Anatomy- The Human Skeletal System

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How many bones is the body composed of?
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Terms in this set (77)
How can the framework of the body be described (2)flexible and semi-solid matrixmatrixa mold; large network of proteins and other molecules that surround, support, and give structureChondroblastsimmature cartilage forming cellsMature cartilage cellschondrocytesBones are produced by _________, ___________, and ____________.chondroblasts, water, and otherThe matrix ___________ and ______________ chrondrocytes.surrounds and isolatesConnective tissue cartilage is __________________ and nutrients are brought in through ______________.avascular, diffusionAvascularwithout blood vesselsWhy does damage tissue not repair itself as readily as most tissues?it is avascularWhat are the two steps of osteogenesis?1. hyaline cartilage is covered with matrix or a "bone collar" 2. the hyaline cartilage dissolves as bone completesWhere are the two places where hyaline cartilage remians?1. ends of the bone 2. area of the bone where growth takes placearea of the bone where growth takes placeepiphyseal plateRemodelingThe process of resorption and formation of boneBone is _________ and __________ tissue.dynamic and activeRemodeling happens in response to what two factors?1. calcium levels in blood 2. pull of gravity and musclesWhat happens if blood calcium levels drop?the parathyroid gland releases hormones to the bloodparathyroid gland is located....throatWhat do the parathyroid gland hormones activate?osteoclastsosteoclastsBone-destroying cellsWhat do these osteoclasts do exactly?break down bone MATRIX to release calcium from matrix to bloodIf calcium levels are too high....calcium is deposited in the bone matrixWhat does osteoclasts have a lot of?they are multinucleated cells with a lot of mitochondria and lysosomesmitochondriaPowerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) productionlysosomesAn organelle containing digestive enzymesWhich structure stores calcium?bone matrixResorptionThe body's processes of eliminating existing bone or hard tissue structure. (with the osteoclasts)Why do women have fragile bones?deficiency of estrogen2 parts of skeletonaxial and appendicularHow many bones are in the axial skeleton?80 bonesHow many bones are in the appendicular skeleton?120 bonesMain parts of the axial skeletonskull, spine, ribs, sternumMain parts of the appendicular skeletonpectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, shoulder, arms, hands. legs, feetBones are 50% _____ and 50% _____water and osseous tissueFunctions of, shape, structure of internal organs 3. movement 4. mineral storage (salts, calcium, phosphorus) 5. blood cell formation known as hematopiesis 6. place to attack muscles4 classifications of boneslong, short, flat, irregularwhat are the long bones?femur, tibia, fibular, humerous,radius, and ulnawhat are the short bones?carpals and tarsalsWhat are the flat bones?skull, sternum, scapulaWhat are irregular bones?include the vertebrae and scapulaWhat are the long bone features?1. epiphysis 2. medullary 3. diaphysis 4. endosteum 5. periosteumepiphysisEnd of a long bonemedullaryinner space containing bone marrowdiaphysisshaft of a long boneendosteumlines the medullary cavityperiosteumoutside covering of bonejointsthe places where two or more bones meet (determines movement)Synarthrosisan immovable joint -- cranial suturefissuesdeep grooves where joints meetamphiarthrosisslightly movable joint (vertebrae)diathrosisfreely movable -- knee, hip, elbow, wrist, and footabductionMovement away from the midline of the bodyadductionMovement toward the midline of the bodyflexionbending a jointextensionStraightening of a jointsupinationmovement that turns the palm uppronationturning the palm downwardcircumductionthe circular movement at the far end of a limbprotractionMoving a part forwardretractionmoving a part backwarddorsiflexionbending of the foot or the toes upwardinversionturning inwardrotationmoving a part around an axisFowler's positiona semi-sitting position; the head of the bed is raised between 45 and 60 degreesTrendelenburg positionlying on back with body tilted so that the head is lower than the feetlateral recumbentlying on either the left or right sidethe vertebral columncomposed of separate bones called vertebrae, connected, to form four spinal curvesa curve has more __________ than a straight line to support the weight of the body for movementstrength