. The incorporation of West Germany into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Minister of Norway at the time. [13] A major reason for Germany's entry into the alliance was that without German manpower, it would have been impossible to field enough conventional forces to resist a Soviet invasion. [14] Indeed, one of its immediate results was the creation of the Warsaw Pact, signed on 14 May 1955 by the Soviet Union, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and East Germany, as a formal response to this event, thereby delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War.
Communist Victory in China
The Huaihai Campaign of late 1948 and early 1949 secured east-central China for the Communist Part of China. [44] The outcome of these encounters were decisive for the military outcome of the civil war. [44] The Beiping-Tianjin Campaign resulted in the Communist conquest of northern China lasting 64 days from November 21, 1948 to January 31, 1949. [46] The People's Liberation Army suffered heavy casualties from securing Zhangjiakou, Tianjin along with its port and garrison at Dagu, and Beiping. [46] The CPC brought 890,000 troops from the Northeast to oppose some 600,000 KMT troops. [45] There were 40,000 CPC casualties at Zhangjiakou alone. They in turn killed, wounded or captured some 520,000 KMT during the campaign. [46] On April 21, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River, capturing Nanjing, capital of the KMT's Republic of China. [25] In most cases, the surrounding countryside and small towns had come under Communist influence long before the cities. By late 1949, the People's Liberation Army was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China. The KMT government retreated from Nanjing on April 23 successively to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing until November 25, and Chengdu before retreating to Taipei on December 10.

195. Southeast asia treaty organization- Signed on in 1954, the international organization stood for collective defense against the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. France, America, and the UK represented the West, and Austria, Thialand, New Zealand, and the Phillipines represnted the Eastern Europe.
Korean War
Between the Northern and Southern parts of Korea; the Northern Public of Korea was backed by America and the Southern People's Republic of China was backed by the Soviet Union. The Korean War began because of the polarized political division on the World War 2. This marked the first major violent conflict of the Cold War.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
an international organization for collective defense which was signed on September 8, 1954. The formal institution of SEATO was established at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok in February 1955.[1] It was primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia. The organization's headquarters were located in Bangkok, Thailand. SEATO was dissolved on June 30, 1977.
Fall of Dien Bien Phu and Geneva Conference on Vietnam
The 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu fought between French colonies and the Vietminh, who emerged victorious, essentially ended French rule in Indochina. In response, the 1954 Geneva Conference penned the Geneva Accords which outlined Vietminh independence and would eliminate foreign occupation in the internal Indochina affairs.
Vietnam War
A drawn-out war (1954-1975) between the Communists from North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communists in South Vietnam supported by the United States. The first American forces arrived in Vietnam in 1965. Over 57,000 U.S. troops were killed, and in 1973 American forces withdrew from the war after the signing a peace accord in Paris.
Hungarian Revolt
In 1956, after a Soviet leader named Nikita Khrushchev gave a speech that attacked the time of Stalin's rule, an uprising began. Restless people in Hungary broke out into active fighting in October 1956. Rebels won the first phase of the revolution, and Nagy Imre became leader, agreeing to establish a multiparty system. On November 1, he declared Hungarian neutrality and appealed to the UN. Western powers failed to respond, and on November 4 the Soviet Union invaded Hungary to stop the revolution. But Stalinist command did not return, and Hungary shortly after experienced a slow evolution toward some independence.
Aswan Dam
In 1955, Secretary of State Dulles started talking to Egypt about American support to build the Aswan Dam on the Nile River, so that the U.S. could gain Arab allies to get access to oil and to stop communism. (U.S. didn't want communism to spread to the middle east)
Seizure of the Suez canal
The Eisenhower administration sought to foster friendships with Arab nations to secure access to oil and build a bulwark against communism. Secretary of State Dulles was unwilling to tolerate the independence of the military alliance between Egypt's leader Nasser who recognized the People's Republic of China. Nasser responded by seizing the Suez Canal, then owned by Britain and France. Israel responded to the seizure by attacking Egypt with help from Britain and France. Eisenhower opposed this intervention and put economic strain to force Britain and France to retreat which lead to Israel's retreat, while calling on the United Nations to arrange a truce.
Eisenhower Doctrine
After the Seizure of the Suez Canal, Eisenhower made it clear that the United States would actively combat communism in the Middle East. In March 1957, Congress passed a joint resolution approving economic and military aid to any Middle Easter nation "requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism." The president invoked this "Eisenhower Doctrine" to send aid to Jordan in 1957 and troops to Lebanon in 1958 to counter anti-Western pressures on those governments.
Soviets shoot down a U-2 spy plane
Even as the superpowers competed for nuclear dominance, they continued to talk. By 1960, the two sides were within reach of a ban on nuclear testing, and Khrushchev and Eisenhower agreed to meet again in Paris in May. To avoid jeopardizing the summit, Eisenhower canceled espionage flights over the Soviet Union. His call came too late and on May 1, 1960, a Soviet missile shot down a U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory. The State Department first denied any planes were violation the Soviet airspace, but the Soviets produced the pilot and the photos taken on his flight. The superpowers did meet in Paris but the shooting down of a U-2 spy plane dashed all prospects for a nuclear arms agreement.
Castro's Cuban revolution
occurred in Cuba over a rough period of 1956-1959, involved Fidel Castro and a group of other notable communists, such as his brother Raul Castro and Che Guevara. These men and their followers fought for many years against Fulgencio Batista, the dictator of Cuba. These men combated Batista and wished to install a communist government in Cuba to serve the people. They eventually succeeded, turning Cuba from the vacation/gambling locale it was to its current state
Bay of Pigs
occurred in Cuba in April 1961, was an attempt by the CIA to train a group of Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. It is known as the Bay of Pigs invasion because it was staged on a beach near the Bay of Pigs, a small inlet from the ocean. The plan failed miserably as the Cuban army quickly killed all of the invaders. This attack and plan represented the influence of the Red Scare on the United States and the means it would use to fight communism.
Cuban Missile Crisis
occurred over a month period between September and October 1962 when an American spy plane discovered Soviet missiles in Cuba. This precipitated an intense and frightening conflict between the US and the USSR. The crisis was eventually calmed after the US signed a no-invasion pact in exchange for the disarmament of the missiles. This represented the closest that the USSR and US came to engaging in nuclear war.
Hot Line Agreement
An agreement between the US and USSR to help ease the nuclear rivalry in hopes of preventing war. This just foreshadowed the cold war inevitably.
Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
A treaty that was put in place to stall the creation of nuclear arms by only allowing testing of nuclear arms underground.
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
A treaty that stated who could possess nuclear arms to limit the amount and possession of them. Created in 1970.
Nixon and China
Nixon aimed to restore relations with the Communist China upon its public split from its ally, the Soviet Union; relations were pretty much restored; Soviet Union hated this
Moscow Summit
1972 conference b/w Nixon and the Soviet Union leaders to lessen the number of assault weapons each country has and to repair US and Soviet Union relations
Yom Kippur War
also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to October 26, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states backing Egypt and Syria. The war began with a joint surprise attack on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, which coincided with the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Egypt and Syria respectively crossed cease-fire lines to enter the Israeli-held Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights, which had been captured and occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War. The conflict had all the elements of a severe international crisis, and ended with a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union,[18] both of whom launched massive resupply efforts to their allies during the war.

The war began with a massive and successful Egyptian attack across the heavily-fortified Suez Canal during the first three days, after which they dug in, and the southern front settled into a stalemate. In the north, the Syrians simultaneously attacked the critical Golan Heights and initially achieved threatening gains, after which their momentum waned. Within a week, Israel repelled the Syrian attack and launched a four-day counter-offensive, driving deeper into Syria. To relieve this pressure, the Egyptians renewed their offensive, but decisively failed to advance; the Israelis then counterattacked at the seam between two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal, and advanced southward in over a week of heavy fighting. Israel encircled elements of Egypt's Third Army after an agreed United Nations ceasefire resolution. This initially prompted tension between the superpowers, but a ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. By the end of the fighting, Israeli forces were 40 kilometers from Damascus and 101 kilometers from Cairo.

The war had far-reaching implications for many nations. The Arab World, which had been humiliated by the lopsided defeat of the Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian alliance during the Six-Day War, felt psychologically vindicated by successes early in the conflict. This paved the way for economic reform and liberalizations in Egypt under the infitah policy. In Israel, the war effectively ended the sense of invincibility and complacency. The war also challenged many American assumptions and it pursued newfound efforts at mediation and peacemaking. These changes combined paved the way for the subsequent peace process. The Camp David Accords that followed brought the return of the Sinai to Egypt and normalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country. Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere entirely.
SALT II
October 1973; Israel v.s. Egypt/ Syria; Arab countries launched an attack on Israel to try and vindicate themselves from a previous war and to gain strategic ground; America was with Israel and the Soviet Union was with Egypt and Syria, Israel ultimately won and no longer felt that their nation was invincible; Americans advocated peace while the Soviet Union was in alliance with Egypt, but with the end of the war they drifted out of alliance
Afghanistan Invasion
In response to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and part of its overall Cold War strategy, the United States responded by arming and otherwise supporting the Afghan mujahideen, which had taken up arms against the Soviet occupiers. U.S. support began during the Carter administration, but increased substantially during the Reagan administration, in which it became a centerpiece of the so-called Reagan Doctrine under which the U.S. provided support to anti-communist resistance movements in Afghanistan and also in Angola, Nicaragua, and other nations. The New York Times reported that the Reagan administration delivered several hundred FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missiles to Afghan resistance groups, including the Taliban.[85] In addition to U.S. support, the mujahideen received support from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and other nations.

The Soviet occupation resulted in the killings of between 600,000 and two million Afghan civilians. Over 5 million fled as Afghan refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. Over 38,000 made it to the United States[86] and many more to the European Union. Faced with mounting international pressure and great number of casualties on both sides, the Soviets withdrew in 1989.

The Soviet withdrawal from the DRA was seen as an ideological victory in the U.S., which had backed the Mujahideen through three U.S. presidential administrations to counter Soviet influence in the vicinity of the oil-rich Persian Gulf.

Following the removal of the Soviet forces, the U.S. and its allies lost interest in Afghanistan and did little to help rebuild the war-ravaged country or influence events there.[citation needed] The USSR continued to support President Mohammad Najibullah (former head of the Afghan secret service, KHAD) until 1992 when the new Russian government refused to sell oil products to the Najibullah regime.[87]

Because of the fighting, a number of elites and intellectuals fled to take refuge abroad. This led to a leadership imbalance in Afghanistan. Fighting continued among the victorious Mujahideen factions, which gave rise to a state of warlordism. The most serious fighting during this period occurred in 1994, when over 10,000 people were killed in Kabul alone. It was at this time that the Taliban developed as a politico-religious force, eventually seizing Kabul in 1996 and establishing the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. By the end of 2000 the Taliban had captured 95% of the country.

During the Taliban's seven-year rule, much of the population experienced restrictions on their freedom and violations of their human rights. Women were banned from jobs, girls forbidden to attend schools or universities.[88] Communists were systematically eradicated and thieves were punished by amputating one of their hands or feet.[89] Opium production was nearly wiped out by the Taliban by 2001.[90]
War in Afghanistan 2001-present
Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001-present)
See also: Timeline of the history of Afghanistan and Invasions of Afghanistan
2007-2008 map showing regional security risks and levels of opium poppy cultivation

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, the U.S. and British air forces began bombing Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom.[91] On the ground, American and British special forces along with CIA Special Activities Division teams worked with the Tajik-dominated Northern Alliance to begin a military offensive to overthrow the Taliban.[92] These attacks led to the fall of Mazar-i-Sharif and then Kabul in November 2001, as the Taliban retreated from most of northern Afghanistan. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was established by the UN Security Council in December 2001, to secure Kabul and the surrounding areas.[93] In the same month the Karzai administration was also established to run the country.

As more coalition troops entered the war and the Northern Alliance forces fought their way southwards, the Taliban and al-Qaida retreated toward the mountainous Durand Line border region between Afghanistan and Pakistan.[94] From 2002 onward, the Taliban focused on survival and on rebuilding its forces. Meanwhile NATO assumed control of ISAF in 2003.[95] From 2003 onwards, the Taliban increased its attacks using insurgency tactics. Firmly entrenched in the borders between Pakistan and Afghanistan the Taliban enjoyed a resurgence, showing it could launch large, coordinated and effective attacks on coalition and Afghan forces.[96] Over the course of the years, NATO-lead troops lead several offensives against the entrenched Taliban, but proved unable to completely dislodge their presence. By 2009, a Taliban lead shadow government began to form complete with their own verson of mediation court.[97]

On December 1, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that he would escalate U.S. military involvement by deploying an additional 30,000 soldiers over a period of six months.[98] He also proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date.[99][100] On January 26, 2010, at the International Conference on Afghanistan in London, which brought together 70 countries and organizations,[101] Afghan President Hamid Karzai told world leaders that he intends to reach out to the top echelons of the Taliban within a few weeks with a peace initiative.[102] Karzai set the framework for dialogue with Taliban leaders when he called on the group's leadership to take part in a "loya jirga" -- or large assembly of elders—to initiate peace talks.[103]
Iran-Iraq War
The war began when Iraq invaded Iran, launching a simultaneous invasion by air and land into Iranian territory on 22 September 1980 following a long history of border disputes, and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution. Iraq was also aiming to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of revolutionary chaos in Iran and attacked without formal warning, they made only limited progress into Iran and within several months were repelled by the Iranians who regained virtually all lost territory by June, 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive.[15] Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003.[15][16]

The war came at a great cost in lives and economic damage - a half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers as well as civilians are believed to have died in the war with many more injured and wounded - but brought neither reparations nor change in borders. The conflict is often compared to World War I,[17] in that the tactics used closely mirrored those of World War I, including large scale trench warfare, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, use of barbed wire across trenches, human wave attacks across no-mans land, and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas against Iranian troops and civilians as well as Iraqi Kurds. At the time, the UN Security Council issued statements that "chemical weapons had been used in the war." However, in these UN statements Iraq was not mentioned by name, so it has been said that "the international community remained silent as Iraq used weapons of mass destruction against Iranian as well as Iraqi Kurds" and it is believed[18][19][20] that "United States prevented the UN from condemning Iraq".
"Evil Empire" speech
Reagan's March 8, 1983 speech to the National Association of Evangelicals in Orlando, Florida is his first recorded use of the phrase "evil empire." Reagan said:

In your discussions of the nuclear freeze proposals, I urge you to beware the temptation of pride, the temptation of blithely declaring yourselves above it all and label both sides equally at fault, to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire, to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself from the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil.[4]

In the "evil empire" speech, which also dealt with domestic issues, Reagan made the case for deploying NATO nuclear armed missiles in Western Europe as a response to the Soviets installing new nuclear armed missiles in Eastern Europe. Eventually, the NATO missiles were set up and used as bargaining chips in arms talks with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who took office in 1985. In 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev agreed to go farther than a nuclear freeze. In an atomic age first, they agreed to reduce nuclear arsenals. Intermediate- and shorter-range nuclear missiles were eliminated.

The phrase also proved useful to Western anti-Communists in justifying a significantly more forceful defense and foreign policy stand against the Soviets. In addition to using the phrase "evil empire," Reagan described the Soviet Union as a "totalitarian" regime.
El Salvador/Nicaragua
During the 1980s the Reagan administration sponsored an anti-Sandinista guerilla movement known as the Contras (a proxy paramilitary based in Honduras and Costa Rica, largely consisting of northern highlanders known as the Milpas and led by former Somoza regime soldiers) against the socialist Sandinista government in Nicaragua. The resulting war killed over 50,000 people, mostly civilians.

Under the Carter Administration, the Sandinistas had received tacit U.S. support in their coup against the previously U.S.-backed right-wing military dictatorship of the Somoza dynasty, which had ruled the country for several decades. An interim coalition, Junta, took power in 1979 and in 1984 leader of the FSLN party, Daniel Ortega became Nicaragua's first elected President who ruled under the name of the Sandinista revolution. As the years progressed, the Ortega government was accused of becoming more authoritarian, with the more moderate factions of the coalition being expelled from government. Allegations of suppression of political dissent increased, as did accusations of state-sponsored human rights abuses. However, these accusations of human rights abuses were not accurate, according to Human Rights Watch: "Almost invariably, U.S. pronouncements on human rights exaggerated and distorted the real human rights violations of the Sandinista regime, and exculpated those of the U.S.-supported insurgents, known as the contras." [1] As well, Ortega was a supporter of Fidel Castro's Cuba and many members of the Sandinista government sought to model Nicaragua along similar lines. Cuba sent doctors and technicians to Nicaragua and the Soviet Union shipped some military equipment, including some Hind helicopters.

The leftist nature of the Sandinista government and its support for Cuba distressed many in the Reagan administration, who viewed the country as a key Cold War battleground, in danger of becoming a Communist proxy state. As a result, covert support began to flow to the anti-Sandinista Contra rebels, whom Reagan had described as "the moral equal of our founding fathers."

Under the direction of the CIA, the largest Contra army, the FDN, attacked collective farms and other civilian targets, as well as murdered, tortured and mutilated civilians and committed other war crimes, as documented by human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. [2] The Contras were also accused of being involved in illicit drug-trafficking. In 1986 a CIA-written training manual detailing methods of terrorism and assassination was discovered to have been issued to the Contras.

The proxy army followed Washington orders to attack "soft targets" such as farm cooperatives and health clinics instead of "trying to duke it out with the Sandinistas directly," and to "attack a lot of schools, health centers, and those sort of things" so that "the Nicaraguan government cannot provide social services for the peasants, cannot develop its project" as explained by General John Galvin, commander of the U.S. Southern Command, who added that with these tactics, aimed at civilians lacking means of defense against armed terrorist bands, prospects for the contras should improve.[citation needed]

When asked in the US Congress in April 1985 to define US policy in Nicaragua, former CIA Director Stansfield Turner responded "state-sponsored terrorism".[citation needed]

The World Court would find that this constituted state sponsorship of terrorism and an attempt to overthrow an elected government. Nicaragua decided to take their case to the World Court in Nicaragua v. United States. In an unprecedented decision in the history of world justice, the World Court sanctioned the U.S. for "unlawful use of force" for "sponsoring paramilitary activity in and against Nicaragua", ordering the U.S. government to pay billions of U.S. dollars in compensation. The World Court ordered Reagan to terminate his campaign, but the Reagan White House dismissed the ruling and then vetoed two Security Council resolutions affirming the Court ruling and calling on all nations to observe international law. The FSLN then took its case to the General Assembly and the General Assembly ruled in its favor, with only the US, Israel, and El Salvador dissenting. Father Miguel D'Escoto, Foreign Minister under the Sandinista government, supposes that the U.S. owes his country between 20 and 30 billion U.S. dollars. [3]
Reagan and United Kingdom Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at Camp David

Many, who supported the Reaganite view, claim the Sandinista regime was neither democratic nor harmless, but rather a Communist dictatorship in the making, supported both militarily and economically by Cuba and the Soviet Union. The administration refused to participate in the World Court proceeding.

Due to the pressures of the covert Contra war, the Sandinista President of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega, eventually held the country's second elections, which he and his party lost, thus ending Nicaragua's brief period of socialist rule. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, a former Junta member who led a 19-party "anti-Sandinista" alliance was elected in his place.

Through its desire to combat leftist governments and Marxist insurgencies in the region the Reagan administration was accused of sponsoring right-wing military dictatorships throughout Latin America. The CIA and U.S.-based School of the Americas, similarly were accused by some as having trained Honduran and other Latin American military officers and future death squad paramilitary members in torture and assassination techniques to fight insurgencies.

Reagan increased funding to many other Central and South American states throughout his two terms. Financial aid to Colombia's military and right-wing paramilitary groups skyrocketed in the eighties,[citation needed] even as Colombia compiled one of the worst human rights records in the hemisphere. A similar situation existed for El Salvador. Congress attempted to put constraints on aid to the government of El Salvador and make it contingent on human rights progress. Even as tens of thousands of civilians were slaughtered by government and governmentally-allied forces in the early eighties Reagan stated that El Salvador was making "progress." Elliott Abrams, an administration official indicted in the Iran Contra Affair, also denied the existence of human rights violations and massacres in El Salvador like the El Mozote massacre. When congress tried to renew the human-rights stipulation to aid for El Salvador Reagan vetoed the bill.

This pattern of funding right-wing military and paramilitary groups would continue in Guatemala. In 1999 a report on the Guatemalan Civil War from the UN-sponsored Commission for Historical Clarification stated that "the American training of the officer corps in counter-insurgency techniques" was a "key factor" in the "genocide...Entire Mayan villages were attacked and burned and their inhabitants were slaughtered in an effort to deny the guerillas protection." According to the commission, between 1981 and 1983 the Guatemalan government—financed and trained by the US—destroyed four hundred Mayan villages and butchered 200,000 peasants (1).

In Panama this funding was more covert. Manuel Noriega, the dictator of Panama, was on the payroll of the CIA as of 1967. By 1971 his involvement in the drug trade was well known by the DEA but he was an important asset of the CIA and so was well-protected. CIA Director George H. W. Bush arranged to give Noriega a raise in 1976 to a six-figure salary. The Carter administration dropped the future dictator from its payroll but he was reinstated by the Reagan administration and his salary peaked in 1985 at $200,000 (2). Noriega allowed CIA listening stations in his country, provided funding for the Contras, and protected covert U.S. and U.S.-funded air shipments of supplies to the Contras(3).

Reagan offered controversial support to the rightist El Salvador government throughout his term; he feared a takeover by the FMLN during the El Salvador Civil War which had begun in the late 1970s. The war left 75,000 people dead, 8,000 missing and one million homeless; some one million Salvadorans, fleeing the war and government backed right-wing death squads, immigrated to the United States. He backed attempts at introducing democratic elections with mixed success.
Invasion of Grenada
codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, was a 1983 U.S.-led invasion of Grenada, a Caribbean island nation with a population of just over 100,000 located 100 miles (160 km) north of Venezuela, triggered by a military coup which ousted a brief revolutionary government. The successful invasion led to a change of government but was controversial due to charges of American imperialism, Cold War politics, the involvement of Cuba, the unstable state of the Grenadian government, and Grenada's status as a Commonwealth realm.

Grenada gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1974, but a 1979 revolution by the Marxist-Leninist New Jewel Movement suspended the constitution. After a 1983 internal power struggle ended with the deposition and execution of Grenadian Prime Minister Maurice Bishop, the invasion began on October 25, 1983. A combined force of troops from the United States (nearly 10,000 troops), Jamaica and members of the Regional Security System (RSS) (approximately 300 troops)[4] defeated Grenadian resistance and the military government of Hudson Austin was deposed.

The invasion was criticized by the United Kingdom, Canada and the United Nations General Assembly, which condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law".[5] It enjoyed broad public support in the United States[6] as well as in some sectors in Grenada who viewed the post-coup regime as illegitimate.[7] October 25 is a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, to commemorate this event. Additionally, on 29 May 2009, the Point Salines International Airport was officially renamed in honour of the slain pre-coup leader Maurice Bishop by the Government of Grenada.[8][9]

The American invasion of Grenada was the sole case in the history of the Cold War of a Communist state successfuly rolled back into a Democratic Capitalist nation before the Revolutions of 1989.
Iran-Contra Affair
a political scandal in the United States which came to light in November 1986, during the Reagan administration, in which senior U.S. figures agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo, in order to fund Nicaraguan contras.[2] At least some U.S. officials also hoped that the arms sales would secure the release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon.

The affair began as an operation to improve U.S.-Iranian relations. It was planned that Israel would ship weapons to a relatively moderate, politically influential group of Iranians, and then the U.S. would resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve the release of six U.S. hostages, who were being held by the Lebanese Shia Islamist group Hezbollah, who were secretly connected to the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. The plan eventually deteriorated into an arms-for-hostages scheme, in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of the American hostages.[3][4] Large modifications to the plan were devised by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Council in late 1985, in which a portion of the proceeds from the weapon sales was diverted to fund anti-Sandinista and anti-communist rebels, or Contras, in Nicaragua.[5]

While President Ronald Reagan was a supporter of the Contra cause,[6] no conclusive evidence has been found showing that he authorized the diversion of the money raised by the Iranian arms sales to the Contras.[3][4][7] Handwritten notes taken by Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger indicate that Reagan was aware of potential hostages transfers with Iran, as well as the sale of Hawk and TOW missiles to "moderates elements" within that country.[8] Oliver North, one of the central figures in the affair, wrote in a book that "Ronald Reagan knew of and approved a great deal of what went on with both the Iranian initiative and private efforts on behalf of the contras and he received regular, detailed briefings on both." Mr. North also writes: "I have no doubt that he was told about the use of residuals for the contras, and that he approved it. Enthusiastically."[9] North's account is difficult to verify because of the secrecy that still surrounds the affair.

After the weapon sales were revealed in November 1986, Reagan appeared on national television and stated that the weapons transfers had indeed occurred, but that the United States did not trade arms for hostages.[10] To this day, it is unclear exactly what Reagan knew and when, and whether the arms sales were motivated by his desire to save the U.S. hostages. Notes taken December 7, 1985, by Defense Secretary Weinberger record that Reagan said that "he could answer charges of illegality but he couldnt answer charge [sic] that 'big strong President Reagan passed up a chance to free hostages.'"[11] Investigations were compounded when large volumes of documents relating to the scandal were destroyed or withheld from investigators by Reagan administration officials.[12] On March 4, 1987, Reagan returned to the airwaves in a nationally televised address, taking full responsibility for any actions that he was unaware of, and admitting that "what began as a strategic opening to Iran deteriorated, in its implementation, into trading arms for hostages."[13]

Several investigations ensued, including those by the United States Congress and the three-man, Reagan-appointed Tower Commission. Neither found any evidence that President Reagan himself knew of the extent of the multiple programs.[3][4][7] In the end, fourteen administration officials were indicted, including then-Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. Eleven convictions resulted, some of which were vacated on appeal.[14] The rest of those indicted or convicted were all pardoned in the final days of the George H. W. Bush presidency; Bush had been vice-president at the time of the affair.[15]
Glastnost/Perestroika
Glastnost, Russian for "openness," was a policy introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s that promoted openness and transparency in all government-run activities, and freedom of information, as opposed to the excessive censorship of the Communist Party in the past. Gorbachev's goal with this policy was to eliminate corruption at the top of the Soviet government and Communist Party. The freedom of speech for Soviet citizens and the reduced censorship of information resulted in the Communist Party losing its control of the media and propaganda. Perestroika is the term for the political and economic reforms that Gorbachev introduced to the Soviet Union in June 1987. It is often credited as the reason for the fall of the Communist Party and the end of the Cold War. Economically, these reforms replaced the Soviet Union's command economy with a market economy, which helped unravel Soviet society and the communist system, though it did lead to economic chaos and the rise of organized crime.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
On August 23, 1989, the physical border separating Hungary and Austria was removed, leading to the escape of more than 13,000 East German tourists in Hungary, to Austria in September. Mass demonstrations against the government in East Germany began at the end of September and lasted through November 1989. On November 9, 1989, considered to be the day the Berlin Wall fell, the East German government opened the border at the demand of thousands of East Berlin demonstrators who had gone to the border crossings. East Berliners ceremoniously greeted West Berliners on the other side of the wall, and the first step towards German unification was taken, which was a frightening proposition to French and British leaders.
Persian Gulf War
An armed conflict between Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, and a coalition force of 32 nations, including the United States, Britain, Egypt, France, and Saudi Arabia. The conflict stemmed from Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and lasted until February 28, 1991. Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was met with immediate international action, including economic sanctions against Iraq by the UN Security Council. The coalition demanded Iraq's immediate withdrawal from Kuwait. On February 28, 1991, President George Bush declared a cease-fire, and that Kuwait had been liberated, and American troops began to withdraw from Saudi Arabia.
Taft-Hartley Law
a major revision of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 also known as the Wagner Act and represented the first major revision of a New Deal act. The Wagner Act regulated all commerce at the time giving workers the ability to belong to a union and strike. It regulated everything that businesses and companies did. On June 23, 1947 the Republican congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act over Truman's veto. This act basically kept most of what the Wagner Act had done, but it also allowed the President to form a board when necessary to help end disputes between Unions and employers.
Brown v. Board of Education
In 1950 the Topeka NAACP, led by McKinley Burnett, set out to organize a legal challenge to an 1879 State law that permitted schools to be segregated by race. Burnett rounded up thirteen parents with twenty children and asked the parents to try to enroll their children in all white schools in Kansas which of course they were all denied. Burnett took this up through the courts until reaching the Supreme Court where it was combined with four other cases because they all had to deal with the same thing. Under the legal help of Charles H. Houston and Thurgood Marshall, Brown won over the board by arguing the fourteenth amendment in 1954. This desegregated schools and was one of the first wins of the civil rights movement.
Civil Rights Act
John F. Kennedy proposed the civil rights bill and it was still being argued over at the time of his assassination. June 15, 1964 the act passed 73 votes to 27 votes under the presidency of Lyndon Johnson. The 1964 Civil Rights Act made racial discrimination in public places illegal. It also required employers to provide equal employment opportunities. Projects involving federal funds could now be cut off if there was evidence of discriminated based on race or national origin.
Voting Rights Act
This act in 1965 banned literacy tests and other voting tests that had been implemented mostly to prevent blacks from being able to vote. It authorized the federal government to act directly to enable African Americans to register and vote.
Medicare Act
This act in 1965 provided health insurance (Medicare) for all citizens sixty-five and older. It extended federal health benefits to welfare recipients (Medicaid). President Johnson pruned Truman's proposed plan for universal healthcare by focusing on the elderly and the poor and this act resulted.
Freedom of Information Act
This act was signed into law in 1966 by President Johnson. This act applies only to the federal government and allows for full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information controlled by the federal government. It outlines what types of information and documents are subject to disclosure and the exceptions to this act.
Consumer Credit Protection Act
Protects employees from discharge by their employers because their wages have been garnished for any one debt, and limits the amount of an employee's earnings that may be garnished in any one week.
Environmental Policy Act
NEPA came into existence following increased appreciation for the environment, and growing concerns about ecological and wildlife well-being, although still without major impacts on human health; indeed, the public outcry after the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill was perhaps the leading catalyst. An Eisenhower-era Outdoor Recreation report, a Wilderness Act, Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, along with Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, all reflect the growing concerns, public interest group efforts, and legislative discussion involved.[3] The law has since been applied to any project, federal, state or local, that involves federal funding or work performed by the federal government. Although enacted on January 1, 1970, its "short title" is "National Environmental Policy Act of 1969."
Roe v. Wade
a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion.

The Court held that a woman's right to an abortion is determined by her current trimester of pregnancy:

* In the first trimester, the state cannot restrict a woman's right to an abortion in any way. The court stated that this trimester begins at conception and ends at the "point at which the fetus becomes 'viable'".
* In the second trimester, the state may only regulate the abortion procedure "in ways that are reasonably related to maternal health" (defined in the companion case of Doe v. Bolton.[2]).
* In the third trimester, the state can choose to restrict or proscribe abortion as it sees fit when the fetus is viable ("except where it is necessary, in appropriate medical judgment, for the preservation of the life or health of the mother").

The Court rested these conclusions on a constitutional right to privacy emanating from the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, also known as substantive due process.

In disallowing many state and federal restrictions on abortion in the United States,[3] Roe v. Wade prompted a national debate that continues today, about issues including whether and to what extent abortion should be legal, who should decide the legality of abortion, what methods the Supreme Court should use in constitutional adjudication, and what the role should be of religious and moral views in the political sphere. Roe v. Wade reshaped national politics, dividing much of the nation into pro-Roe (mostly pro-choice) and anti-Roe (mostly pro-life) camps, while activating grassroots movements on both sides.
NAFTA
an agreement signed by the governments of the United States, Canada, and Mexico creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and Canada. In terms of combined purchasing power parity GDP of its members, as of 2007[update] the trade block is the largest in the world and second largest by nominal GDP comparison.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has two supplements, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC).
Eisenhower
1953-1961- General for the United States during WW2, he was responsible for the successful invasion of France and the success of the continental campaign. Later, he became president and began to exert open pressures on the Soviet Union. His famous domestic policies include the interstate highway system and the strengthening of certain New Deal programs. Also, he was the president during the McCarthy era that saw to the blacklisting and defaming of many citizens due to their political standing as communists.
Kennedy
1961-1963- President following Eisenhower who expanded the role of the United States in international affairs against the Soviet Union. In particular, his dealings with Cuba are important due to the sheer gravity of the possibility of nuclear destruction. Also, he advanced the role of the United States in Vietnam. However, his presidency was cut short due to his assassination in 1963.
Lyndon Johnson
President who increased the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War. He became intensely unpopular because of this escalation in affairs with Vietnam. However, Johnson expanded civil rights and was a firm advocate of the Civil Rights Movement (see also). He was a very active president in terms of social and domestic policies, but his foreign policies were a disaster.
Nixon
the 37th President of the United States from 1969-1974 and was also the 36th Vice President of the United States (1953-1961). Nixon was the only President to resign the office and also the only person to be elected twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency.

Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. After completing his undergraduate work at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law in La Habra. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, he joined the United States Navy, serving in the Pacific theater, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Commander during World War II. He was elected in 1946 as a Republican to the House of Representatives representing California's 12th Congressional district, and in 1950 to the United States Senate. He was selected to be the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party nominee, in the 1952 Presidential election, becoming one of the youngest Vice Presidents in history. He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and an unsuccessful campaign for Governor of California in 1962; following these losses, Nixon announced his withdrawal from political life. In 1968, however, he ran again for president of the United States and was elected.

The most immediate task facing President Nixon was a resolution of the Vietnam War. He initially escalated the conflict, overseeing incursions into neighboring countries, though American military personnel were gradually withdrawn and he successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam in 1973, effectively ending American involvement in the war. His foreign policy initiatives were largely successful: his groundbreaking visit to the People's Republic of China in 1972 opened diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union. On the domestic front, he implemented new economic policies which called for wage and price control and the abolition of the gold standard. He was reelected by a landslide in 1972. In his second term, the nation was afflicted with economic difficulties. In the face of likely impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal,[1] Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. He was later pardoned by his successor, Gerald Ford, for any federal crimes he may have committed while in office.

In his retirement, Nixon became a prolific author and undertook many foreign trips. His work as an elder statesman helped to rehabilitate his public image. He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, and died four days later at the age of 81.
Ford
the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974. As the first person appointed to the vice-presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment, when he became President upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he also became the only President of the United States who was elected neither President nor Vice-President.

Before ascending to the vice-presidency, Ford served nearly 25 years as Representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district, eight of them as the Republican Minority Leader.

As President, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, marking a move toward détente in the Cold War. With the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam nine months into his presidency, US involvement in Vietnam essentially ended. Domestically, Ford presided over what was then the worst economy since the Great Depression, with growing inflation and a recession during his tenure.[2] One of his more controversial acts was to grant a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. During Ford's incumbency, foreign policy was characterized in procedural terms by the increased role Congress began to play, and by the corresponding curb on the powers of the President.[3] In 1976, Ford narrowly defeated Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination, but ultimately lost the presidential election to Democrat Jimmy Carter.

Following his years as president, Ford remained active in the Republican Party. After experiencing health problems and being admitted to the hospital four times in 2006, Ford died in his home on December 26, 2006. He lived longer than any other U.S. president, dying at the age of 93 years and 165 days.
Carter
the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981 and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office. Before he became President, Carter served two terms as a Georgia State Senator and one as Governor of Georgia, from 1971 to 1975,[2] and was a peanut farmer and naval officer.

As president, Carter created two new cabinet-level departments: the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties and the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). Throughout his career, Carter strongly emphasized human rights. He returned the Panama Canal Zone to Panama and faced criticism at home for what was widely seen as yet another signal of US weakness. He took office during a period of international stagflation which persisted throughout his term and eroded his popularity. The final year of his presidential tenure was marked by several major crises, including the 1979 takeover of the American embassy in Iran and holding of hostages by Iranian students, an unsuccessful rescue attempt of the hostages, serious fuel shortages, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. By 1980, Carter had become so unpopular that Ted Kennedy challenged him for the Democratic Party nomination in the 1980 election. Carter survived the primary challenge, but lost the election to Republican Ronald Reagan in a 44 state landslide.

After leaving office, Carter and his wife Rosalynn founded The Carter Center in 1982,[3] a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization that works to advance human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, observe elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project,[4] and also remains particularly vocal on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Reagan
Reagan took office on January 20, 1981. obtained legislation to stimulate economic growth, curb inflation, increase employment, and strengthen national defense. He took a course to cut taxes and Government expenditures. Over-all the Reagan presidency resulted in prosperous years. Ronald Reagan founded The Reagan Revolution, which was intended to reinvigorate the American people and reduce their reliance on the Government.
George H. W. Bush
Bush pledged in his inaugural address in "a moment rich with promise" to use American strength as "a force for good." was tested when Iraqi President Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, then threatened to move into Saudi Arabia. Bush rallied the United Nations, the U. S. people, and Congress and sent 425,000 American troops vowing to free Kwait. . The 100-hour land battle named Desert Storm routed Iraq's million-man army
Bill Clinton
President Clinton was born on August 19, 1946 in Hope, Arkansas. during his presidency, the U.S. enjoyed more peace and economic well being than at any time in its history Clinton shifted emphasis in his second year in office, declaring "the era of big government is over." He sought to upgrade education, protect jobs of parents who had to care for sick children, restrict handgun sales, and to strengthen environmental rules.