elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed between organisms and parts of the biosphere in a cycle
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
an increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
A succession that begins in an area where there are no remnants of an older ecosystem
A succession that occurs in an area where remnants of a previous ecosystem, such as soil, remain
begins in areas with no remnants of an older community. It occurs on bare rock surfaces where no soil exists. The first species to live in an area of primary succession are called pioneer species.
called pioneer species.
occurs when a disturbance changes a community without completely destroying it
ecosystems may or may not recover from extensive human-caused disturbances.
Competitive exclusion principle
The rule that says that no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in the same habitat at exactly the same time
A species in which a change in its population causes a dramatic change in the structure of the community
What an organism does and how it interacts with the abiotic and biotic factors in the environment
Average year-after-year patterns of temperature and precipitation in a region over long periods.
Situation in which heat is retained in Earth's Situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere due to accumulation of greenhouse gases
Factors That Affect Climate
solar energy trapped in the biosphere, by latitude, and by the transport of heat by winds and ocean currents.
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem.
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
the first organisms to colonize any newly available area and start the process of succession.