AP Psychology Midterm Vocabulary

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It is a cell that takes information by receiving it, processing it, and then sending it off (delivering) it to other cells within the body. It is also referred to as a nerve cell and many of them together form nerves.

A neuron receives information, processes it, and then sends it off to other cells in the body.
It is sometimes called an afferent neuron. It is a nerve cell that takes and moves messages from sense receptors and moves them towards the the central nervous system. It acts like a one-way street that only moves toward the brain. It is responsible for your experiences with your senses.

Sensory neurons carry information from sense receptors toward the central nervous system.
It is a nerve cell that relays information from sensory neurons to motor neurons or to other interneurons. This is usually done in complex pathways, it is usually done in the spinal cord and/or the brain. The brain itself is made mostly of these paths of billions of these.

Interneurons relay information from sensory neurons to either motor neurons or other interneurons.
They are finely branches kinds of fibers that extend out from or away from the cell body. They act in a similar way as a net would since they collect information from other neuron activity near them or from direct stimulus, such as light, sound, and pressure. They come from the main cell body and move their messages into the neuron.

Dendrites collect messages from direct stimulus or other nearby neuron activity.
It is the cell body and is the central part of the neuron that holds the nucleus of the cell, it's life-support materials and looks at the information the dendrites send as well. The level of arousal in it descends on the amount of messages it has coming in.

The soma or cell body holds the cell nucleus and chromosomes.
it is a "transmitter" fiber that is sent messages from aroused neurons. It can extend over large distances and is found in a nerve cell. It moves messages from the soma to the terminal buttons. These messages move through here in an electrical charge form that is known as action potential.

The axon movs information from aroused neurons to the terminal buttons by an electrical charge.
It occurs when there is an issue between the imbalace of positive/negative which is frequent, when there is a charge across the axons cell membrane in the electrical charge. The neuron "fires" which sends the charge through the acon and then makes neurotransmitters release by the terminal buttons.

Action potential occurs because of an electrical charge through the axons cell membrane.
SynapseIt is the gap between nerve cells and it is like an electrical insulator because it makes sure the electrical charge going through the axon does not move or jump to another cell. The gap is microscopic and is the neurons communication link, they are also found between the muscles and glands and the neurons that serve them.Terminal ButtonsThey initiate the process of sending information along the synaptic gap/cleft. They are small structures that look similar to bulbs and are found on the end of an acon. They have neurotransmitters within them and they move the information from the neuron into the synapse.Synaptic TransmissionIt is the series of events where the electrical message turns into a chemical message that can then easily move across the synaptic gap/cleft between neurons. It relays messages across the synapse by using chemical neurotransmitters. Synaptic transmission occurs through using chemical neurotransmitters to relay messages through the synapse.Synaptic VesicleIt is a tiny bubble-shaped sac that holds neurotransmitter molecules within it, which then attaches to the presynaptic membrane in order to them release these neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse.ReuptakeIt is the process where transmitter molecules are intercepted while floating through the synapse and then are drawn back intact into vesicles. It "turns the volume down" between the neuron's information.NeurotransmittersThey are chemicals that are used during neural communication. They send neutral information across the synapse. They are chemical messengers and many of them are also hormones. Neurotransmitters are used during neutral communication.PlasticityIt is the way the nervous system can change or adapt in some way because of experience. It may assist the nervous system's response and adapt to physical damage. The brain can be "reprogrammed" by experience. It can change a function or structure in the brain.Glial CellsThey bind meurons to one another and have an insulated covering as well, known as the myelin sheath, This covering is over the axon for some neurons which facilitates the impulse of electric. Glial: Greek word for glue Glial cells are the glue between neurons.Nervous SystemIt is the whole neuron network in the body which includes both the peripheral and central nervous systems as well as their subdivisions.Central Nervous SystemIt is made up of the spinal cord and the brain and it is the "command center" of the body. The spinal cord if like a neutral cable that connects the brain to the peripheral nervous system and the brain handles the body's decisions, functions, and behaviors. The central nervous system is the body's command center.ReflexIt is a very simple response that had not been previously learned and occurs because of being triggered by a stimuli. An example of a reflex would be the way the knees move because of being tapped on a tendon below the knee by a doctor.Peripheral Nervous SystemIt is made up of the rest of the nervous system outside of the central nervous system. It includes both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems as well. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body with nerve bundles or motor and sensory axons. It also carries messages to the body that have to do with its senses.Somatic Nervous SystemIt is one division of the peripheral nervous system that sends coluntary messages to the skeletal muscles in the body, as well as sending information related to senses to the central nervous system. It is the link between the outside world and the brain. The somatic nervous system sends sensory messages to the central nervous system and voluntary messages to the body's skeletal muscles.Autonomic Nervous SystemIt is the other division of the peripheral nervous system and it sends information to communicate to and between the central nervous system and the body's internal organs and glands. It helps organs perform their functions without the need for the brain to think about it. Autonomic - Self regulating and independent The autonomic nervous system is independent and does not need the brain to think about it.Sympathetic Nervous SystemIt is part of the autonomic nervous system and it carries and sends messages or information to internal glands and organs to help alert the body to respond to stressful situations and emergencies. it is also known as the "fight-or-flight" division.Parasympathetic Nervous SystemIt is the other part of the autonomic nervous system. It calms the body down after the sympathetic nervous system arouses the body. It monitors the normal routine of the internal organs and their operations. it works with the sympathetic nervous system in the came way a teeter-totter does.Endocrine SystemIt is also known as the hormone system or the chemical messenger system for the body. It includes endocrine glands such as, the thyroid, ovaries, testes, pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, etc. It usually works with the parasympathetic nervous system, but in emergencies it moves to work with the sympathetic nervous system.HormoneIt is a chemical messenger that the endocrine system uses. Many of these can also serve as neurotransmitters and they influence the body behaviorally, emotionally, and functionally.EpinephrineIt is a hormone that is more frequently referred to as adrenalin. It sustains the state of the body in it's defensive reaction. It keeps the body in "fight-or-flight". An example of when the epinephrine would be used would be if a car was coming toward you on the highway.Pituitary GlandIt is also called the "master gland" and it creates the hormones influencing all of the other endocrine glands secretions. It also does this with the gland that influences growth, It is attached to and takes orders from the brain's hypothalamus.Electroencephalograph (EEG)It is a sensitive device that can record brain waves without opening the skull. It is able to sense the most active parts of the brain, it can show brain malfunction from abnormal brain waves. It is not very precise though. Electroencephalographs usually are done by placing electrodes onto the scalp.Computerized Tomography (CT)It takes X-Rays of the brain at many angles and then puts them all together to make one static image of the brain. Computerized tomography uses computer technology to make an image of someone's brain.Positron Emission Tomography (PET)It creates an image of activity in the brain, rather than it's structure. It can be done by sensing sugar concentration, which is found in the most active circuits off the brain in its highest levels. These parts will appear brighter in the image. PET scans rely on active brain cells consuming radioactive sugar.Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)It looks at a brain's structure by taking vivid images of the brain by magnetic energy causing tissue responses. It relies on the responses of cells with a highly intense magnetic field. Magnetic resonance imaging relies on a very intense magnetic field and a cells response to that field.Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)It shows which areas of the brain are more active and which are less active during mental processes. It is a kind of MRI that creates more detailed images than the PET and shows the brain working. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows the brain functioning more and/or less in different areas.Brain StemIt likely has the longest ancestry out of the brain. It is like a stalk that controls the most basic and simple life processes. The brain is made of three major layers, and this is the most basic. Within it is the reticular formation, medulla, and pons. The brain stem is the basic stalk of the brain.MedullaIt is a structure of the brain stem which controls heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing without having to think about them (automatic). It is a bulge low in the brain stem and is the location where sensory and motor neuron pathways cross that connect the body and the brain. The medulla does functions for the body's internal organs without conscious awareness.PonsIt is a larger bulge above the medulla. It contains nerve circuits that help to regulate the cycles for sleeping and dreaming. It also connects the cerebellum to the brain stem and is a brain-stem structure.Reticular FormationIt is the structure that forms the core of the brain stem and is shaped like a pencil. It tells the brain to stay alert in new stimulation. It is a bundle of nerve cells that keep the brain awake and monitoring direct messages. The reticular formation is the circular pencil-shaped brain stem core.ThalamusIt is the central "relay station" in the brain and it sits right on top of the brain stem. Almost all of the messages going into or out of the brain go through it. It is near the center of the brain and it helps to focus attention and connects to almost everything. The thalamus must have the messages go into or out of it.CerebellumIt looks like a mini brain and it is attached to the brain stem. It is responsible for coordinated movements and it helps to control basic body functions in life. Cerebellum - mini brain The cerebellum looks like a mini brain.Limbic SystemIt is the layer in the middle of the brain and it is involved in memories and emotions. Within it is the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, etc. These structures wrap around the thalamus and they make more emotional capacity.HippocampusIt is a structure in the limbic system and it helps to establish long-term memories. It helps to connect one's past to their present.AmygdalaIt is a structure of the limbic system that is involved in emotions and memories, mostly of aggression and fear. It allows people to remember emotionally charged events, like September 11th. Amygdala - Almond (Greek) The amygdala is shaped like an almond.HypothalamusIt is another structure in the limbic system and it tests the body's blood. It constantly monitors the blood to know the condition the body is in. It links together the endocrine system and the nervous system.Cerebral CortexIt is the thin grayish matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is 1/4 of a later thick with neuron cell bodies and it is what helps with higher thinking like perceiving and mental processing.Frontal LobeThey are cortical areas near the front of the brain and they are mostly involved in thinking as well as movement. They help with decisions, plans, and the way we perceive different things. Frontal lobes are situated in the front of the brain.Motor CortexIt is near the frontal lobes and is a thin vertical strip of cortex. It is situated right in front of the central fissure. It controls all the voluntary movements and sends messages through motor neurons to voluntary muscles in the body.Parietal LobeThey are cortical areas that are situated in near the top of the brain and the back of it. They are used to help perceive the relationship between space and objects and they also help with the sensation of touch.Somatosensory CortexIt is a part of the parietal lobe that sits right behind the central fissure. It is involved in touch sensations, pain, temperature level, and amounts of pressure. It also helps you to know where these sensations are occuring.Occipital Lobeit is found at the back of the brain and is a cortical region. It holds the visual cortex.Visual CortexIt is the area of the cortex that helps to process things visually in the temporal and occipital lobes. It is how we see the world as a moving picture.Temporal LobeIt is a cortical lobe that is able to process different sounds and speech. It likely plays a part in helping to store long term memories and it is on the lower areas of the cerebral hemisphere.Association CortexIt combines information from multiple different parts of the brain and is cortical regions found throughout the brain. It takes and interprets sensory information. The association cortex prepares us for action, tries to interpret sensations, makes decisions, and lays out plans.Corpus CallosumIt is the group of nerve fibers that sends information between the right and left hemispheres. It connects the two cerebral hemispheres and looks like a band. The corpus callosum connects the left and right hemispheres.Wilder and PenfieldHe found the different cortex areas and what they each have control of. He took patients having seizures and poked different parts of their brain. One part they may have poked may make the patient think they are smelling burning toast or they may feel like someone is touching their hand.BiopsycholgyIt is a psychological specialty that studies the combination or interaction between mental processes, behavior, and biology. They look at things such as how the human brain can think about itself. Biopsychology looks at the psychological connection between biology, mental processes, and behavior.NeuroscienceIt is a newer interdisciplinary field that looks at and studies the brain's role in psychological processes. It looks at the connection found between the mind and the brain. An example of neuroscience would be the understanding of sleep disorders and how to treat them based on studying the brain and it's psychological processes.EvolutionIt occurs when an organism needs to adapt to its environment through biological process changes that very gradually occur. It has shaped the processes of psychology by favoring genetic variation that results in the production of adapted behaviors. An example of evolution would be the large size of our brains and their complexity to have more functions, emotions, etc.Natural SelectionIt is the force behind evolution where the environment "picks" the best fit species. It says that better adapted individuals are more likely to reproduce and survive compared to less adapted individuals. An example of natural selection would be a bird with a perfectly sized beak that can easily break seeds for food in that area.GenotypeIt is it's genetic makeup and it is the genetic pattern that makes every individual unique and different from everyone and everything else. It is like the "blueprint" and it depends on heredity. A genotype is an organism's genetic makeup.PhenotypeIt depends on its genotype and it makes a person's physical structure that is seen. It also causes the wiring of the brain and occurs by both the environment and heredity. A phenotype is an organism's observable physical characteristics.DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)It is a complex long molecule that holds encoded genetic characteristics. It stores biological information within it.GeneIt is a chromosome segment that encodes within it an organism's mental and physical inherited characteristics. They are a chromosome's functional units and they specify a single protein that when combined regulates internal body operations.ChromosomeIt is a threadlike structure that is tightly coiled and the genes here are organized like beads on a necklace. They consist mostly of DNA and are needed by all cells to function correctly.Sex ChromosomesThey determine physical sex characteristics, they are known as the X and Y chromosomes because of their shape. We get an X from our biological mothers and either an X or a Y from out biological fathers. XX - Female XY - Male Sex chromosomes determine an individual's biological sex.PhrenologyIt was the idea of studying the bumps on the skull in hopes to find the size of the brain, traits of individuals and their mental abilities. It was started in the 1800's by Franz Gall, it is not accepted anymore and it looked at different parts of the brain and believed they all had specific functions. It has since been debunked. Phrenology was started by Franz Gall.Myelin SheathIt is something that speeds up neural impulses and looks like a layer of fat tissue that covers the axon. The myelin sheath helps move the neural impulses quickly across the line of the axon.Node of RanvierIt is the different gaps within the myelin sheath that neural impulses hop or jump over.Schwann CellIt is what produces or creates the myelin sheath and it also supports glial cells.DepolarizationIt is when the positive sodium ions flood into the axon channels because of being attracted to their negative inside or interior. Depolarization involved positive sodium ions.RepolarizationIt is when potassium ions flow out of the channel. The neuron is not firing at this time. Repolarization includes potassium ions and the neuron is not firing.ThresholdIt is the level of stimulation that is needed in order to trigger a neural impulse. Excitatory signals need to make a neuron get to -55 mV so that an action potential can occur.Refractory PeriodIt is the brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron fires. It is when the neuron is recharging and CAN NOT physically fire. The refractory period of a neuron is when it recharges and resets itself before being able to fire again.AcetylcholineIt is found in every area between muscles and motor neurons and is released to allow muscles to contract. It enables muscles to move, and assists in both memory and learning. When it is released it hits a gland and sends the message that muscles need to move. It helps to make new memories, alzheimers occurs when they breakdown making it hard to remember memories. Having too little of it can cause muscles to have difficulty being able to contract. An example of Acetylcholine (ACh) would be when people get botox to block receptor sites so that it cannot tell the body to wrinkle it's forehead.DopamineIt is a neurotransmitter that influences emotions, attential, movement, and learning. It is involved in pleasure and reward. If you have too much of it you may get schizophrenia and if you have too little of it you may have Parkinson's Disease or tremors. It is related to many addictions and is an excitatory neurotransmitter. An example of dopamine would be when you are starving all day and finally find your crunchy chips and take a bite and feel happy do you keep shoveling them into your mouth.SerotoninIt is a neurotransmitter that works with arousal, mood, hunger, and sleep. It is NOT the happy neurotransmitter, but it is mood regulating. If you have too little of it you will likely have depression, but we don't know what really happens if you have too much.Norepinephrine (noradrenalin)It is a neurotransmitter that controls both arousal and alertness. If you have too little of it you may have a depressed mood, but we do not know what too much may be (likely an anxiety disorder).GABAIt is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is what balances and calms down the mind. Alcohol pretends to be it and breaks down into it. If you have too little you will probably have insomnia, tremors, and/or seizures. If you have too much, you will likely die because it could slow your heart rate too much.GlutamateIt is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that is involved in memory. It is very hyperactive. If you have too much of it you will likely have migraines or seizures. An example of this would be when you eat MSG (monosodium glutamate) in your chinese food and then get a headache later. The headache is occurring because of the glutamate reacting to the MSG.EndorphinsThey are neurotransmitters that help influence perception of pleasure and/or pain. They are the body's natural pain killers. Everyone has different levels of it, if you have a lot of it you likely have a high pain tolerance and if you do not have many of them you probably have a low pain tolerance.AgonistIt is a kind of drug that increases a neurotransmitter's action. It can increase the production and release of neurotransmitters, make copies of neurotransmitters, blocks reuptake from the synapse and/or the axon, and/or mimic the same effect of a natural neurotransmitter. An example of these drugs would be cocaine or opiates.AntagonistIt is a drug that decreases a neurotransmitter's activity. It blocks a receptor site to decrease a neuron's activation. An example of this would be if someone stuck a foreign coin in a vending machine because it would go in but they would not get anything in return. Another example would be sticking gum in a vending machine, this would block where the coins go in and where the action would begin.OxytocinIt is the "bonding hormone" in the endocrine system. It is what allows birth contractions, it is released after/during an orgasm, etc.CortisolIt is a stress hormone that increases an individual's blood sugar. It is slow burning stress hormone that increases blood sugar for a long period of time.Adrenal GlandsThese trigger the fight or flight response by releasing norepinephrine (noradrenalin) and epinephrine (adrenaline) to arouse the body when put in a stressful situation. They are found right next to the kidneys.Testes/OvariesThey release sex hormones.PancreasIt regulates blood sugar.ThyroidIt is what regulates metabolism and it secretes thyroxin.Pineal GlandIt secretes melatonin in order to regulate sleep in an individual. It is in the center of the brain and contains melatonin. An example of when this would work would be when you are in a dark environment, so this gland tells the body to go to sleep. Because the different things that connect to it are related to light, when you look at your phone this gland sees that and tells the body that it is daytime and that it should stay awake.LesionIt is when your either destroy tissue naturally or experimentally.Prefrontal CortexIt works with higher mental functions, self regulation, planning, judgement, personality, and both impulse and emotion control. It is found in the front of the frontal lobe and is not fully developed until the age of 25. An example of this would be Phineas Gage, it is believed that he damaged this part of his brain in his accident where his personality changed from before and after the accident.Broca's AreaIt is the language area that is associated with the control of motor movements that are involved in speech. It is found near the motor cortex in the frontal lobe. It allows for unbroken, smooth, and fluent speech. It is only on the left side of the brain. An example of how this area can be seen would be when someone has Broca's Aphasia. They have broken speech, so what they are saying makes sense but it is not fluent in complete sentences. It is hard for them to find the right words to make a sentence. It does not affect writing though.Wernicke's AreaThis area of the brain controls language comprehension and understanding. It is found in the border region of the temporal and parietal lobe. It allows one to be able to understand the words coming out of someone else's mouth or being able to read a powerpoint and having it make sense. It is the sound of you talking to yourself in your head. It is a language area with only on the left side of the brain. An example of this area of the brain can be seen with people who have Wernicke's Aphasia, where someone has fluent and smooth speech but what they are saying does not make any sense. People with it do not always understand the questions asked to them and they do not know that they don't make sense. They would write things the same way they talk, in nonsense.Angular GyrusIt is a language area only found on the left side of the brain. It is what translates visual written information into speech. It is what talks and communicates with the Wernicke's area in order to comprehend and understand language. It is mostly found in the occipital lobe but partially in the temporal and frontal lobe also. It is only seen in written information and when someone is reading, the signal goes here before going to the wernicke's area. It helps to translate phrases.NeurogenesisIt is the formation of new neurons. It usually occurs during infancy between the ages of 1 - 3 years old. It is when all of the neurons are formed that the brain will ever have.BlindsightIt is a condition where a person can respond to visual stimulation without consciously experiencing it. It is when someone has damage to their visual cortex and the brain has difficulty processing visual pictures even through the eyes can easily see. An example of blindsight would be if someone was walking through a hall full of traffic cones, they would avoid all of the cones even though they can't really process being able to see them. They don't really see it but avoid it anyways.Parallel ProcessingIt is being able to process many aspects of a problem all at the same time, it is usually used to understand well-learned information or when solving easy problems. It is usually used for very easy things and it is the closest we will get at multitasking. An example of parallel processing would be going through multiple routine activities at once, such as walking and chewing gum simultaneously.Sequential ProcessingIt is processing one aspect of a problem at a time, it is used to understand new information or when solving a difficult problem. It is processing something in a sequence usually with something difficult and new. An example of this would be moving your right foot in a counterclockwise circle and then trying to write the number six in the air with your right hand. You cannot do both at once and your foot will begin to turn the other way.GenomeIt is all of the genetic material in one organism's chromosomes. It is the largest structure out of DNA, chromosomes, and genes and is the entire set of genetic material.Monozygotic TwinsThey are developed from one fertilized egg (zygote) that splits in half to create two genetically identical individuals. They are essentially clones but may have different numbers of copies of genes. Many of them share a placenta, but about a third of them had separate placentas which can show differences because of the different environment and nourishment levels. They share 100% of their genetic material and DNA. Mono - One Zygote- Fertilized egg Monozygotic twins are created from one fertilized egg.Dizygotic TwinsThey are developed from two separate fertilized eggs and are genetically no similar than normal sibling, except they shared the same prenatal environment as one another. They share 50% genetic material, the same as normal siblings and may only appear more similar from sharing the same womb environment. Di - Two Zygote - Fertilized Egg Dizygotic twins are formed from two separate fertilized eggs.Thomas BouchardHe found that identical twins that were raised apart from one another were incredibly similar in intelligence, heart rate, brain waves, abilities, personality, attitudes, and voice. It was one of the longest studies on twins. It showed that the environment shared by a family's children has essentially no discernable impact on their personalities. It showed that shared genes have shared experiences.HeretitabilityIt is the proportion of variation among individuals in a group that can be attributed to genes. Most personality traits can be 40% attributed to genes and for general intelligence 66% of it is inherited from one's biological parents. It describes the amount of variation that genetics can explain and shows how much difference between people is due to genes. It does not mean you get that percent of it from your parents. An example of heritability would be height, since there is a large variation in the world of how tall people are. 90% (the proportion) of variable heights can be attributed to genetic differences. It does not mean 90% of your height comes from your parents, but that 90% of it is heritable.EpigeneticsIt is the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without change in DNA. It changes gene expression and is how the environment turns on and off genes. An example of epigenetics would be how mother rats lick their infants after they are born. By separating the rat child from its mother it was noticed that the child did not have as many receptors for stress hormones. When the rat was stressed, it's average level of stress hormones in its blood was more reactive. The mother licking its rat infant turned on the genes that were related to those stress hormone genes.AphasiaIt is a disorder that affects speech. It is an umbrella term that is used for a disorder that affects language in some way. This includes, writing, speaking, listening, and understanding.Sperry and GazzanigaThey were people who had epilepsy and had severe seizures and then cut their corpus callosum. They then tried to do different experiments to test how their two brain hemispheres worked after the operation compared to how it would normally. They found that things related to one side of the brain when flashed to the opposite side of the body were seen, however when flashed to the other side they were not. An example of this would be when they put the word FACE on the right side of the screen, since the left hemisphere is associated with verbal processing, they could say they saw the word face. However, if flashed to the left side, they would be unable to say they saw the word face but because the right hemisphere is related to artistic abilities, they could draw a face with their left hand.Penfield and FoersterThey mapped the motor sensory cortices and found where different sensory information is found in the brain. They were doing brain surgery on a person who was having seizures and then because the brain has no pain receptors, it was awake. They would poke one area and the patient would say "Is someone burning toast?" or "Is someone touching my left hand?"MotivationIt is all of the combined processes that work together to start, direct, and maintain activities that are psychological or physical. An example of this would be the determining of whether you will laugh, cry, or yell.DriveIt is a kind of motivation that aids in out biological survival. An example of this would be when you are becoming dehydrated and then feel thirsty (the drive to drink water).MotiveIt determines behavior based on learned behaviors, wants, and desires. An example of this might be if you feel a strong urge to play mario cart.Intrinsic MotivationIt is when an individual wishes to participate in an activity because of their personal interest in it. They do it for its own sake. An example of this might be reading, dancing, or running.Extrinsic MotivationIt is when an individual wants to participate in an activity for something external, such as an award. An example of this would be working in order to make money.Conscious MotivationIt is wanting to participate in an activity and knowing consciously of that desire.Unconscious MotivationIt is wanting to engage in an activity but not being consciously aware of it. Freud's psychoanalytic theory supports this.Instinct TheoryIt is out-moded now, but it was a view that said some behaviors were fully innate, but effects of fully learning and labeling showed its flaws. An example of this would be that birds migrate yearly to specific landmarks.Fixed-Action PatternsThey are behaviors based genetically, through a species, that a certain stimulus can set off. It replaced instinct. An example of this would be that birds have various behaviors when it comes to migrationNeedIt is found in the drive theory, it is a biological off balance that if not met may cause death. There are biological ones that are thought to create drives. An example of this would be if an individual becomes dehydrated, they would need to drink water or obtain it in some way, shape, or form in order to survive.HomeostasisIt is the tendency of the body to keep a balanced biological condition, usually most seen with food, water, nutrients, and temperature. An example of this would be that we eat in order to maintain our levels of energy.OverjustificationIt is the process of how external or extrinsic rewards can change motivations that were previously internal. An example of this would be if a child was paid to play mario, they would likely enjoy it less.Need for AchievementIt is also called n Ach and it is part of McClelland and Murray's theory that says a mental or psychological motive is created from a mental state. It is motivating an individual to either reach a goal or excel in something. A high one means they persist more on tricky tasks.IndividualismIt is the idea seen mostly in the areas in Canada, Europe, and America. There is more value on individual accomplishments and distinction in these places. In America, there is a huge value put on individuality and everyone's freedom.CollectivisimIt is the idea mostly seen in the Middle East, Latin America, Asia, and Africa. There is more value in group pride, loyalty, and accomplishment in these places. In areas like Japan, students get good grades to honor their families.Set PointIt is the tendency for the body to keep and hold a specific level of both body weight as well as body fat. If your set point is 220 lbs, your body will try to keep you around that weight.Sexual Response CycleIt is the sequence containing 4 stages of arousal being excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. These all take place in both males and females. Excitement Plateau Orgasm ResolutionExcitement PhaseIt is the first stage in the sexual response cycle. During it, the pelvic region's blood vessels change, making the clitoris swell and the penis erect. Also blood and other bodily fluids become congested in the testicles and the vagina.Plateau PhaseIt is when the highest level of arousal is reached and it is the seconds stage in the sexual response cycle. There is a huge increase in heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, tension in muscles, etc.Orgasm PhaseThis is the third stage of the sexual response cycle, where both men and women feel a very strong pleasurable release feeling from the cumulative sexual tension. There are rhythmic contractions of the genitals, ejaculation of semen in men, and vaginal or clitoral feelings in women.Resolution PhaseIt is the last stage of the sexual response cycle and it is when the body returns to the pre-excitement states, fluids leave the sex organs, heart rate and blood pressure return to homeostasis, etc.Sexual ScriptsThey are socially learned ways individuals can respond in sexual situations. In America, TV makes people's sexual scripts begin with touching and kissing.Approach-Approach ConflictIt is a conflict where an individuals had a decision between two equally attractive options. An example of this would be choosing between going to a pool party or going mini golfing with your best friends.Approach-Avoidance ConflictIt is a conflict where an individual has to do something with both positive and negative aspects. An example of this would be telling the truth about your friend cheating on a test. The positive would be that everyone would get their correct grades, but the negative would be that you may lose a friends.Avoidance-Avoidance ConflictIt is a conflict where an individual has to decide between two equally unattractive choices. An example of this would be deciding between washing the dishes or vacuuming the house.Multiple Approach-Avoidance ConflictIt is a conflict where an individual has to decide between choices that have lots of negative and positive aspects. An example of this would be choosing a college because each college will have negatives and positives to them.Sexual OrientationIt is an individual's erotic attraction toward both sexes (a bisexual orientation), the opposite sex (a heterosexual orientation) or the same sex (a homosexual orientation).EmotionIt is a process that consists of four parts, being behavioral expression, subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and cognitive interpretation. All of these interact, but they do not happen linearly. They help organisms to be able to deal with important events.Display RulesThey are the permissible ways that emotions are displayed in a certain society. In many Asian cultures, people are taught to conceal their emotions, where in America, showing your emotions is encouraged.Lateralization of EmotionIt says that different influences on the two hemispheres of the brain on many emotions. The left hemisphere influences positive emotions, like happiness, and the right hemisphere influences negative emotions, like anger.James-Lange TheoryIt proposes that a stimulus that provokes emotions creates a physical response that then produces an emotion. An example of this would be that we feel sorry because we cry or we feel afraid because we tremble.Cannon-Bard TheoryIt says that an emotional feeling and a physiological internal response takes place at the same time. One doesn't cause the other, but both are thought to take place as a result of a situation's cognitive appraisal.Two-Factor TheoryIt was the idea that said emotion occurs due to cognitive appraisal of physical arousal (factor 1) and emotion-provoking stimulus (factor 2).Cognitive Appraisal TheoryIt is the idea of emotion that says individuals choose the appropriate emotion following each event. An example of this would be reading your teacher's commentary and assessing if it is positive or negativeOpponent-Process TheoryIt is the idea of emotion that says emotions come in pairs. When one is triggered, the other (opposite) one would be suppressed. An example of this would be that when we feel happy, sadness is suppressed.Inverted U FunctionIt describes the relationship between performance and arousal. Low and high arousal levels create lower performance than a moderate level of arousal does. The graph looks like an upside down (inverted) U.Sensation SeekersThey are people who in the theory of Zuckerman, biologically need a higher stimulation level than most other individuals do. An example of this would be that some people love to rock climb and skydive, while most people would be terrified of doing those things.Emotional IntelligenceIt is the ability an individual has to control and understand emotional responses.PolygraphIt is a device that records many physical arousing things, like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, etc. It is also known as a "lie detector" even though in reality it is detecting physical arousal. Poly - Many A polygraph takes many things into account to determine if an individual is aroused or "lying".StressIt is both a mental and physical response that occurs due to either a threatening or challenging situation. An example of this would be when your heart rate goes up, your blood pressure increases, you being to sweat, and start to shake.StressorIt is a stimulus that comes with stress and it is a kind of condition that requires adaptation of some sort. An example of this would be if you need to get ready for an event and be there in 5 minutes and you wake up late and are rushing to get ready.Traumatic StressorIt is a situation where an individual's physical safety is in danger. It can create feelings of helplessness, fear, as well as horror. An example of this would be the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia.Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)It is a delayed stress reaction where someone involuntarily goes through an experience of past trauma again, including its cognitive, behavioral, and emotional aspects.Acute StressIt is a pattern of stressor-activated arousal that is temporary and there is a distinct beginning and limited length it will last. An example of this would if you are sitting class and the fire alarm all of a sudden goes off.Chronic StressIt is a continuous arousal causing stress that lasts for a decent amount of time. An example of this would be if you were jealous of someone and let it consume both you and your life.Fight-or-Flight ResponseIt is a sequence of internal processes that gets an organism ready to either struggle or escape. An example of this would be walking into your class and finding out you forgot about a test that day and you have the urge to run away from the class.General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)It is a general physical response pattern that is almost always in the same form in response to any kind of serious and/or chronic stressor.Alarm Reaction StageIt is the first stage of GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome) and it is when the body mobilizes its resources in order to try to cope with the stressor it is facing.Resistance StageIt is the second stage of GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome) and it is where the body adjusts and adapts to use resources to help cope with a stressor.Exhaustion StageIt is the third stage of GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome) and it is where the body depletes its resources in response to an ongoing stressor.Tend-and-Befriend ModelIt is a stress response model that says females are biologically programmed to respond to potential danger by protecting and taking care of offspring and getting social support. An example of this would be in a crisis, a women may help children in the situation more than men would.Immune SystemIt is the bodily organs and bodily responses that help to protect the body of an individual from potential dangers and foreign substances.PsychoneuroimmunologyIt is the multidisciplinary field that studies and focuses on mental states and their influence on the immune system.CytokinesThey are chemicals similar to hormones that assist in the communication found between the immune system and the brain.Type A PersonalityIt is a behavior pattern where an individual is seen as a perfectionist, competitive, aggressive, and upset when responding to challenging situations. An example of this would be that this type of person is more likely to have more road rage.Type B PersonalityIt is a behavior pattern of an individual who is more relaxed, laid back, and unstressed in their approach to life. An example of this would be the kind of person who just kind of goes with the flow, and thinks whatever happens happens.Learned HelplessnessIt is a failure pattern an individual faces in response to noxious stimuli following an individual learning that its attempts of responding have no effect on the outcome. An example of this would be the study on the dogs where they were unable to avoid a shock no matter what they did and then when they were put in another situation where they were shocked, they did not attempt to escape the shocks, they just took them, even though there was a way to avoid the shocks.IncentiveThey are positive or negative stimuli from the environment that can motivate an individual's behaviors. An example of this could be the smell of pizza and this could influence an individual to feel hunger and eat the pizza.Yerkes-Dodson LawIt is when an individual's performance increases and becomes stronger in arousal up to a certain point, then after that point the performance decreases and becomes worse. An example of this would be that a teacher may be good at public speaking with their students in a class, but in a huge theatre speaking in front of all of the people may become difficult and their performance could become worse.Maslow's Hierarchy of NeedsIt is a motivational theory that says individual's prioritize needs that allow an organism's survival and social needs more than needs for things like meaning and esteem. An example of this might be that an individual values breathing more than problem solving.Self-ActualizationIt is the fulfillment of an individual's potential.GlucoseIt is a kind of sugar that circulates in the bloodstream and helps supply the body tissues with the energy they require. An example of this would be that when this sugar is low in the body, we begin to feel hunger.Insulinit is something that helps convert blood glucose to stored fat and then this lowers the glucose in the bloodstream.Lateral HypothalamusWhen this is stimulated, the body feels hunger. If it were destroyed then we would never have the feeling of hunger. Lat makes you fat because it makes you want to eat.Ventromedial HypothalamusWhen this is stimulated, the body feels feel and not hungry anymore. If it were destroyed, the body would never feel full and you would keep eating. It makes you need to vom (vomit), because you feel so full.GhrelinIt is an appetite increasing hormone that is secreted into an empty stomach that arouses hunger. It makes your stomach growl, so you feel hungry.OrexinIt is an appetite increasing hormone that arouses and triggers hunger and it is secreted by the hypothalamus, which will send it to the rest of the body.LeptinIt is an appetite decreasing hormone that is secreted by fat cells, that allows the brain to decrease hunger and increase metabolism. When you feel full, it has lept into action to tell you that you have enough calories because you have begun to store glucose as fat.PYYIt is an appetite decreasing hormone that is released by the colon and digestive tract and it tells the brain you aren't hungry. It says there is so much waste in the stomach that you shouldn't keep eating.Basal Metabolic RateIt is the body's energy output in a resting state. An example of this would be burning calories by simply just sitting.External Hunger CuesThey are environmental and situational factors that can affect and change feelings of hunger in an individual. An example of this might be that if you are at a party and they have snacks and everyone else has snacks, you are more likely to eat a snack even if you are not hungry.Alfred KinseyHe conducted the first serious human sexuality study. He asked Americans about their sexual experiences in the 1940's-1950's and found that while many acted and appeared very conserved, there was great amounts of proof that people were participating in more sexual experiences than most would have thought. He was criticized for random selection problems as well as representativeness.Masters and JohnsonThey were gynecologists and obstetricians that studied sexual intercourse between humans in the 1960's. They recorded the people's responses and they observed people have sex and/or masturbate. There was an issue with selection however, because there seems there would only be a specific type of person that would be willing to partake in this study.Refractory PeriodIt is the resting period after a human has an orgasm and this is when a person cannot have another orasm, usually in women this time is shorter than it is in men.OstracismIt is the purposeful excluding of groups or individuals. An example of this would be if your friend had a party and posted photos online and you weren't invited on purpose.GritIt is an individual's passion and perserverance in pursuing their long-term goals.Theory XIt says that workers are motivated extrinsically by money and they are usually lazy and need certain environmental stimuli to waste less time and work harder. An example of this would be if a boss needs to micromanage their employees by putting them on a schedule so they will get their work done. So they may say, by 9 you need to have this paper work done, by 10 you need to have this article written, etc.Theory YIt says that workers are intrinsically motivated and want to do a good job for themselves and just for their own sake. An example of this would be that people with their arms in the air make the letter Y, and so they are excited and saying "I love work and doing my job."Paul EkmanHe is best known for facial expression studying. He found there were 6 basic emotions, anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise. He wanted to know if facial expressions were universal and if all cultures used the same facial expressions for certain emotions. Paul Ekman is the man when it comes to studying facial expressions.EmpathyIt is the understanding and sharing of an individual's feelings with other individuals.Facial Feedback EffectIt is the tendency of certain states of facial muscles to trigger the corresponding feelings, for example, happiness, fear, and anger. An example of this would be that people diagnosed with depression report feeling more positive after being injected with Botox, as their muscles for frowning become paralyzed.Behavior Feedback EffectIt is the tendency for an individual's behavior to influence their own or other's thoughts, actions, as well as feelings. An example of this would be that by mimicking behaviors seen in others, individuals can grow in their sense of empathy.4 Types of Immune CellsThey are B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophage cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.B LymphocytesThey are a kind of immune cell that is able to fight bacterial infections. Prolonged stress can suprress the job of this cell.T LymphocytesThey are a kind of immune cell that attacks cancerous cells, foreign substances, as well as viruses. Prolonged stress can suppress this cell's job.Macrophage CellsThey are a kind of immune cell that identifies and ingests harmful and potentially threatening dead cells and invaders.Natural Killer (NK) CellsThey are a kind of immune cell that attack disease cells that are infected by either a virus or kind of cancer.Coronary Heart DiseaseIt is the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart. In developed countries, it is the leading cause of death.CatharsisIt is the releasing of aggressive energy by either acting or fantasizing. It is able to relieve aggressive urges in individuals. It can be calming for a short period of time, but it can increase a person's anger, provoke their want to retaliate, and things can very easily escalate. It can make anger much worse.MemoryIt is any system, including machines, animals, and humans, that can encode, store, and retrieve information.Information-Processing ModelIt is a type of cognitive understanding of memory that emphasizes the way information is changed when retrieved, encoded, and stored.EncodingIt is the first of the three basic tasks of memory. It includes information being modified in order to fit the preferred memory system's format. An example would be recalling at 2 pm what you ate for breakfast.StorageIt is the second of the three basic tasks of memory. It involves encoded information/material being retained over time. An example of this would be if during a lecture, you have a few seconds to find a pattern in the teacher's voice to try to retain the information or it will be lost.RetrievalIt is the last of the three basic tasks of memory. It includes the recovery and location of material from the memory. An example of this would be being able to know that encoding comes before storing after reading it a few paragraphs earlier in the textbook.ElaborationIt is memories that require a specific encoding effort in order to create and establish a memory that can be used/utilized. An example of this would be the way you are learning psychology from the textbook.Eidetic ImageryIt is a super clear and persistent form of memory that is really rare and is frequently referred to as "photographic memory".Sensory MemoryIt is the first of the three stages of memory, it holds onto short sensory impressions of stimuli. An example of this would be watching a sparklet leave a fading trail being your friend as they run around your backyard.Working MemoryIt is the second of the three memory stages and it's capacity is the most limited. It holds onto recently occurring events or experiences without rehearsal and for less than a minute. An example of this would be when someone says "that rings a bell".Long-Term MemoryIt is also referred to as LTM and is the last of the three states of memory. It has the most capacity and longest duration. It stores material organized by meaning. An example of this would be the lyrics to your favorite song.ChunkingIt is a way of organizing parts of material into smaller units with more meaning (chunks). It is a process that frees up space in working memory. An example of this would be the way phone numbers are separated by a dash (673-5201).Maintenance RehearsalIt is a process of working-memory where material is reviewed and/or repeated to make sure it doesn't fade from working memory and there is no active elaboration. An example of this would be cramming for a test and only using very simple repetition to do so.Elaborate RehearsalIt is a process of working memory where material already in the long-term memory is actively related to new information and the new material is also actively reviewed. An example of this would be taking numbers and turning them into letters to spell out words (1-800-EYE-EXAM).Acoustic EncodingIt is when material is converted mostly when it is senamatic information to working memory sound patterns. An example of this would be hearing the real sound when reading words like "buzz" or "splash".Levels-of-Processing TheoryIt is the explanation for the fact that information/material is better and more thoroughly connected to meaningful long-term memory. It is remembered better and more deeply. An example of this would be in class, when we remembered the subjects and adjectives better when we were judging the sentences based off of how easy they were to picture verus how difficult they were to pronounce.Procedural MemoryIt is a division of long-term memory that holds and stores memories for how things are done. An example of this would be tying your shoelaces.Declarative MemoryIt is a division off long-term memory that holds and stores explicit information and material and is called fact memory. It also has two subdivisions, semantic memory and episodic memory. An example of this would be recalling directions to drive to a specific place.Episodic MemoryIt is a subdivision of declarative memory that holds and stores memories of and for personal "episodes" or events. An example of this would be memories of your most recent vacation.Semantic MemoryIt is another subdivision of declarative memory and it stores/holds general and common knowledge like the understanding and meaning of some words and concepts. This is kind of like an encyclopedia.EngramIt is the changes physically found in the brain that are associated with memory. It is also referred to as the memory trace.Anterograde AmnesiaIt is being unable to form memories for new material or information. An example of this would be how H.M. could not move new memories from short-term storage to long-term storage.ConsolidationIt is the process where short-term memories are changed into long-term memories over a time period.Retrograde AmnesiaIt is being unable to remember or recall material stored prior in the memory. An example of this would be suffering a blow to the head and then as an effect of that recent memories are lost that had not been through consolidation yet.Flashbulb MemoryIt is having a vivid and clear long-term memory of an event that was likely very meaningful or emotional. An example of this would be the memory of when I broke my foot.Implicit MemoryIt is a memory you didn't effortfully learn and were not consciously aware of having and they can affect your behaviors.Explicit MemoryIt is a memory that was purposefully learned with attention and can be recalled with consciousness.Retrieval CuesIt is the stimuli that is utilized to bring a memory into consciousness or into behaviors. An example of this would be smelling freshly baked cookies and then having memories of grandma's house.PrimingIt is a method used to cue implicit memories by providing cues that relate back to and remind of a memory without being consciously aware of the connection between the cues and the memory.RecallIt is a technique of retrieval used by recreating information priorly presentend. An example of this would be when you have an essay question on a test, so you need to remember the answer all on your own.ReognitionIt is another technique of reteival where an individual must be able to identify that a stimulus has been presented before. An example of this would be a multiple choice question on a test, where you have to be able to pick an answer that has been previously connected to a connection.Encoding Specificity PrincipleIt says that certain cues related to the context where a memory was produce encode and store those memories. If they relate better, they will be remembered better. An example would be seeing your math teacher at the outlets and not being able to recognize them at first.Mood-Congruent MemoryIt is a process that specifically retrieves memories that are equal to or match an individual's mood at that time. An example would be if you have a very excited mood, that can trigger lots of silly and funny thoughts and memories.Tip of the Tongue PhenomenonIt is being unable to recall a specific word, but being aware that it is in your memory. It is a frustrating experience to many people. An example would be knowing that you have the 7 dwarfs names in your memory, but being unable to name them.TransienceIt is a long term memory's impermanence and it is based on the thought that the strength in a long-term memory fades and lessens over time. An example of this would be if I took a quiz on housing and interior design today, I would likely not do as well now as I would have last year when I took the class.Forgetting CurveIt is a graph that plots the amount of forgetting and remembering of a specific kind of material, usually the curve of forgetting is steep at the beginning, and then it flattens over time.Absent MindednessIt is forgetting that happens because of lapses in an individual's attention. An example would be if you forget your anniversary for something.BlockingIt is forgetting that happens when something in memory cannot be retrieved because of an interference. An example would be a "tip-of-the-tongue" experience.Proactive InterferenceIt is a cause of forgetting where priorly stored information prevents remembering and learning of new information. An example would be if when moving houses, you look for something in the new house in the place where it would have been in the old house.Retroactive InterferenceIt is a cause of forgetting where newly learned information or material prevents access to priorly stored information or material. An example of this would be when you drive stick shift, then automatic, then when driving stick shift again forget how to use it.Serial Position EffectIt is a kind of interference related to the order material is presented in. Information in the middle is usually forgotten, while material at the beginning and the end is usually remembered more.MisattributionIt is an issue in memory that happens when memories are retrieved, but are related to or associated with the wrong person, place, or time. An example of this would be the person that was accused of rape, because the victim who was raped had watched their interview before they were raped.SuggestabilityIt is when a memory is distorted as a result of of an on purpose or an accidental suggestion.Misinformation EffectIt is a memory being distorted because of misinformation or suggestion.Expectancy BiasIn memories, events are usually distorted when being recalled so that they fit an individual's expectancies.Self-Constancy BiasWe commonly think we are more consistent in our opinions, thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes than we actually are.PersistenceAn issue in memory where undesired memories are unable to be put out of an individual's mind. An example of this would be that I have a phobia of throw up, because it is kind of irrelevant and it is constantly on my mind.MnemonicsThey are techniques used to improve memory, usually by making connections between new material and material already in long-term memory.Method of LociIt is a mnemonic technique where an individual imagines a list of items being placed in an already known physical place. An example of this would be if an individual wanted to remember their grocery list of eggs, shampoo, and milk, so they picture their bedroom and having the eggs on the bed, the shampoo in the dresser drawers, and the milk in the lamp.Language Acquisition Device (LAD)It is a mental structure in the brain that is organized biologically and it controls the learning and acquiring of a language. It is programmed naturally with some of the basic grammatical rules. It is like a computer chip and it controls the basic rules of a language.GrammarIt is a language's rules, they tell you how to use syntax, words, and morphemes to create understandable sentences.MorphemesThey are the meaningful parts that make up words. Some of them are full words and others are pieces of grammar that will change a word's meaning. An example of this would be -ed and -ing. The words walked and talked have different meanings than the words walking and talking.OverregularizationIt is the application of a grammar rule too widely, which then creates forms of words that are incorrect. An example of this would be if you took the words joked and skipped and assumed this was how to make all words past tense, you may create words like hurted or breaked instead of hurt or broke.One-Word StageThis stage is when children begin using one word at a time in order to display deeper meanings.Two-Word StageThis stage is when words comes in pairs and their meanings deepen. An example of this would be if Alexis kicked the soccer ball and so she said, "Alexis ball".Telegraphic SpeechIt is short, basic phrases that lack function words, such as the and those, as well as tenses and plurals but contain verbs and nouns. An example would be if a basketball hit Evie in the leg and she began to cry, then she may say, "Ball hit Evie cry".ConceptIt is representations in the mind of categories of certain things based on experience, such as items and ideas.Natural ConceptIt is a mental representation of things such as events and objects that are pulled straight from past, direct experience. An example of this would be when someone says bird, which then makes you think of a tree, bench, and feeling nervous.PrototypeIt is the best example representatively of a category of a concept. An example of this would be what you associate to be a bird. You may think of wings, laying eggs, some fly, and so on.Artificial ConceptsThey are specific concepts that are defined by certain rules. An example of this would be a square or a math formula.Concept HierarchiesThey are concept levels, organized from general to more specific things. The more general the start is, the more specific concepts there will be. An example of this would be animals, dogs, dachshunds, dapple dachshunds.Event-Related PotentialsThey are seen on the EEg as brain waves as a response to a specific stimulation. An example of this would be when the word dog is spoken, a specific brain wave pattern would appear.SchemaIt is a cluster of knowledge or basic conceptual framework that provides expectations on certain topics, events, situations, subjects, and people in individuals. An example of this would be the term flap, to a dancer this would be a tap step, to a teacher, they may think of an arts project (where they glue one paper on another and then lift up the top one in order to reveal information).ScriptIt is a cluster of knowledge about specific ways one expects things will happen in certain settings. An example of this would be what you expect will occur at a restaurant.AlgorithmsThey are formulas and/or procedures used for problem solving. If done correctly, they will lead to the right answer. An example of this would be calculating your grade point average.HeuristicsThey are "rules of thumb" and/or strategies used to solve difficult mental tasks. They make these tasks easier and they can be done quicker (short cut), but they do not always promise the right answer. An example of this would be when someone says, if it doesn't work, double check to be sure it is plugged in.Mental SetIt is an individual's tendency to respond to an issue that is new in the same way they did for a prior problem.Functional FixednessIt is being unable to think of another way to use an object that is usually associated with another purpose. It is a form of mental set. An example of this would be when you need to screw something in and go looking for a screwdriver, when a dime would have worked equally well.Hindsight BiasIt is the tendency for people to believe they could have predicted an outcome in advance. It is to "second guess". An example of this would be someone saying, I knew this TBT was going to be individual. Another example would be someone saying, I knew the blue team would lose.Anchoring BiasIt is a faulty heuristic that occurs because of basing an estimate on a quantity or amount that is totally unrelated. An example of this would be the problem 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 x 8 =, most people would estimate this answer is lower than it really is. If asked, 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 =, people would estimate the answer is higher than it really is.Representativeness BiasIt is a strategy that is faulty heuristic and it is based on the presumption that once a person or event is categorized, that all people or events with similar traits are also categorized the same way. An example of this would be the term that blonde people are not smart.Availability BiasIt is a faulty heuristic strategy that estimates probabilities based on material or information that can be made available/recalled from personal experience. An example of this would be watching criminal minds, so then more thoughts surround criminal minds, and then people think they are more likely to be murdered compared to others.CreativityIt is a mental process that produces responses that are novel and can contribute to a problem being solved.AptitudesThey are potentialities that are innate. An example of this would be that Einstein was good at spacial relationships and logic.RelearningIt is the amount of time that is saved when an individual is relearning material they have already previously learned. An example of how to do this would be to measure the amount of time it takes to learn something, then take time to forget what was learned, then gather the person again and see how long it takes them to remember again, usually it takes less time.Iconic MemoryIt is sensory memory for visual stimuli that only lasts for a couple tenths of a second. It does not last much longer than blinking your eyes. Icons - Emojis you look at - Sight and VisualEchoic MemoryIt is sensory memory of auditory stimuli that only lasts for around 3 to 4 seconds (because it is still bouncing around in the ear and traveling), even if your attentions is directed elsewhere. Echo - Sound An example of this would be when the teacher asks a student that was just talking what they were saying and they can instantly repeat exactly what they were saying.Spacing EffectIt is the opposite of massed rehearsal or practice (cramming), it says that one you master something, you should put it away for a bit and then practice it again later. If you are running with a bucket of water on your head (cramming), you can do it faster but by the end you won't have any water (memories), but if you walk you will keep more of the water (memories), even though it will take more time.Testing EffectIt is enhanced memory or better memory after retrieving rather than just rereading information. It makes recalling things more recallable.Shallow ProcessingIt is encoding on a very basic level that is based on the appearance or the structure of specific words. An example of this would be just flipping through your quizlet and just skimming over it.Deep ProcessingIt is encoding semantically based on word's specific meanings. Usually it is best to summarize things in your own words or to make information personally relate to you. It gives the best retention out of the other choices. An example of this would be if I were trying to remember the hallucinogen drugs Ecstasy, LSD, and Marijuana. I might think of a time I saw an elm tree and say I hallucinated it so I could relate it back to me to remember.Basal GangliaIt is an area in the brain that store material about procedural memories and skills , it gets input from the cerebral cortex but sends the material outside of conscious awareness (not to a cortex). It is involved in motor movement. It is like 5 parts in the brain put together, it is a general area, and it is about in the dead center of the brain. It deals with habits you do thousands of times. It is like a one lane highway, so information and material can go into it from the cerebral cortex but it cannot be sent out, that's why it is so tricky to explain motor skills.Long-Term PotentiationIt is an increase in a cell's firing potential after a rapid and brief stimulation of some sort. It is basically neurons that wire together, fire together by creating new dendrites. It is the neural basis for memory and learning and after some time neurons need less prompting to release their neurotransmitters. If you walk in the sand in the same line over and over again, you would eventually become buried in the sand.Positive TransferIt is the opposite of interference and it says that priorly learned material helps in being able to retrieve newly learned material. An example would be that learning Latin makes it easier to learn French in the future.Source AmnesiaIt is false memory of when, where, or how information was imagined or learned. It happens outside of conscious awareness.Deja VuIt is cues from present situations that unconsciously trigger the retrieval of a previous experience. An example of this would be when I was in my hip-hop class the teacher played a song that we were going to learn a combination to and I felt this sense we had done it before. It turned out that we had done a routine to it like 5 or 6 years ago.SemanticsThey are grammar rules for making and deriving meaning from sounds. An example of this would be he wound the bandage around the wound.SyntaxIt is rules for combining words into sentences that make grammatical sense. An example of this would be James, while John had had "had", had had "had had"; "had had" had had a better effect on the teacher.Critical PeriodIt is in language development and it says that if children are not exposed to any language by the age of 7 they will never be able to master the use of a language. It is a window of time for language development and that window is slowly closing and you need to be exposed to language before that window closes. By the age of 6 or 7 the window starts to close and by puberty it is closed forever and it is a window around time. An example would be if you learned to speak spanish as an adult, you will never master the grammar of the language or the correct accent.Linguistic DeterminismIt says language controls the way we interpret and think about the world around us. It isn't completely true, like you can think of a color that you don't have a name for but it says that if there isn't a word for something you also can't think about it. It says language determines thought and it controls the way you think. An example of this would be if there wasn't a word for something, you would be unable to think about it.Benjamin WhorfHe was an anthropologist that lived with the hopi tribe and found they did not have a past tense for verbs. He said language and thinking work together and that if there are not words for something then we have difficulty trying to think about it. He dealt with linguistic determinism.Divergent ThinkingIt is a kind of thinking and it is the ability to consider lots of different choices and to be able to think in novel ways. It is the ability to think and create many different solutions and possible ideas to solve problems. Diverging - Getting farther apart - It is getting farther apart and getting more ideas and options for thingsConvergent ThinkingIt is narrowing the available solutions to problems in order to pick the best option. It is taking a bunch of facts and putting them all together in order to come up with one correct answer. All of the options come together to converge to one point (the right answer).Trial and ErrorIt is a problem solving strategy that is trying every possible solution until an answer is found. You are guaranteed to find a solution and it is very useful if you know nothing, but it may take a long time and many years and you may never figure it out before you die. An example would X + 4 = 14, you may say okay if X is 1 would I get 14, no I get 5. If I do -1 would I get 14, no I would get 3. If I do 10 would I get 14, yes.InsightIt is a problem solving strategy where there is a sudden realization of the solution to a problem. It is good because you get the solution, but it is bad because you can't always count on it and figure it out. You don't know when it is coming and it is not based on strategy, nor is it reliable. An example of this would be when we were doing the matchstick activity and I just randomly realized I could make the roman numeral 6 with the matchsticks.FramingIt is the way an issue or problem is presented. An example of this would be saying something is 75% lean beef or saying something is 25% fat beef.Dunning-Kruger EffectIt is when people with a low ability in a certain skill overestimate their abilities. It says you don't know what you don't know. An example of this would be politics without first consulting with experts.Planning FallacyIt says that individuals underestimate the time that it will take them to perform a specific task.Natural Language MediatorsThey are words that are associated with brand new information and material in order to be remembered. An example of this would be if you were going to the store and needed to get cookies, lemonade, and spinach you might think of a story of two little kids selling lemonade at a little lemonade stand and they both have spinach in their teeth but you don't want to tell them, so you give them cookies in hopes that somehow the cookie will get rid of the spinach in their teeth.LearningIt is a change in either a mental process or behavior that lasts as a result from some kind of experience. Sabra going through "flight training", taking ski lessons, and reading a textbook are all examples.HabituationIt is when an individual learns to not respond to a stimulus in repeated patterns. It is learning not to respond to a stimulus. If you live in the city, you may learn to ignore the loud noises.Mere Exposure EffectIt is when a preference is learned to certain stimuli that an individual has been exposed to prior. The effectiveness of advertisements is an example of this.Behavioral LearningIt is a king of learning, it includes operant conditioning and classical conditioning, and they can all be explained/described in the terms of responses, as well as stimuli. The experiment where Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the tone of the bell after originally salivating to the food is an example of this.Classical ConditioningIt is a kind of behavioral learning, where a prior stimulus considered neutral gains the power to show/have the same (effects) innate reflexes that another stimulus produces. An example of this would be how animals learn to be conditioned to specific cues that allow them to eat, avoid danger, etc.Neutral StimulusIt is a stimulus that has no conditioned response before learning. In an experiment, it is known as a conditioned stimulus (CS). It is assumed conditioning, even if only a small amount, occurs after just one pairing of the CS and UCS (the unconditioned stimulus). An example would be tone or light in looking at the reflex of a baby to grab your finger when you place it in their palm.Unconditioned StimulusIt is seen in classical conditioning, it is the stimulus that has an unconditioned response, also known as the UCR. In Pavlov's experiment, food would be the UCR in producing salivation in the dogs.Unconditioned ResponseIt is seen in classical conditioning, and it is the response seen from an unconditioned stimulus with no previous learning. The reflex of salivation when the dogs saw the food in Pavlov's experiment would be an example.AcquisitionIt is the stage of learning in classical conditioning, where the conditioned response becomes seen by the conditioned stimulus. In Pavlov's experiment, an example of this would be the learning to salivate whenever there was a sound of the bell (which they associated with the food).Conditioned StimulusIt is also called the CS and is seen in classical conditioning where a stimulus that was neutral prior gives the response as the conditioned response. In conditioning experiments, the neutral stimulus is called this when paired first with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). In Pavlov's experiment, it would be the bell tone since it didn't originally cause salivation in the dogs.Conditioned ResponseIt is also called the CR, it is when in classical conditioning, a response occurs to a prior neutral stimulus that is now associated with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). The salivation of the dogs in Pavlov's experiment is an example of this when it was caused by the ringing of the bell.ExtinctionIn classical conditioning, it is when a conditioned response is weakened by an absence of an unconditioned stimulus. For Pavlov, this would be if the bell rang without the food being present for many times.Spontaneous RecoveryIt is when a conditioned response that has been extinguished reappears after a delay in some time. An example of this, for Pavlov, would be if the dogs began to salivate when hearing the bell tone after much time has went by and extinction training has already occured.Stimulus GeneralizationIt is the extension of a response that has been learned to stimuli that is similar to the conditioned stimulus. It would be if someone was attacked by a pug, they may be fearful of all dogs because of this experience, rather than being afraid of only the pug that attacked them.Stimulus DiscriminationIt is a change in responses to one singular stimulus, but not to stimuli with many similarities (similar stimuli). Pepsi and Coke would be an example of this because they were very similar but are differentiated from one another.Taste-Aversion LearningIt is a tendency, biologically, that is when an organism learns after only one experience to avoid a certain food with a specific taste, if following consumption of it, illness is seen. An example of this would be when I got sick after eating my favorite soup, so I avoid the soup.OperantIt is a voluntary behavior that can be observed and it's behavior is done to have an effect on the environment or for it to almost "operate" on it. An example of this would be reading your textbook to get a good grade in a class.Operant ConditioningIt is a type of behavioral learning where a response's probability changes due to specific consequences or the stimuli that follow this rule. If someone gets a good grade on a test they studied for, they will continue studying because of its association to reward.ReinforcerIt is a condition, that involves either the removal or presentation of a stimulus that happens after a response occurs so that the response is strengthened. An example of this would be if you are training your dog to lay down and your dog does lay down then you would give it a treat to strengthen this behavior. In this scenario, the treat would be representative of this term.Positive ReinforcementIt is when a stimulus is presented after a response occurs that increases the possibility that the response will occur again. An example of this would be training your dog to sit by rewarding them a treat every time they correctly sit down to increase the possibility they will sit again.Negative ReinforcementIt is when an unpleasant/adversive stimulant is removed during the same time a specific behavior is occurring. It is done to strengthen the chance that the behavior will happen again. An umbrella is used to avoid downpour, which allows an individual to not get wet.Continuous ReinforcementIt is a schedule of reinforcement, where every correct response is reinforced in some way, shape, or form. If you want to teach your dog to roll over, you would give them a treat every time they correctly roll over.Intermittent ReinforcementIt is a kind of reinforcement schedule where some of, but not every, correct response is reinforced, It may also be referred to as partial reinforcement. If you are training your dog to roll over, you may only give them a treat after every fourth correct response.Ratio ScheduleIt is a program where reinforcement is dependent on the amount of (number of) correct responses. If employees are paid on the specific amount of work they perform that would be an example of this.Interval ScheduleIt is a kind of program, where the reinforcement is dependent upon the amount of time that has gone by since the last time of reinforcement. An example of this would be if a student studies for a weekly quiz every week.Fixed Ratio ScheduleIt is a program where reinforcement is dependent upon a specific, unchanging number of responses. An example of this would be people who play slot machines, because of the involvement of time associated between wins on a machine.Variable Ratio ScheduleIt is a type of reinforcement program where the amount of or number of responses needed for a reinforcement vary from trial to trial. An example of this would be if someone was paid one dollar for every 20 backpacks they sell.Premack PrincipleIt was a concept created by David Premack, that said an activity that is more preferred can be utilized to reinforce an activity that is much less preferred. An example of this would be if a child was told they could have a playdate with a friend if they clean up their room.PunishmentIt is an adversive stimulus, that happens or takes place after a response, and lowers that response's strength. An example of this would be when parents take away a misbehaving teenaer's phone.Insight LearningIt is a kind of cognitive learning that was the first described by the Gestalt psychologists and it showed that sudden perception reorganization allows problem solving to occur. An example of this would be the problem about the bird stuck in a hole and being able to randomly come up with the solution to fill the hole slowly with water.Cognitive MapIt is a mental representation of a specific physical space. An example of this would be how I can walk from my room to the kitchen with my eyes closed.Observational LearningIt is a type of cognitive learning where a new response is acquired (learmedO after watching others complete the behavior and find/see the consequences. An example of this would be when everyone started wearing tennis skirts last year and they became trendy, so I bought a bunch of them.Long-Term PotentiationIt is a kind of biological process that involves physical changes that strengthen the groups of nerve cells synapses, which is thought to be learning's neural basis. An example of this would be how many animals have a simple neural circuitry so they learn basic behaviors and people have more detailed neural circuitry so they can learn more advanced hard behaviors as their neural synapses are stronger.Fixed IntervalIt is a program or schedule where reinforcement is dependent or contingent on a specific fixed amount of time. An example of this would be when an employee gets a paycheck at the same time every month.Variable IntervalIt is a program or schedule where the amount of time between trails varies and changes (it is random). An example of this would be fishing, as the time between catches of fish varies and is random.Positive PunishmentIt is the addition of an undesirable or aversive stimulus following a response. It makes a behavior less likely to occur in the future. An example of this would be if you put your hand on the hot stove and you burned your hand and was in pain. You likely won't place your hand on the hot stove again.Negative PunishmentIt is when a desirable stimulus is removed after a response which then decreases the likelihood of that behavior happening again. It is also referred to as omission training. An example of this would be if someone was being snooty to their parents, so their parents take away their teen's car keys. They likely will not be snooty the next time.Associative LearningIt is a kind of learning that involves specific events that occur with one another or together. An example of this would be in classical conditioning, when you put two stimuli together. So in Pavlov's experiment it would be the meat powder and the bell.Higher-Order ConditioningIt is when a conditioned stimulus in a single classical conditioned experience is matched up and paired with another neutral stimulus, which then creates a second conditioned stimulus. An example of this would be how Pavlov made the dog expect food and predict it with a tone, then a light is expected before a tone, where eventually the light predicts and expects the food.Ivan PavlovHe was a Russian physiologist that studied the digestive systems of dogs in 1899. He was measuring how much saliva was put out when food/food powder was put in the dog's mouths and then he found that when a researcher would walk in the room the dogs would salivate. He looked at the connection between stimulus and response. He was a behaviorist and studied classical conditioning. An example of this would have been when Pavlov realized that he had conditioned his dogs to salivate when a bell rang as when the bell rang it was followed by the meat powder.John WatsonHe found that human emotions and behaviors are influenced biologically but they are essentially a big bunch of conditioned responses. His experiments were very unethical and he asked if classical conditioning could be utilized to remove negative emotional responses. He is associated with the Little Albert experiment. An example of this would be his experiment where he paired a neutral stimulus, a fluffy rat with a loud sound for a little baby, Albert. Albert eventually began to cry when soly placed with the rat because of the association to the loud sound and also became afraid of other fluffy things like a coat, santa mask, rabbit, etc.PreparednessIt is the idea that every species has predispositions that prepare it to be able to learn association that can enhance their chances of survival. An example of this would be taste aversion, so like I ate this one dessert in elementary school with strawberries and this crusty paper-like stuff and was sick after. So, now if I see the crusty paper stuff I avoid it and feel sick when seeing it. My body associates it with being sick, even if it didn't make me sick so I won't eat it anymore since my body thinks it is poison. It is trying to protect me.Garcia and KoellingThey found that organisms more readily learn responses that they are biologically prepared to learn, that enhance their species survival. They exposed rats to water that tastes like plastic and exposed them to radiation, the radiation caused them to be sick but they avoided the water after being sick. They found that the UCS did not have to immediately follow the CS/NS and that this is biologically adaptive. The food had to have a salient taste though, they worked with taste aversion. They worked with biological preparedness. An example of this would be if a person ate a grape jolly rancher and caught the flu the same day. After they become sick, they might avoid the grape jolly rancher because they associated it as poison and as what made them sick.Contingency TheoryWagner and Riscorla worked with this. It basically says if this happens, then something else happens. One thing has to happen for another second thing to occur. An example of this would be if a tone was played before a shock every time but a light flashed before the tone every once in a while, the organism will react to the tone but not to the light.Edward ThorndikeHe researched operant conditioning. He found that organism's associated a behavior with that behaviors consequence. He laid down the operant conditioning for Skinner. An example of this would be when he put a cat in a puzzle box with a locking mechanism on the outside of the box. The cat had to hit the lever outside the box, leave the box, and then get the food. The cat's didn't understand and finally accidentally got it after like 45 minutes, then it did it again and it took them like 5 minutes, then 2 minutes, then 30 seconds. It is done by trial and error at first, but then the cat learned the consequences to it's behavior.Law of EffectIt said that behaviors followed by desirable/favorable consequences became more likely to occur and behaviors followed by undesirable/unfavorable consequences become less likely to occur. An example of this would be the cat puzzle box where they found that if they clicked the lever they would be able to get a treat so the behavior of touching the lever became more likely to occur and began occurring quicker than before.Operant ChamberIt is also referred to as a Skinner Box and it is a box that holds a key or bar that can be manipulated by an organism so they can receive water or food reinforcement. It also records the number of times the bar or key was pressed. An example of this would be when this box is used to test operant conditioning and the effects that reinforcements have on laboratory organisms.ShapingIt is when something has to be done a lot, where successive approximations toward a behavior are rewarded. If you get close to a behavior, it is reinforced. An example of this would be when kindergarten teachers teach students how to get into a straight line by the door. At first they reward the kids for getting in a big bunch by the door. Then they do it again and they are somewhat like a line so they are rewarded, this continues slowly until a single-file line by the door is formed.Instinctive DriftIt is the tendency for a learned behavior to gradually change and revert back to a biologically predisposed pattern. An example of this would be when the rats played basketball, if they stopped being constantly reinforced and rewarded, they will stop playing basketball.Intrinsic MotivationIt is a desire to perform a behavior effectively/well for one's own sake, it is doing something for yourself. An example would be that I like dancing for its own sake and for myself.Extrinsic MotivationIt is when an individual has a desire to perform a specific behavior so that they can receive rewards they were promised and avoid punishments that were threatened. An example of this would be when in elementary school if you read 10 books in a month, you would get a coupon for a free personal pizza. You do it to receive a promised reward.Overjustification EffectIt is when rewards interfere with an individual's intrinsic motivation. It is over justifying something and it happens when someone already has intrinsic motivation for something but then it is rewarded, the intrinsic motivation can (may not always) be lost and then it is replaced by extrinsic motivation. An example of this would be reading for enjoyment in elementary school and then as you move to middle school and high school you are doing it for a grade rather than for yourself and just to read. It is usually why most teens do not like to read once they begin to be graded on it.Learned HelplessnessIt is when an individual becomes hopeless when they are unable to avoid repeated undesirable events. It has to do with perception and lack of control, it is very correlated to depression. An example of this would be when there was a group of dogs with electrified harnesses that they could not control or escape the shocks of, so when placed in a room where only half of the floor shocked them, they did not attempt to escape to the other side of the floor. They took the shocks and gave up.Problem-Focused CopingIt is alleviating stress and coping with a stressor directly by changing the stressor and how it is interacted with. It is the best choice, but is harder. An example of this would be if you get in an argument with your friend so you man/woman up and talk to them and tell them your feelings to resolve the problem.Emotion-Focused CopingIt is coping with a stressor or alleviating stress by avoiding the stressor and attending to the emotional needs associated with the stress instead. It is the easier choice, but not the better one. The stressor does not go away. An example of this would be talking bad about the person you are in an argument with with the people in the group chat without the person you are angry at.ModelingIt is the process of observing and then imitating a certain behavior. It is like monkey see, monkey do. An example of this would be the Bobo doll experiment Bandura did. Adults were violent and aggressive with the toy, so the children were also aggressive and violent with the doll.Prosocial BehaviorsIt is a helpful, constructive, positive behavior. An example of this would be if someone's best friend is continuously helpful and kind, then they are more likely to be kind and helpful.Violence Viewing EffectIt is the desensitization and imitation that occurs after viewing a behavior considered antisocial (against society). An example of this would be how people can go to bed after watching Criminal Minds, they should have to watch a fun show but some would say that it is their comfort show. They are desensitized to it and the violence involved in it.ConsciousnessIt is the process the brain goes through where external and internal experiences work together to create a model. When you see a dog, it allows you to remember past memories with the dog breed.Cognitive NeuroscienceIt is a field of interdiscipline that utilizes cognitive psychology, linguistics, neurology, computer science, etc. from other fields that work with mental processes and their relations to the brain.Nonconscious ProcessesThey are processes that take place in the brain that don't involve (use) preconscious memories, unconscious processes, or any other kinds of conscious processing. It would be like breathing, blinking, walking, and chewing gum all at the same time.Preconscious MemoriesIt is information that is not in the conscious now, but is easily recalled voluntarily by consciousness or by something that brings it up.UnconsciousnessFreud says that this is an area of the brain that has threatening information that should not enter consciousness. Now, it is the group of mental processes that work outside of one's awareness, while also not working against consciousness. It is how you follow a similar routine every day without too much thought.DaydreamingIt is a variation of consciousness where an individual's attention moves away from their present situation to their expectations, fantasies, memories, desires, etc.Circadian RythmsIt is a physiological pattern or cycle that naturally repeats around every 24 hours. The sleep-wakefulness cycle is a good example of this.REM SleepIt is a sleep stage that takes place every 90 minutes and stands for Rapid Eye Movement. It is noted because the eyes are moving underneath closed eyelids and dreaming is heavily associated with it. During this time, the muscles of the body are paralyzed. Rapid Eye MovementNon-REM (NREM) SleepIt is the stages of sleep without Rapid Eye Movement and is heavily associated with deep sleep. No Rapid Eye MovementSleep ParalysisIt usually takes place during REM sleep. It is a condition where one cannot move their voluntary muscles (paralyzed) other than their eyes.REM ReboundIt is a condition where an individual spends more time in REM than they normally would because of being deprived of REM prior.Sleep DebtIt is when someone does not get the necessary amount of sleep they need to properly function. It cannot be made up. It would be if someone continuously gets 3 hours of sleep rather than 8.Manifest ContentIt is the actual content of a dream (it's storyline) and it does not include any interpretation.Latent ContentIt is what a dream symbolizes other than what it directly appears as. It usually relates to Freud's ideas in some way. A dream about clocks may be a result of a fear of the menstrual cycle, or one's sexuality.Activation-Synthesis TheoryIt is the idea that dreams begin with random electric activation from the brain stem. The brain then tries to put these random things together to make dreams. Dog + Ice Cream + Homework = You were crying during your homework and eating ice cream, when a dog came up and ate your ice cream.InsomniaIt is the most commonly seen sleep disorder. It is characterized by not having good/enough sleep, not being able to fall asleep quick, waking early, easy arousal, etc. Insomnia So many people have this sleep disorder.Sleep ApneaIt is a respiratory disorder where someone stops breathing multiple times through sleep. Sleep apnea causes snoring.Night TerrorsThey usually occur in children during deep sleep. They appear to create terror (as if there was a nightmare), but recollection of the terror is rare. It would be when a child wakes up screaming in the middle of the night.NarcolepsyThis is a disorder involving REM. It is seen when someone falls into REM sleep during something that causes them strong emotions. One may fall into REM sleep while laughing at a funny joke.CataplexyIt is when someone all of a sudden loses control of their muscles.HypnosisIt is a state of induced awareness that is seen with increased relaxation, suggestibility, and very focused attention.Posthypnotic AmnesiaIt is the ability for someone to be hypnotized to forget events happening during or before hypnosis.MeditationIt is a conscious state induced by putting attention on repetitive behaviors, body positions, and lowering external stimulation. It can help with spirituality, self-knowledgment, and well-being. It can be achieved through breathing, focus, yogic positions, etc.Psychoactive DrugsThey are chemicals that affect behaviors and mental processes because of their effects and influences on the brain. Psychoactive drugs are known for their effects on the (psyche) mind.HallucinogensThey are drugs that cause hallucinations and change perception of the environment and one's awareness. LSD causes one to feel disassociated with their personality.OpiatesThey are very addictive drugs that allow for senses of pain relief and well-being. Heroin causes less worry and attention to the body's needs.DepressantsThey are drugs that slow physical and mental activity through inhibition of transmission in the Central Nervous System of nerve impulses. Xanax helps to calm patient's anxiety.StimulantsThey are arousing drugs for the Central Nervous System and they speed up physical responses as well as mental responses. Ectasy can allow one to dance for hours and suffer from dehydration.ToleranceIt says that the lower effect a drug has on an individual over repeated consecutive use over decent periods of time.Physical DependenceWhen the body adjusts to the drug being there and grows dependent of it for daily use.AddictionA person with a condition that causes one to use a drug no matter its effects, usually after trying many times to stop.WithdrawalUncomfortable and/or painful symptoms someone suffers as a effect of lower/lesser/stop of use of a drug. Withdrawal of drugs can cause nausea, pain, sensitivity, trembling, etc.Psychological DependenceIt is a feeling or desire for a drug, without physical dependence.NREM 1This stage of sleep includes irregular brain waves (beta and alpha waves) and slowed breathing. It is when an individual is transitioning into sleep. This stage may include hypnagogic sensations and hallucinations. This stage does not last very long and the individual in it is still awake.Hypnagogic SensationIt is the feeling of floating or falling that is immediately followed with a jerk or twitch. It usually occurs with (but doesn't have to) hallucinations in stage 1 of sleep. It is assumed to be a random burst of energy where the brain is pretty active and is mostly beta waves with a couple alpha waves.NREM 2In this stage, an individual is fully asleep and the activity in the brain slows greatly. Alpha and theta waves are seen more in this stage along with sleep spindles and k-complexes. The most amount of time (45%) sleeping is spent in this stage.Sleep SpindlesThey are bursts of rapid brain activity. They are depicted as crazy and close wavelengths. It is the beginning of memory consolidation that occurs during REM.K-ComplexesThey are high amplitude waves that haven't been studied a lot. It is thought that it is the start and preparation for relaxation.NREM 3/4This stage of sleep is characterized by relaxed (muscles), slow (breathing), and deep sleep. It is good for restoring the body and muscles. In this stage theta and delta waves are seen and sensation detection decreases. Time in this stage decreases throughout the night. Night terrors, bet wetting, and sleep walking occur in this stage.Super-Chiasmatic NucleusIt is the cell clusters in the hypothalamus that are in control of the circadian rhythm. It connects to the optic nerve and is what allows the body to stay in homeostasis. It uses light to decide when certain circadian cycles need to occur. This cell is what tells the pineal gland to stop creating such large amounts of melatonin when it sees more light in the morning.GhrelinIt is a hormone that is released by an individual's empty stomach and goes to the hypothalamus to makes an individual hungry. If your stomach is growling, you are releasing ghrelin.LeptinIt is a hormone that suppresses hunger and tells an individual to stop eating. It is produced by fat cells when energy is being converted into fat. It is what tells the body it has eaten enough and does not need to eat anymore. If you are full, leptin has lept into action to tell you to stop eating.CortisolIt is a stress hormone that causes the body to increase fat production and it allows for more dopamine to be released.Substance Use DisorderIt is a kind of disorder that occurs because of the continuous craving for a substance even though there are significant and great risks for one's life.SensationIt is the process where a sensory receptor is stimulated, so it produces neural impulses that the brain understands as an odor, pain, taste, sound, visual image, or other kind of sensory image. It is the first series of steps that help with processing new incoming messages. Sensation is when a sensory receptor is stimulated, so some kind of sense is produced as a result.PerceptionIt is the process that finds meaning in sensory patterns. It uses emotions, motivation, memories, and other psychological processes to do this. It assigns meaning to these patterns. An example of how perception is used would be how our brains understand the meaning of words rather than looking at them as a random visual pattern.TransductionIt is when one energy form is converted into another. In this case it is how the sense organs transform stimulus information into nerve signals. It is the conversion of physical energy into neural messages. An example of transduction is how sound waves are sent when a piano is playing and then they are turned into nerve signals for the brain to understand.Sensory AdaptationIt refers to the receptor cells loss of responsiveness after there is an unchanged stimulation for a decent period of time. It allows the stimulation to move to the background and be less noticable. An example of sensory adaptation would be when an individual gets into a cool pool and over time is able to forget the cool temperature.Absolute ThresholdIt is the amount of a stimulus that is required to be able to detect. In practice, it means a stimulus is correctly detected 50% of the time through many trials. It is the amount of physical energy necessary to produce any sensory experience. Absolute thresholds tell us how soft music can be played for it to still be heard.Difference Threshold/Just Noticeable Difference (JND)It is the smallest amount of change a stimulus can go through for a difference to be detected at least 50% of the time. The JND can be seen when having a TV's volume at 60 and moving it up until you can detect a noticeable difference.Weber's LawIt says that the difference threshold/just noticeable difference (JND) size is proportional to the stimulation intensity. An example of Weber's Law would be when the JND is big, the stimulus has a higher intensity.Signal Detection TheoryIt explains how we detect "signals" consisting of stimulation that affects our sense organs. It says sensation is a judgement and the sensory system is what makes it about incoming stimulation. It usually occurs outside consciousness and takes into account observer characteristics. Signal detection theory suggests a more accurate sensation than class psychophysics.RetinaIt is found at the back of the eyeball and is light-sensitive and thin. It holds within it many millions of nerve cells and photoreceptors. The retina works in a similar way compared to a digital camera's light-sensitive chip.PhotoreceptorsThey are light-sensitive neurons or cells that can be found in the retina. They take light energy and convert it into neural impulses. They are the furthest that light can get into the visual system. They consist of two specific neurons, being cones and rods. Photoreceptors work in the same way as small pixel receptors in a camera.RodsThey are a kind of photoreceptor in the retina. They are rod-shaped structures that are very sensitive to dim lights, but not to color. we have about 125 million of them to detect low light intensities at night. An example of when we use our rods would be when we are trying to find our seat in a dark movie theater.ConesThey are the other photoreceptors found in the retina. They are cone-shaped structures that are not very sensitive to dim light, but are to colors. They work in bright lights to help us sense lightwaves as green, blue, or red. Our cones enable us to pick ripe tomatoes (red) at the story, rather than unripe ones (green).FoveaIt is the small area in the retina that controls an individual's sharpest vision. It is in the very center of the retina and cones concentrate there also. It is used with the eyeball's movement to scan and look at what is most visually interesting to a person. The fovea may attract our vision to pretty flowers or to the features of a face.Optic NerveIt is made of bundles of neurons that help to move visual information to the brain from the retina. It takes the visual information from the eye to the brain. The ganglion cells axons make it up. The optic nerve takes visual information from the eye to the brain (part of the central nervous system).Blind SpotIt has no photoreceptors, causing any stimulus that falls on the area to go unseen. It is where the optic nerve exits the eye. With normal vision, this area goes unnoticed because what one eye lacks, the other tries to make up (fill-in) based on the background and it's information. The blind spot has no photoreceptors causing an area to go unseen.BrightnessIt is a psychological sensation that occurs because of the intensity of light waves. It is the amplitude of light that is determined by the amount of light that makes it to the retina. It is decided by the level of neural activity created in the retina and moved through the optic passages. Brightness allows for approaching headlights to create more neural activity in the retina.ColorIt is also known as hue and it is not a property of an object in the external world. It is rather a psychological sensation that is created based on the wavelengths of visible light seen by the eyes and sent as information to the brain. Color Only Lives inside Our bRainsElectromagnetic SpectrumIt includes the whole entire range of electromagnetic energy. It is very vast and includes visible light, X-Rays, microwaves, as well as radio waves. The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of electromagnetic energy.Visible SpectrumIt is the small part of the electromagnetic spectrum where our eyes are very sensitive. For other creatures, they may be slightly different from ours. It is like a small visual "window".Trichromatic TheoryIt is the idea that hues/colors are sensed by three different kinds of cones that are sensitive to light in green, red, and blue wavelengths. It explains the first and earliest stage of color sensation. Tri - Three The trichromatic theory involves blue, green, and read wavelengths (3).Opponent-Process TheoryIt is the idea that visual system cells process colors in pairs of complementary colors. It explains color sensation for bipolar cells in the visual system. The opponent-process theory says we process complimentary colors together like red and green and yellow and blue.AfterimagesThey are sensations that stay behind (linger) after a stimulus has been removed. They are usually negative and appear as reversed colors of the original ones. Afterimages are the sensations that linger after a stimulus has been removed.ColorblindnessIt is sometimes a result of trauma, but is usually caused by a genetic disorder. It prevents someone from being able to discern certain colors. It is most common to see in red-green colors.FrequencyIt is the quantity (amount) of cycles completed by a sound wave in a given amount of time, usually in a second. It is usually measured in hertz (Hz) or cycles per second (cps). Frequency measures how frequently a sound wave cycles in a specific amount of time.AmplitudeIt refers to a wave's physical strength. It is usually measured on a graph of a wave, between the top (peak) to the bottom (valley) of the wave. It is defined in sound units. Amplitude is decreased when you turn down your radio's volume.Tympanic MembraneIt is simply the eardrum. It is a tightly stretched sheet made of tissue. The tympanic membrane is called my eardrum.CochleaIt is the main organ involved in hearing. It is a coiled tube that can be found in the inner part of the ear. It is where sound waves are transduced or converted into nerve messages. The cochlea is the main organ involved in hearing.Basilar MembraneIt is a thin tissue strip in the cochlea that is very sensitive to vibrations. Within it are hairs that connect to the neurons. When these hair cells vibrate from a sound wave, their associated neurons get excited. Due to this, sound waves are transduced into nerve activity.PitchIt is a sensory characteristic of sound that is produced by a sound wave's frequency. It's frequency determines its pitch. It is the highness or lowness of a sound. Low Frequency - Low Pitch High Frequency - High PitchLoudnessIt is a sensory characteristic of sound that is created/produced by a sound wave's intensity (amplitude). It is determined by its physical strength. Shout - Louder Whisper - Less LoudTimbreIt is a sound wave's quality that comes from it's complexity (mixture of pure tones). It means drum in Greek. It allows you to recognize different singers singing the same song.Conduction DeafnessIt is when an individual is unable to hear due to damaging structures in the inner ear or the middle ear. It usually occurs when these structures are damaged or a sound is very loud or too loud.Nerve DeafnessIt is also known as sensorineural deafness and it is when an individual is unable to hear because the body is unable to transmit nerve impulses to the brain from the cochlea. It usually involves higher auditory processing centers or the auditory nerve.Vestibular SenseIt is the body's sense of it's orientation in relation to gravity. It is carried on an auditory nerve branch to the brain. It is closely associated to the inner ear and it tells us hour our heads and bodies are positioned. It tells us how our motion is changing and informs us of our movement. Our vestibular sense allows us to know when we are upside down or leaning.Kinesthetic SenseIt is the body's sense of it's relation between its position and its movement of its parts. It is also called kinesthesis. It provides constant feedback of the senses and what the body is doing during it's motor activities. Our kinesthetic sense allows us to be aware of when our legs are crossed.OlfactionIt is simply our sense of smell. It involved a biochemical chain of events. It had a strong connection to memories in humans. It likely evolved earlier than the other senses and is the only sense that does not go through the thalamus.PheromonesThey are the chemical signals that are sent out or released by individuals to communicate with other members of their species. Animals use them as sexual attractants. It is not clear if people do or do not employ them. Dogs have pheromones in their urine that allow them to communicate with other dogs.GustationIt is simply the sense of taste. It has the same root as "gusto", which is known as the gustatory sense also. Gaston uses his gustation to taste his 5 dozen eggs he eats everyday.Skin SensesThey are sensory systems that work to process pain, texture, warmth, cold, and touch. They are connected to the somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobes. Skin senses allow us to feel touch when we make external contact with another individual.Gate-Control TheoryIt is an explanation for pain control. It says we have a neural "gate" that can, in specific times, block incoming signals of pain.Placebo EffectIt is an individual's response to a fake drug or a false drug (placebo). It is caused by the belief a subject had that they think they are taking the real drug.PerceptIt is the product of perception (it's meaning). It is what an individual perceives. Percept can be an image associated with memories, motives, concepts, and emotions.Feature DetectorsThey are brain cells in the cortex that work to extract specific features of a stimulus.Binding ProblemIt is relative to the process the brain utilizes to combine multiple sensory operations into one percept. We don't know how it happens. The binding problem would be how we put together a face by color, texture, shape, etc.Bottom-Up ProcessingIt is perceptual analysis that looks at a stimulus' characteristics.Top-Down ProcessingIt is perceptual analysis that looks at an individual's cognitive factors, like their memories, expectations, etc.Perceptual ConstancyIt refers to being able to identify the same thing as remaining "constant" (the same) under different conditions (angles, lighting, distance, and location). Perceptual constancy is how we see a flower as the same color at sunrise and during the day.Gestalt PsychologyIt says perception is shaped by innate factors that have previously been built into the brain. Gestalt - Whole Gestalt psychology says all of the raw stimuli makes a perceptual whole in the brain.Laws of Perceptual GroupingIt suggests that the brain usually groups stimulus elements together to create a percept. They are the Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, continuity, and similarity.Law of SimilarityIt is a Gestalt principle that says people group similar things together in their perception. Blue and White Football Uniforms = Penn StateLaw of ProximityIt is a Gestalt principle that says we group together things near each other. You're known by the company you keep.Law of ContinuityIt is a Gestalt principle that says we like and prefer connected and continuous figures to be perceived rather than disjointed and disconnected ones. We expect people to be the same even after not seeing them for a while.Law of Common FateIt is a Gestalt principle that says we usually group similar objects together that share the same destination or motion. When individual band members are all moving we see them as a whole (Gestalt).Law of PragnanzIt is the most simple Gestalt principle and it says the figure that emerges will have the most simple organization and will require the least amount of cognitive effort. A bird in the the hand.Perceptual SetIt is being ready to detect and point out a specific stimulus in a certain context. When you are scared and hear a sound at night and think it's a threat.Cocktail Party EffectIt is when an individual is able to hear one voice among a large amount of other voices. It is what allows you to instantly hear your name in a sea of other voices.Inattentional BlindnessIt is being unable to see visible objects when we are directing our attention somewhere else.Change BlindnessIt is being unable to notice environment changes. It is like if someone is talking to another person and then someone walks by with a door and the person behind the door switches and the person they were talking to did not notice.Choice BlindnessIt is failing to notice choices made; it usually occurs because of not paying enough attention. An example of this would be if you ordered a grilled cheese and then received a pizza and didn't realize until halfway through eating your meal.Change DeafnessIt is when the person speaking changes, usually if the gender of the voice changes it is noticeable however.SubliminalIt is anything that is underneath an individual's threshold.HueIt is the color perceivedCorneaIt is the clear outer layer that protects the eyePupilIt is the opening at the center of the eye that adjusts and lets light in. If your pupil gets small, it means there is a bright light so it does this to prevent your retina from burning up.IrisIt is a muscle and is the colored part of the eye that controls the opening size of the pupil. It expands and contracts to let light in or keep it out.LensIt is a structure found behind the pupil and it bends light in order to focus it onto the retina. The lens bends.AccommodationIt is the process where the lens bends light onto the retina so the image can be focused.Bipolar CellsThey are activated by stimulation from the rods and/or cones and they then activate Ganglion cells. Bi - Two Bipolar cells get information from both the rods and cones.Ganglion CellsThey are activated by bipolar cells and then their axons mix together to create and form the optic nerve. Gangly - Tall, awkward, and long Ganglion cells are long, awkward, and skinny and they combine to form the optic nerve.Hubel and WieselThey discovered feature detectors. They put cats in sensory deprivation tanks and made them have their kittens inside them. Then if the kittens grew up in those tanks and only saw horizontal stripe and then were exposed to vertical stripes they would not react because they had never seen them before. They said this happened because of these hypersensitive cells that responded to certain features, like there would be one for edges, one for stripes, one for diagonals, etc.Parallel ProcessingIt is the ability to process multiple different things (aspects) simultaneously (at the same time). It can allow you to see motion, color, depth, and form all at once. There is a woman who has an issue with her motion parallel processing area so she doesn't see things moving she sees things in like blurry pictures.Middle Ear (Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup)It is a pressurized chamber that is able to concentrate the vibrations from the ear drum onto the oval window, it is made of three ossicles. The hammer is attached to the eardrum so when it vibrates, it hits the anvil, which hits the stirrup, which connects to the next thing.Oval WindowIt is the cochlea's membrane covering the opening, it comes after the middle ear.Auditory NerveIt is the area of the ear that carries neural messages to the thalamus in the brain and then to the auditory cortex.Inner EarIt is anything passed the cochlea and it contains the cochlea, vestibular sacs, and semicircular canals. They help with many things such as balance.Semicircular CanalsIt holds fluid that helps the body to sense it's movements and balance. It is like your body vs. your body. It is like an hourglass, if you flip it upside down the sand (fluid) will move.Vestibular SacsThey contain crystals of calcium that help to send information about balance to the thalamus and then to the cerebellum. It is your body vs. gravity. They are behind the semicircular canals. They allow people to know if they are upright, spinning, upside down, etc.Place TheoryIt says that individuals hear varying pitches depending on where the sound hits the basilar membrane of the cochlea. The brain would decide the pitch based on where it was stimulated. It explains high pitches, but not low pitches. It would be like frequency would be high if there were big vibrations near the start of the membrane, where localization would be easy. If it were low frequency the entire membrane would vibrate and it would be difficult to locate.Frequency TheoryIt says that the rate of the nerve impulses that are traveling up the auditory nerve would match that tone's frequency. It explains low pitches well, but not high pitches. It would be dependent on how many times a neuron fires.Volley PrincipleIt is the idea that neurons fire in alternating bursts in order to cover and account for frequencies that are above 1,000 waves/second. It says neurons volley in a row and team up to combine and mix to match the soundwave.Phantom Limb SensationsIt is experienced by amputees who lose a limb, it is when the brain misinterprets spontaneous stimulation of the central nervous system as a sensory input. It is when there is activity in the sensory cortex area where or near where the limb was located. An example would be if an individual lost sight, but is still able to have hallucinations.Olfactory Nerve/Olfactory BulbIt is a bunch of combining axons from the olfactory membrane that form to create it and then it sends the impulse to the other area in the frontal/temporal lobes.Embodied CognitionIt is the influence of physical body gestures, sensations, emortions, and other preference and judgement states. It would be like if you sit on a wobbly chair, you would rate the relationship with the person you are sitting with as being unstable.SynesthesiaIt is when an individual has one of their senses become triggered (stimulated) and then they experience another sense. It occurs because the circuitry in the brain for two senses end up wired together. It is seen more in children before puberty. It would be like if someone hear a song and it triggered them to see certain colors.Visual CliffIt is used to test an individual's depth perception. It was where there was a checkered pattern right under the glass and another area where the pattern was on the floor, so it appeared there was a sharp drop off.Gibson and WalkThey used a visual cliff to test if baby animals and human infants would walk over a clear pane of glass. They found that infants from 6-14 months old would not crawl over the visual cliff and they found that by the time an individual is crawling or moving, they can perceive depth.Binocular CuesThey are depth cues that require and depend on the use of both eyes. Bi - 2 Binocular cues need to use both eyes.ConvergenceIt is a binocular depth cue that includes the eye muscles movement inwards, the brain interprets this movement as something being closer. If something is getting close, you have to move your eye muscles inward.Retinal DisparityIt is a binocular depth cue that says the bigger the difference or disparity between the two images in the brain, the closer the object is to us. Because the eyes are around 2.5 inches apart, they see somewhat different pictures so the closer things get the more of a difference there will be between the images of the two eyes (in the retina). If there is more distance between you and an object there will be essentially the same image between the two eyes.Monocular CuesThey only require the use of one eye. It is available to each eye separately and they can be very helpful for things far away. Mono - 1 Monocular depth cues only require the use of one eye.Relative HeightIt is a monocular depth cue that says that objects that are higher in an individual's field of vision are perceived as being further away from them. When looking at the skyline in the city, with the buildings and the sky, the sky is higher in the visual field, so it appears to be farther away.Relative SizeIt is a monocular depth cue that says that objects that are bigger are perceived as being closer, while smaller objects are perceived as being further away. If a ball is coming at you, it is big so it is perceived as being close.InterpositionIt is a monocular depth cue that says if there is one object and it blocks the view of another object, the one that is blocking the other is seen as being closer.Linear PerspectiveIt is a monocular depth cue that says that parallel lines look like they meet up in the distance, the sharper the angle of convergence between the lines, the farther and greater the perceived distance. If you stand on a railroad you will see the tracks in the very far distance appear to meet up, which allows an individual to perceive greater distance.Texture GradientIt is a monocular depth cue sometimes called relative clarity, and it says if there is more texture on something and it is less dense, then it is closer. It also says if something is more dense and blurry, then it is further away.Relative MotionIt is a monocular depth cue that is also known as motion parallax, and it says when an individual is moving and staring at one point, objects that are moving faster seem to appear further away, while objects that are moving slower are perceived to be closer.Stroboscopic MovementIt is a rapid series of very slightly varying pictures or images and these changes are perceived as movement and motion. An example of this would be the old early animation, like Steamboat Willie.Phi PhenomenonIt is at minimum two adjacent lights that blink on and off in quick succession so that movement and motion are perceived. There is a circle of dots where one dot turns off for a second and then the next dot turns off for a second and so on. It appears however that the circle is moving when it is just the dots turning on and off in quick succession.Scientific MethodIt is an unbiased way to put ideas to a pass or fail testEmpirical InvestigationThey use direct experiences to make cautious measurements/observations and then learn the objective informationTheoryIt is an explanation of something for a set of observations as well as facts, and it can be tested objectivelyHypothesisIt is an idea or prediction that can be scientifically tested An example would be if I said dogs understand tone rather than wordsOperational DefintionsThey are in depth, thorough descriptions of operations being used to set up experiment's conditions and to measure the results Operational Definitions are descriptive, in depth details of experiment conditions.Independent VariableIt is only one variable that is being changed out of all of the controlled variables and it is changed by the person conducting the experiment, it is what is being manipulated If I am the experimenter, I control the independent variableDependent VariableIt cannot be determined by the experimenter and iti s the result of the change in variable, the outcome depends on what is changed in a controlled experiment The dependent variable depends on the independent variable that was changedExperimentIt is a type of research where the conductor of the research manipulates and controls all parts and conditions, as well as the independent variableConfounding Variables (Extraneous Variables)They are the different factors that can affect the outcome of an experiment, but are not dependent or independent variables A confounding or extraneous variable included the extra factors that affect an experiments outcomeControlsThey are what create the same conditions and environment for all of the groups being tested other than the independent variable Controls Create Consistent (same) ConditionsRandom AssignmentIt means that everyone involved in the sample has an equal chance of being chosen to be part of the experimental groupEx Post FactoIt is a kind of research where subjects for the experiment are picked because of already having a certain condition An example would be using people with already broken feet for an experiment, you wouldn't purposefully break them for the studyCorrelational StudyIt is a mostly statistical kind of research and it looks at and decides the relationship tied between two variables A correlational study looks at the correlation between two variablesCorrelation CoefficientIt summarizes the two variables and their relationship in a statistical way, it can range from -1.0 to +1.0SurveyIt is a research method that asks subjects questions carefully, the researcher has to be cautious when creating the questions however to be sure they are not biased or lean toward a specific response or answerNaturalistic ObservationIt is a way of research that follows and observes a subject in its natural environment An example would be seeing how often people shop without letting them know they are being observedLongitudinal StudyIt observes and follows one specific group of subjects over a long period of time, usually years A longitudinal study takes place over a long period of timeCross-Sectional StudyIt observes multiple different groups of subjects at one specific timePersonal BiasIt means that the person who is experimenting or researching lets their personal opinions, beliefs, and preferences change in some way or affect a study's results The person who is experimenting lets their personal preferences affect a study's outcomeExpectancy BiasIt is when the conductor of the experiment lets their expectations of the study actually change it's outcome A researcher's expectations affect a study's results because of expectancy biasDouble-Blind StudyIt is a study where neither the experimenters or the participants know who is part of the control group or the experimental group, it helps to control any biasInstitutional Review BoardIt is a committee at each place that conducts research and experiments and they look at every study's methods and ethicsFrequency DistributionIt is a chart that summarizes how often each of the different amounts (scores) occur in one set of dataHistogramIt is a bar graph that helps to understand a frequency distribution, the taller the bar on the graph, the more often a certain group of scores is seenDescriptive StatisticsThey are the numbers that help to describe the data's main characteristics as well as groups of subjects or individual subjects responses Descriptive statistics describe the main characteristics of dataMeanIt is usually used to describe a set of data to find what the central tendency is, this is found by adding all of the scores and then dividing that number by the number of scores, it finds the average amount of a set of data The mean is used to find the measure of central tendency mostly used in graphsMedianIt is another measure of central tendency, but it is used for a distribution, it is seen by showing the score that splits the upper and lower half of the scores from one another The median finds the middleModeIt is the last form of central tendency, it is shown by finding whatever score occurs the most The mode shows what occurs more often (the most) next to everything elseRangeIt is the most simple measure of variability, it is shown by finding the difference between the highest value within a frequency distributionStandard DeviationIt is the most used measure of variability, it shows the average difference between the scores and the meanNormal DistributionIt is a symmetrical and bell-shaped curve that helps to describe the way a characteristic in a population is spreadCorrelationIt is the relationship between two variables, it shows that when one variable changes, the other also does An example of correlation would be age and shoe size, when a person gets older they increase in shoe sizeCorrelation CoefficientIt is shown by a number between -1.0 and +1.0 and it expresses two variables relationship with a degreeInferential StatisticsThey are usually used to see if two or more groups are either the same or different, they are used to decide if results can be considered reliable or if they may have occurred by chance Inferential statistics are used to infer if results are by chance or reliableRandom SampleIt is a group of subjects that are chosen by chance and are chosen in an unbiased way An example of a random sample would be using a random number generator to pick who will be involved in a studyRepresentative SampleIt is a group of subjects that are chosen in a way that shows a good distribution of variables and reflects the larger population A representative sample represents a larger populationSignificant DifferenceIt is when the psychologists accept a difference between groups as real when the probability that the difference may be because of an atypical sample that was drawn due to chance is less than 5 in 100 or p<0.5Wilhelm WundtHe was a German Scientist, who was the first person to call himself a psychologist. After the discovery of the periodic table and looking at the way it was organized he thought the mind could be explained and divided in a similar manner, he was known as the father of psychology Wilhelm Wundt thought the mind could be arranged and organized in a similar manner as the periodic table of elementsG. Stanley HallHe was a student of Wilhelm Wundt's and he had the first American Psychology lab at Johns Hopkins, he was the first American psychologistWilliam JamesHe thought that the idea of structuralism was not broad enough, he thought it should not only include the structures of the mind, but the functions as well, he wrote the first Psychology textbook, it was called Principles of Psychology William James thought that there should be more studied than just the structures of the mind and that their functions should be included as wellMary Whiton CalkinsShe was the first female president to be elected to the American Psychological Association, she was elected in 1905 and earlier in her life she was denied a doctorate from Harvard even though she has met all of the requirements needed to be given one, she was one of William James' students Mary Whiton Calkins used her wit to be elected the first female president of the American Psychological AssociationMargaret Floy WashburnShe was the first woman who officially earned a Psychology Ph. D, she wrote The Animal Mind and was denied from many groups in psychologyNature/Nurture DebateThe idea that nurture works on what nature endows, it says people are born one way but environment can change the way people are Nature Examples: Brain structure, genes, body systems, brain chemistry, hormones Nurture Examples: Experience, environmentPsychologistThey are scientists who study the behavior and mental processes or living organismsPsychiatristThey are doctors who work in a medicine brand that works with disorders of the mind and they are usually the only people who can prescribe these patients with medications, they also graduate from medical schoolCounseling PsychologistThey help people with problems they have in life to help them have a better life whether that be helping them through marriage, addictions, divorce, losing weight, etc. They are able to treat people, but they cannot diagnose themHindsight BiasIt is the tendency people have to say they "knew something all along" after hearing an outcome of something, even though there was no way they could have known, it is thinking after something happensOverconfidence EffectIt is the fact that people often exaggerate on the accuracy of their predictions about something, it is thinking strongly about something without being correct and having too much confidence in itCase StudyIt studies one person or a small group, it is done specifically so it is not random, it is only done on one person so it may not represent the population the same way a sample would, but it can allow further research and more studies on rare things An example of a case study would be Phineas Gage, who ended up with a rod through his head, which affected his frontal lobe and caused him to act as though he had alzheimers, he was the only person this happened toValidityIt is to the amount of an experiment is able to predict or measure what it was meant toInformed ConsentThis is the ideas of sharing enough information about a research study to people that could be potential participants, so that they have enough information to make a choice if they want to be in the experiment or notPsychologyIt scientifically studies the way the mind goes through processes and the human body goes through behavioral processes Psyche - mind Ology - the study of Psychology - the study of the mindEmpiricismIt is the idea that by experimenting and observing, scientists are able to gain more knowledgePseudopsychologyIt is information that people believe to be psychologically true but is not proven scientifically nor is it true An example of pseudopsychology would be palm readings because they are not trueConfirmation BiasIt is the fact that people tend to use evidence that back up their personal opinions or beliefs and seem to forget the facts that contradict them An example would be when someone goes to see a fortune teller, they seem to remember the information that came true and forget the other information that did not come trueStructuralismIt focuses on the basics of the mind and the parts that make up the mind Structuralism focuses on the structures that make up the mindFunctionalismIt is the idea that the mind can be understood by looking at all of the different proponents and each one's specific purpose and function Functionalism focuses on the functions of the parts of the mindGestalt PsychologyIt was the idea of how the mind was constructed as a whole and how it worked as a whole, instead of looking at something as multiple parts, it looked at is as a whole Gestalt Psychology focuses on all of the mind as a whole instead of different partsPsychoanalysisIt is the idea that is based on the processes that occur in the unconscious mind and how they impact the conscious mind and human body, it follows everything Freud says Psyche - mind Psychoanalysis - the study of the processes in the unconscious mind and how it impacts the rest of the mind and bodyBiological PsychologyIt includes the idea that the way one's brain functions and their physical makeup plays a huge part in their behavior and who they become, it looks at the mind, genes, and many body systems in order to try to explain why someone behaves the way they do The biological view focuses on how someone's brain functions and physical makeup impact how they behaveDevelopmental PsychologyIt includes the idea that change in psychology occurs because of genes and the events made because of one's environment, it also focuses on the changes that occur in a person's perspective throughout their life The developmental view focuses on how one develops and how it impacts their life and mindCognitive PsychologyIt includes the idea that actions people make are greatly influenced by the way the mind takes in information from the environment around them The cognitive view shows that people's actions come from the way the mind takes in information from the environmentPsychodynamic PsychologyIt states the idea that mental disorders can be understood by looking at the unconscious mind and it's memories, needs, conflicts, and desires, it follows most of what Freud says Psyche - mind Psychodynamic Psychology looks at mental disorders and how they can be understood by looking into the unconscious mindHumanistic PsychologyIt focuses on the idea that one's actions are influenced by their personal potential, abilities, and need for growth. It makes you feel warm and fuzzy and usually includes a work with self in it Humanistic psychology focuses on how actions are influenced by personal potentialBehavioral PsychologyIt emphasizes the way people react based on punishments and rewards they are given An example would be that after I got a goal in my lacrosse game, my dad took me out for brunch and then I continued to work hard and try to get goalsSociocultural PsychologyIt touches on the idea that people are influenced greatly by social influences, whether that be learning, interactions with others, or looking at things in a cultural perspective Socio - social Sociocultural View - People are influenced by social interactionsPsychologyIt scientifically studies the way the mind goes through processes and the human body goes through behavioral processes. (Psyche - mind Ology - the study of Psychology - the study of the mind)Empirical ApproachIt is the basis for all research in psychology, it is a study that is done by using scientific research and by making cautious observations. (An empirical approach is the basis for the empire of psychology)PseudopsychologyIt is information that people believe to be psychologically true but is not proven scientifically nor is it true. (An example of pseudopsychology would be palm readings because they are not true)Confirmation BiasIt is the fact that people tend to use evidence that back up their personal opinions or beliefs and seem to forget the facts that contradict them. (An example would be when someone goes to see a fortune teller, they seem to remember the information that came true and forget the other information that did not come true)Charles DarwinHe found that there was a biological connection between both animals and humans, meaning some research involving animals could be related back to humans (Charles Darwin Humans and Animals can be related to each other)Wilhelm WundtHe was a German Scientist, who was the first person to call himself a psychologist. After the discovery of the periodic table and looking at the way it was organized he thought the mind could be explained and divided in a similar manner. (Wilhelm Wundt thought the mind could be arranged and organized in a similar manner as the periodic table of elements.)StructuralismIt focuses on the basics of the mind and the parts that make up the mind. (Structuralism focuses on the structures that make up the mind.)IntrospectionIt is the idea that a person can share their own mental response to certain situations and experiments. (Intro - within Introspection focuses on the response people have to situations within their minds.)William JamesHe thought that the idea of structuralism was not broad enough, he thought it should not only include the structures of the mind, but the functions as well. (William James thought that there should be more studied than just the structures of the mind and that their functions should be included as well.)FunctionalismIt is the idea that the mind can be understood by looking at all of the different proponents and each one's specific purpose and function. (Functionalism focuses on the functions of the parts of the mind)Gestalt PsychologyIt was the idea of how the mind was constructed as a whole and how it worked as a whole. Instead of looking at something as multiple parts, it looked at is as a whole. (Gestalt Psychology focuses on all of the mind as a whole instead of different parts.)John WatsonHe was the leader of the behaviorism movement, he believed that psychology should not look at the mind, but only by seeing physical responses in the body or from the environment. (John Watson believed just what could be seen should be studied, like the behavior and body, rather than what couldn't be seem, like the mind.)Sigmund FreudHe was a Viennese physician who worked with his disciples and believed that disorders of the mind actually came from issues that could be found within the unconscious mind. (Sigmund Freud thought disorders in the mind could be found in the unconscious mind.)PsychoanalysisIt is the idea that is based on the processes that occur in the unconscious mind and how they impact the conscious mind and human body. It follows everything Freud says. Psyche - mind Psychoanalysis - the study of the processes in the unconscious mind and how it impacts the rest of the mind and body.)Biological ViewIt includes the idea that the way one's brain functions and their physical makeup plays a huge part in their behavior and who they become. It looks at the mind, genes, and many body systems in order to try to explain why someone behaves the way they do. (The biological view focuses on how someone's brain functions and physical makeup impact how they behave.)Developmental ViewIt includes the idea that change in psychology occurs because of genes and the events made because of one's environment. It also focuses on the changes that occur in a person's perspective throughout their life. (The developmental view focuses on how one develops and how it impacts their life and mind.)CCognitive ViewIt includes the idea that actions people make are greatly influenced by the way the mind takes in information from the environment around them. (The cognitive view shows that people's actions come from the way the mind takes in information from the environment.)Psychodynamic PsychologyIt states the idea that mental disorders can be understood by looking at the unconscious mind and it's memories, needs, conflicts, and desires. It follows most of what Freud says. Psyche - mind Psychodynamic Psychology looks at mental disorders and how they can be understood by looking into the unconscious mind.Humanistic ViewIt focuses on the idea that one's actions are influences by their personal potential, abilities, and need for growth. It makes you feel warm and fuzzy and usually includes a work with self in it (Humanistic psychology focuses on how actions are influenced by personal potential.)Behavioral ViewIt emphasizes the way people react based on punishments and rewards they are given. (After I got a goal in my lacrosse game my dad took me out for brunch and then I continued to work hard and try to get goals.)Sociocultural ViewIt touches on the idea that people are influenced greatly by social influences, whether that be learning, interactions with others, or looking at things in a cultural perspective. (Socio - social Sociocultural View - People are influenced by social interactions.)Mary Whiton CalkinsShe was the first female president to be elected to the American Psychological Association. She was elected in 1905 and earlier in her life she was denied a doctorate from Harvard even though she has met all of the requirements needed to be given one. (Mary Whiton Calkins used her wit to be elected the first female president of the American Psychological Association.)Developmental PsychologyIt is the psychological area of specialty that looks at how individuals change over time because of both environmental and biological influences. Developmental psychology develops and changes throughout one's lifespan.Identical TwinsThey are a pair that began life as one fertilized egg, that later broke into two separate individuals. Identical twins have identical genes.Fraternal TwinsThey are a pair that began life as two distinct fertilized eggs that shared one womb. They only have around 50% of the same genetic material as one another.Continuity ViewIt is the idea that says development is continuous, slow, and gradual. It says that growth happens continually, like a slowly increasing hill.Discontinuity ViewIt is the idea that says development occurs in an uneven, stage-like manner. It says that development occurs in steps, like steps with a wide stride between each one, there is a distinct change and then it levels off and then this repeats.Developmental StagesThey are life periods that begin due to significant physical or psychological functioning changes or transitions. An example of this would be talking, walking, and abstract reasoning.Prenatal PeriodIt is the period before birth that is the developing of the individual.ZygoteIt is an egg that has been fertilized by a sperm.EmbryoIti s when in humans, an organism is developing after conception for the next eight weeks following. Embryo Eight The embryo is the first eight weeks after conception.FetusIn people it is the stage when an organism is developing after the embryonic stage but prior to birth.DifferentiationIt is when the embryo's cells start to specialize and become specific parts of organs.PlacentaIti s the organ interface between a mother and an embryo or fetus. It separates bloodstreams, allows for nutrients to get to the individual, and for waste to be disposed of. The placenta protects the individual from some harms and provides it with protein.TeratogensThey are materials from the environment that can be of danger and harmful to the individual during prenatal time. An example of this would be chemicals, drugs, viruses, alcohol, and nicotine.Neonatal PeriodIt is in people the time period when they are newborns and it lasts up until the first month right after birth. The neonatal period is when babies are able to respond to stimulation from all of their senses.InfancyIt is in people, the time between the end of the neonatal period and when language begins. An example of this would be the time between an individual being one month old and being eighteen months old or an individual being one month old and being two years old.Synaptic PruningIt is when nerve fibers are not stimulated so their connections are lost as a result, it puts them into an uncommitted state. An example of this would be if a child has congenital cataracts and they are not treated in time, the neural connections in the visual system will be lost forever.AttachmentIt is the enduring social and emotional relationship found between a regular caregiver or patent and a child. It is bonding between a parent and a child.ImprintingIt is a form of learning seen after birth where some organisms connect with and follow the first moving item they either hear or see. An example of this would be if a duck hatched a chick, the chick would follow the duck and their ducklings into a pond to swim.Contact ComfortIt is the reassurance and stimulation given to an organism from a parent or caregivers physical touch. An example of this would be when monkeys chose to spend their time with a terry cloth mother for comfort rather than a milk producing mother for food.MaturationIt is the process where the genetic program over time unfolds or manifests. An example of this would be that when raised in a good environment, individuals follow a pattern that is predictable.SchemasThey are programs, structures, or mental concepts that help guide a developing child's thought according to Piaget's theory. An example of this would be having mental groups of birds, dogs, and fish.AssimilationIti s a mental process that adjusts an individual's pre-existing schema to make it fit around new material or information. An example of this would be if a child had a pet doberman, they would likely think all dogs are large, strong, and four-legged animals. They may then go to a friend's house and see a dachshund and realize that dogs can be long and small also. They would then add this to their schemas of dog.AccomodationIt is a mental process that reorganizes pre-existing schemas so materials can be more accurately understood. An example of this would be if a child has a dog, they may think that all four-legged animals are dogs so when they are on a hike with their family in the woods and see a deer, they may call it a dog. Their mother may then tell them that it is actually a deer and then a new deer schema would be created.Sensorimotor StageIt is the first stage in Piaget's theory. In it, it says that a child almost fully relies on innate or inborn motor responses to stimuli. Sensorimotor I - Stage 1Mental RepresentationIt is an individual's ability to create and develop internal images of events as well as objects.Object PermanenceIt is when an individual is able to understand that objects can exist alone from their awareness, actions, and choices. An example of this would be if a child is shown a toy and then their parent places that toy in a box, they would then be able to open the box to find the toy because they would know that the toy is inside of the box.Preoperational StageIt is the second stage of Piaget's theory where language is utilized and mental representations are also used.EgocentrismIt is the idea that individuals are self-centered and are unable to notice others points of view other than their own according to Piaget's theory. Ego - Self Centrism - Center Egocentrism involves being self-centered in a way.Animistic ThinkingIt is a preoperational mode of thought where nonliving objects are believed to have mental processes and life. An example of this would be if a child accidentally walked into a door, they may appologize to the door, as they believe it has feelings.CentrationIt is a preoperational mode of thought that is when one is unable to understand more than one factor a a time. An example of this would be if a child was shown two glasses equally filled with water and then they dumped one of the glasses into a more narrow and tall glass, making the liquid look to be taller, they would say that the taller glass holds more liquid, even though there is the same amount of liquid in each glass.IrreversibilityIt is a preoperational thought pattern that says an individual cannot think through multiple events or mental operations and then reverse the steps originally involved. An example of this would be if two children had the same bag of snacks, but one child spills their snack on the table, the other child would see that the snack is all spread out and because of this they would think the other child had more snack than they did, as they are unable to realize that the snack was in the same bag that their snack was in and that they had the same amounts.Concrete Operational StageAccording to Piaget's theory, it is the third stage where a child understands conversations but still cannot go through abstract thoughts.ConservationIt is the understanding of an individual that physical properties of objects do not adjust or modify when nothing is taken away or added but it's appearance changes. An example of this would be if there were two equal sized glasses with the same amount of water, but one was poured into a more narrow and tall glass, making it appear taller than the other glass, the child would still be able to say that the same amount of liquid is in both glasses.Mental OperationsIt is the resolving of issues by adjusting or changing one's mental images. An example of this would be that children learn to know that magic is not real, so they determine that the tooth fairy also does not exist.Theory of MindIt is being aware that the behaviors of others can be influenced by differing desires, emotions, and beliefs of one's own.TemperamentIt is one's characteristic manner of reaction or behavior. It is thought to have a more strong genetic basis.Zone of Proximal DevelopmentIt is the difference between what a child can do without any assistance and what a child is able to do with guidance and help.Psychosocial StagesIt is in Erikson's theory and it says there are eight main challenges during the stages of development that show up in order through life and each require revisiting and possibly revising of one's goals and relationships.