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AP World History - Bentley Unit 4

Bentley - chapters 18-22
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Tughril Beg
Saljuq sultan who took control of the Abbasid empire in 1055. Recognized by the caliphs as the ruler. Established Turkish rule in the Muslim realm.
Mahmud of Ghazni
Islamic leader who raided throughout northern India, destroying Hindu and Buddhist temples. His many motive was money.
Chinggis Khan
Also known as Genghis Khan and Temujin; he united the Mongol tribes into an unstoppable fighting force; created largest single land empire in history. He was.responsible for the conquest of northern kingdoms of China and territories as far west as the Abbasid regions;
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294). Ruled the Mongol Empire from China and was the founder of the Yuan Empire in China after finishing off the Song Dynasty.
Tamerlane
A "second Genghis Khan" who united Mongols and led them in a series of conquests. His enemies called him "Prince of Destruction"; he subdued Asia, Persia, Mesopotamia and India. Samarkland was the capital of his empire
Osman
Known as the most successful warrior (ghazi), built a small Muslim state in Anatolia between 1300-1326. Founder of the Ottoman Empire
Sultan Mehmed II
Ottoman ruler who sacked Constantinople, effectively ending the Byzantine empire. Renamed it Istanbul and then absorbed the lands of Byzantium.
Istanbul
Capital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.
Salijuq Turks
Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with the Byzantine empire
Manzikert
Site in Anatolia where the Byzantines were devastated by Saljuq Turks. After this crippling blow, Byzantium never controlled Anatolia again.
Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam.
Yuan Dynasty
Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song (1279-1368)
Ilkhanate of Persia
Established by Hulegu after topping the Abbasid empire; Baghdad was sacked in 1258 and Hulegu's troops killed more than 200,000 residents; troops moved into Syria checked by Egyptian forces
Uighur Turks
Among the most important of Mongol allies; lived mostly in oasis cities along the silk road; were literate and often highly educated and worked as officials in the Mongol empires and boosted the Mongol army
Ottoman Turks
captured Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States which becomes a catalyst for the expansion of language and art
Mansa Musa
Ruler of Mali (r.1312-1337 CE) who made a hajj to Mecca; on the way there, he spread enormous amounts of gold showing the wealth of Mali; on the way back, he brought back education and Islamic culture.
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Ali ibn Muhammad
Rebel slave that organized 15,000 Zanj slaves in 869 to revolt from Abbasid; Zanj Revolt was crushed in 883
Kin-based society
Stateless, segmented societies. no elaborate hierarchies. This type of society was prominent in sub-Saharan Africa.
Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom dominating small states along the Congo River that maintained effective, centralized government and a royal currency until the seventeenth century when Portuguese slave traders destroyed the kingdom.
Kingdom of Ghana
West African empire from 700s to 1076, grew wealthy and powerful by controlling gold-salt trade.
Mali Empire
From 1235-1400, this was a strong empire of Western African. With its trading cities of Timbuktu and Gao, it had many mosques and universities. The Empire was ruled by two great rulers, Sundiata and Mansa Musa. Thy upheld a strong gold-salt trade. The fall of the empire was caused by the lack of strong rulers who could govern well.
Swahili
A Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast
Zanj revolt
Slave revolt in Mesopotamia during the tenth century. They were black slaves from the Swahili coast, and organized by Ali Bin Muhammad. It demonstrated the influence of slaves
Axum
The Christian state in northern Ethiopia that developed its own branch of Christianity, Coptic Christianity, because it was cut off from other Christians due to a large Muslim presence in Africa.
Solomonic dynasty
A string of Ethiopian rulers who claimed descent from David in an attempt to add biblical authority to their rule.
Investiture contest
A struggle between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope over who nominates clergymen. The Pope eventually won this struggle.
St Thomas Aquinas
He believed that it was possible to prove rationally that God exists
Pope Urban II
Pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
Saladin
The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade and captured Jerusalem in 1187.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
Guilds
Established in the Middle Ages, a group of merchants or artisans in one trade or craft, organized to maintain standards of work and to protect the interests of members. Each _________ represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Reconquista
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
Toltecs
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. (p. 305)
Mexica
What the Aztecs called themselves, they migrated from the north, reaching the Valley of Mexico in the 1200s AD.
Inca
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. They ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
Chinampas
Floating islands of land anchored to a lake bottom used for agriculture. This technique was used by the Aztecs.
Quipu
Knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the Inca to keep financial records
Marae
Communal or sacred place which serves religious and social purposes in Polynesian societies
kapu
Complex set of social regulations in Hawaii which forbade certain activities and regulated social discourse
John of Montecorvino
Missionary in China, Italian Franciscan, became the first archbishop, translated the New Testament and book of Psalms into Turkish - language commonly used at Mongol court, built several churches in China, baptized Mongol and Chinese boys
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Isabel of Castile
-Queen of Spain at the completion of the Reconquista (Aragon and Castile defeated the last Muslims in Granada)
-married Ferdinand of Aragon which joined Aragon and Castile
Ferdinand of Aragon
His marriage to Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; created a united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Qudi
Islamic Judges
Sufi
A Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
Black Death
The common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century killing vast numbers of people.
Ming dynasty
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
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