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52 terms

Brooks Biology Test 2

Benet Academy Brooks Biology Test 2
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biogeochemical cycles
elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed between organisms and parts of the biosphere in a cycle
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
transpiration
evaporation of water from a plant's leaves
nutrient
chemical substance that an organism requires to live
nitrogen fixation
process by which certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas to ammonia
denitrification
conversion of nitrates in the soil by bacteria into nitrogen gas
primary productivity
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
limiting nutrient
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
algal bloom
an increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
Ecological succession
A series of somewhat predictable changes that occur in a community over time
Pioneer species
The first species to arrive or colonize a barren area
Primary succession
A succession that begins in an area where there are no remnants of an older ecosystem
Secondary succession
A succession that occurs in an area where remnants of a previous ecosystem, such as soil, remain
Primary succession
begins in areas with no remnants of an older community. It occurs on bare rock surfaces where no soil exists. The first species to live in an area of primary succession are called pioneer species.
called pioneer species.
Secondary succession
occurs when a disturbance changes a community without completely destroying it
Climax Community
a mature, relatively stable ecosystem
Human-caused disturbance
ecosystems may or may not recover from extensive human-caused disturbances.
Over the course of succession...
... the number of different species usually increases
Commensalism
A relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
Competitive exclusion principle
The rule that says that no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in the same habitat at exactly the same time
Habitat
The general place where an organism lives
Herbivory
Interaction in which one animal feeds on producers
Keystone species
A species in which a change in its population causes a dramatic change in the structure of the community
Mutualism
A relationship between organisms in which both benefit
Niche
What an organism does and how it interacts with the abiotic and biotic factors in the environment
Parasitism
A relationship in which one organism lives on or inside of another organism and harms it
Resource
Any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food and space
Symbiosis
Any relationship in which two organisms live closely together
Tolerance
The ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental conditions
Climate
Average year-after-year patterns of temperature and precipitation in a region over long periods.
Greenhouse effect
Situation in which heat is retained in Earth's Situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere due to accumulation of greenhouse gases
Weather
the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place, day-to-day conditions
Factors That Affect Climate
solar energy trapped in the biosphere, by latitude, and by the transport of heat by winds and ocean currents.
microclimates
the different climates that exist in locations that are close to each other.
producer
an organism that makes its own food
consumer
an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
herbivores
consumers that eat only plants
carnivores
Organisms that eat other animals for energy
omnivores
obtain energy from eating plants and meat
decomposers
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
food chain
(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
food web
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
trophic level
step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem.
water cycle
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
bacteria that can use nitrogen gas directly from the atmosphere
succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
climax community
a stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time
secondary succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
pioneers
the first organisms to colonize any newly available area and start the process of succession.
primary succession
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed