Ch. 17 micro mastering
Terms in this set (56)
What does a vaccine contain?
- T cells against a pathogen
- B cells against a pathogen
- Weakened or killed pathogen or parts of a pathogen
- Live active pathogens
weakened or killed pathogens or parts of a pathogen
When a person has previously been vaccinated against a viral pathogen, which cells are activated if that same pathogen re-enters the host's cells months or years later?
-Memory cytotoxic T cells
-Helper T cells
-Memory B cells
Memory cytotoxic T cells
What is the primary benefit of vaccination?
-An immune response will occur quicker upon future exposure to the pathogen.
-Vaccinated persons get used to the symptoms of a disease.
-Vaccines provide antibodies against the pathogen that persist forever in the body.
-Unvaccinated persons can never mount an immune response to a pathogen.
An immune response will occur quicker upon future exposure to the pathogen.
Which type of vaccine could possibly cause a person to develop the disease?
-Toxoid vaccine and inactivated killed vaccine
-Attenuated live vaccine
-Inactivated killed vaccine
Attenuated live vaccine
What is the hallmark of a conjugated vaccine?
-These vaccines contain weakly antigenic elements plus a more potent antigenic protein.
-They contain only the non-pathogenic elements of a pathogen, not the entire cell.
-They contain the DNA from a pathogenic virus.
These vaccines contain weakly antigenic elements plus a more potent antigenic protein.
The influenza vaccine is an example of a(n)
-inactivated killed vaccine.
inactivated killed vaccine.
What is the function of boosters?
-Boosters are injections that are given periodically to maintain immunity.
-Boosters are vaccines containing no pathogenic portions of the pathogen.
-Boosters are the highly antigenic portions of the conjugated vaccines.
-Boosters help to kill the pathogens used in inactivated killed vaccines
Boosters are injections that are given periodically to maintain immunity.
The Hepatitis B vaccine is which type of vaccine?
-Inactivated killed vaccine
Which of the following viruses has NOT been used as the basis for a live recombinant vaccine?
Why are subunit vaccines often preferred over whole agent vaccines?
-They do not require as many booster doses.
-They tend to cause less of an inflammatory response.
-They do not require adjuvants.
-They include both antigenic and nonantigenic portions of the pathogen.
They tend to cause less of an inflammatory response.
Which of the following is NOT associated with passive immunotherapy?
This question pertains to passive immunotherapy where preformed antibodies are given to the patient and the patient's own immune system does not produce memory cells
Many adjuvants can cause inflammatory reactions that make vaccines containing them problematic. Without an adjuvant, which of the following modifications would make an inactivated vaccine more effective?
-increase the dosage and number of doses of the vaccine
-increase the dosage of the vaccine
-decrease the number of doses of the vaccine
-increase the dosage and decrease the number of doses of the vaccine
increase the dosage and number of doses of the vaccine
A scientist wishes to produce a recombinant DNA vaccine. Which of the following would be most useful for this task?
One common method of producing recombinant DNA vaccines is the insertion of DNA coding for a microbial antigen into a plasmid vector. This vector can then be inserted into a host cell, which begins synthesizing the antigen and stimulates immunity
The DTaP vaccine is given four times in the first 18 months of life because _____.
-it is a combination of a toxoid vaccine and subunit vaccine
-the diseases it protects against are most dangerous during this time frame
-it can cause anaphylactic shock if given over a longer period of time
-it is a vaccine that protects against three diseases, instead of just one
it is a combination of a toxoid vaccine and subunit vaccine
This combination vaccine includes two toxoids (for diphtheria and tetanus) and an inactivated subunit (for pertussis). Both types of vaccine are not very antigenic and require more administrations of the vaccine in order to properly stimulate the immune system
Attenuated virus vaccines can be produced by which of the following processes?
-exposure to formaldehyde
-isolation of genes coding for particular antigens
-treatment of the virus with heat
-growth in tissue culture cells for many generations
growth in tissue culture cells for many generations
The most common method of creating attenuated virus vaccines is to grow the virus in tissue culture cells for many generations in an attempt to reduce or eliminate their virulence.
Which of the following types of vaccines should not be given to pregnant women or immunocompromised individuals?
Because they contain merely weakened forms of a particular pathogenic microbe, attenuated vaccines carry the greatest risk for the fetus or for an immunocompromised individual.
Individuals with egg allergies cannot receive flu vaccines because of the risk of which of the following?
Anaphylactic shock is a severe allergic reaction to flu vaccines experienced by some people because the viruses in these vaccines are grown in chicken eggs.
A researcher who wants to produce contact immunity in a population would probably use which of the following types of vaccines?
-an attenuated vaccine
-a toxoid vaccine
-a whole agent vaccine
-a subunit vaccine
an attenuated vaccine
Because the microbe is alive and able to reproduce and spread, it can stimulate immunity in individuals who have never been formally immunized.
One of the advantages of the oral poliovirus vaccine is that it contains an attenuated strain of the virus that is excreted from the intestinal tract of the immunized individual, usually a baby or young child. This is an example of which of the following?
-neither contact nor herd immunity
-both contact and herd immunity
both contact and herd immunity
The fact that family members will also usually be infected by the virus in the vaccine is an aspect of contact immunity. In addition, the immunity resulting from this direct and indirect immunization can be widespread in a population, so it is also characteristic of herd immunity
In which of the following situations would pooled antisera from human donors be a better choice for passive immunotherapy than would horse-derived antisera?
-a patient suffering from botulism poisoning
-a nurse being treated for a needle stick from a hepatitis B-contaminated needle
-a snakebite victim
-a patient receiving long-term immunotherapy for an immunodeficiency disease
a patient receiving long-term immunotherapy for an immunodeficiency disease
Repeated injections of horse-derived antisera can lead to a serious allergic response called serum sickness. Since this condition is related to an immune response against horse antigens present in the antiserum, patients requiring long-term passive immunotherapy could be more effectively treated with pooled human antisera.
What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases?
-passive immunotherapy using immunoglobulins
-active immunization by vaccination
active immunization by vaccination
The discovery and use of ________ have greatly decreased the mortality and morbidity of infectious diseases.
Variolation was first used
-to immunize the Chinese against smallpox.
-to protect individuals against the plague during the Middle Ages.
-to treat individuals exposed to hepatitis.
-to spread smallpox throughout the Native American populations.
-for research purposes in the 20th century
to immunize the Chinese against smallpox.
Which of the following statements regarding variolation is FALSE?
-It was administered to children as early as the 12th century.
-It involves grinding smallpox scabs.
-At the time no one knew how it worked.
-It was risk free
It was risk free
Almost a century after Edward Jenner introduced successful vaccination, Louis Pasteur developed vaccine(s) against
-anthrax and rabies.
anthrax and rabies
A vaccine is currently available against which of the following microbes?
-the protozoan that causes malaria
-the bacterium that causes leprosy
Pathogens may be attenuated for use in vaccines by
-raising the pathogen for several generations in tissue culture cells.
-genetic manipulation and/or raising the pathogen for several generations in tissue culture cells.
-genetic manipulation coupled with treatment with formaldehyde.
-treatment with formaldehyde
genetic manipulation and/or raising the pathogen for several generations in tissue culture cells.
The vaccine against smallpox developed by Edward Jenner is an example of a(n) __________ vaccine.
An adjuvant is a substance that
-is used to inactivate a microbe in a vaccine.
-is a piece of a microbe that is representative of the entire microorganism.
-delays the action of the vaccine.
-is used to decrease the inflammatory reaction to a vaccine.
-increases the effective antigenicity of a pathogen
increases the effective antigenicity of a pathogen
Killed vaccines work by stimulating
-cytotoxic T cells.
-the production of antibodies.
-the action of Th1 cells.
-the cell-mediated immune response
the production of antibodies
Which of the following substances is commonly used to inactivate microbes?
What type of vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine?
-a vaccine produced by treating the virus with formaldehyde
-a vaccine composed of only a single antigen of the hepatitis virus
-inactivated whole pathogen
a vaccine composed of only a single antigen of the hepatitis virus
An infectious disease researcher isolates the pathogen responsible for an emerging disease. The microbe is grown in the lab for many generations. A preparation of the laboratory-grown microbe is treated with ionizing radiation and then tested for its potential as a vaccine. What type of vaccine is this?
OPV, the attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine, is no longer administered in the U.S.A. because
-the site of administration remains sore for many days after administration.
-it can revert to the wild-type strain.
-it can cause severe anaphylaxis in some individuals.
-it does not provide good immunity.
-it is very toxic
it can revert to the wild-type strain
a person who has been exposed to rabies receives both HRIG (human rabies immunoglobulin) injected near the bite site and the rabies vaccine. What does this strategy represent?
-active immunization combined with passive immunotherapy
-viral hemagglutination inhibition
-passive immunotherapy combined with viral hemagglutination inhibition
active immunization combined with passive immunotherapy
Passive immunotherapy is used when
-the attenuated live vaccine is too difficult to produce.
-a representative antigen for the microbe cannot be isolated.
-the microorganism can be genetically manipulated.
-protection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediately.
-the pathogen does not produce a toxin
protection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediately.
-an antitoxin used to treat snakebites.
-an antiserum produced from hybridomas.
-a vaccine produced against the endotoxin of a bacterium.
-an antigen produced from a virus.
-a vaccine made toward the endotoxin of a virus
an antitoxin used to treat snakebites.
Hybridomas are produced by
-combining two bacterial infected cells.
-combining a viral infected cell with a bacterial infected cell.
-fusing plasma cells with myeloma cells.
-combining two virus-infected cells.
-repeated culture of a pathogen until it loses its virulence
fusing plasma cells with myeloma cells.
The vaccine to prevent tetanus is a(n) __________ vaccine.
True or False? Edward Jenner was the physician who first used cowpox to vaccinate individuals against smallpox.
True or False? For some bacterial diseases such as tetanus, it is more effective to produce an immune response against the bacterial toxin than against the bacteria.
Tetanus toxin mixed with antibodies against the toxin and then administered to mice will result in which of the following?
-There will be no effect of tetanus toxin on the mice.
-The mice will become immune to tetanus toxin.
-The mice will briefly show signs of tetanus, but then will recover.
-The mice will die from tetanus.
There will be no effect of tetanus toxin on the mice.
Antibodies against tetanus toxin will neutralize the toxin when mixed with it; this mixture would therefore be harmless to mice.
Mrs. Jones received her lab results, which state that she has a high antibody titer against tetanus. Which of the following tests was most likely used to obtain these results?
-a radial immunodiffusion test
-a direct fluorescent antibody test
-an immunochromatographic assay
-an agglutination test
an agglutination test
Agglutination reactions are easy titrations to perform and to interpret
Damage to organs such as the kidneys is associated with which of the following processes?
Precipitation of antibody-antigen complexes can lead to inflammatory responses and allergic reactions in various joints and organs of the body.
In which of the following situations would one expect to see NO extensive precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes?
-optimal proportions of antigen and antibody
-antigen or antibody excess
antigen or antibody excess
When antigens and antibodies are in optimal proportions, extensive cross-linking and lattice formation results in the precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes.
In the most commonly performed version of an ELISA, two wells both exhibit the color change indicative of a positive result. However, the color in one well is much more intense than in the other well. What is the interpretation of this result?
-One sample contains more antibody than the other.
-One well contains more antigen than the other.
-One well contains more substrate than the other.
-The enzyme is more active in one well than in the other.
One sample contains more antibody than the other.
The intensity of the color in a positive reaction ELISA is directly proportional to the amount of antibody present in the serum sample.
The study and diagnosis of antigen-antibody interactions in the blood is known as
Which of the following tests is used to verify the presence of antibodies against the HIV virus?
-the fluorescent antibody test
-the western blot test
-the complement fixation test
-an antibody neutralization test
the western blot test
Which of the following statements regarding ELISAs is true?
-They involve the use of membrane filters.
-They require large amounts of serum.
-The antibody label is a fluorescent molecule.
-They can be used to detect antibody or antigen.
-They are very labor intensive
They can be used to detect antibody or antigen
Which of the following is the technique used for detecting antibodies against multiple antigens in a complex mixture?
-the direct fluorescent antibody test
-the Ouchterlony test
-the western blot test
-hemagglutination inhibition test
the western blot test
Scientists commonly use radial immunodiffusion testing to
-inactivate an endogenous bacterial toxin.
-measure the concentration of specific antibodies in a person's serum.
-diagnose tuberculosis because the diameter of the wheel corresponds to the severity of the infection.
-diagnose infections by specific strains of viruses.
measure the concentration of specific antibodies in a person's serum
In precipitation tests, maximum precipitation takes place when the amount of the antibody exceeds the amount of the antigen.
-a complex solution of many antibodies is used.
-a toxin is present.
-the amount of the antigen exceeds the amount of the antibody.
-the amount of the antibody and the amount of the antigen are at optimal proportions.
the amount of the antibody and the amount of the antigen are at optimal proportions
Exposure to HIV can be verified using a(n) __________ assay.
-direct fluorescent antibody
-viral hemagglutination inhibition
Which of the following statements accurately describes the DTaP?
-A recombinant vaccine using antigens from Bordetella pertussis, Clostridium tetani, and Corynebacterium diphtheria
-A combination vaccine using antitoxin for Bordetella pertussis and killed Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheria
-A live vaccine using Bordetella pertussis, Clostridium tetani, and Corynebacterium diphtheria
-A combination vaccine using inactivated (killed) Bordetella pertussis combined with antitoxins for tetanus and diphtheria
A combination vaccine using inactivated (killed) Bordetella pertussis combined with antitoxins for tetanus and diphtheria
Ernesto received all his regular childhood immunizations on the recommended schedule and is now 21 years old. Given that he is exposed to Bordetella pertussis on a regular basis at the clinic, should he get a booster?
-Ernesto needs a booster that is slightly different from the immunization given children.
-Ernesto does not need a booster. Rather, his exposure requires a full series of DTaP immunizations to completely protect him.
-Ernesto should be revaccinated with DTaP and also with MMR, Rotavirus, Hib, PCV and Hep B to protect himself in this environment, where there is little compliance with suggested immunizations.
-Ernesto does not need a booster because the modified live vaccine is producing continuous exposure to the antigens, which stimulate his antibody production and protect him.
Ernesto needs a booster that is slightly different from the immunization given children
Particularly in this environment, where herd immunity is not active and Ernesto is exposed to many bacteria daily, it is a good idea to restimulate his immunity through a Tdap booster. Although exposure to the bacterium itself may stimulate an immune response, it is good practice to immunize all health care workers. In addition, if Ernesto received his immunizations on schedule, he is due for the booster.
Many parents don't follow the recommended immunization schedule for their children, including DTaP against pertussis. Ernesto is perplexed at the reasons parents give. He understands lack of access to health care, but not some of the other responses. Which of the following statements represents the only scientifically supported reason for refraining from a vaccination?
-Some vaccines have triggered disorders such as autism, diabetes, or asthma.
-Some people have serious allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) to certain components in some vaccines.
-All vaccines are made with organisms that can regain their virulence and cause disease.
-Vaccines contain chemicals that are toxic to most young children
Some people have serious allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) to certain components in some vaccines
This is true and an unpredictable event, so patients should be watched carefully after inoculation. However, anaphylactic shock can be countered by administering epinephrine