124 terms

KIN 360 Exam 2

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Crawling Age
5-7 months
Creeping Age
8 or 9 months
Walking Age
about 12 months
Running Age
6 months after walking
Progression of Locomotion
Walk
Run
Gallop
Hop
Skip
Crawling
Ipsilateral Pattern
Chest and Stomach also touch the surface
Creeping
Contralateral Pattern
Only the hands and knees touch the surface
Characteristics of Walking Gait- initial
difficulty with maintaining upright posture
unpredictable loses of balance
Rigid, halting leg action
Short steps
Flat-foot
Toes turn out
Wide base of support
High guard position (about 180-200 footfalls per minute)
High Guard
Holds their arms up
Middle Guard
Arm will drop to about waist level
Low Guard
An extended position at the sides, but no swing
Asymmetrical Swing
both hands might swing forward together
Characteristics of Walking Gait- Elementary
Gradual smoothing of movement
Step length increases
Arms at side/ but limited swing
Heel-toe contact
Base of support shoulder width or less
about 140 footfalls
Characteristics of Walking Gait- Mature
Reflexive arm swing
Narrow base of support
Increased step length
Definite heel-toe contact
About 120 footfalls
Proficient Walking Patterns
Absolute stride length increase- increase leg length
Planting the foot flatly on the ground- heel then forefoot pattern- increased range motion
Reduces out-towing and narrows the base of support laterally- keep the forces in the forward-backward plane
Double knee-lock
Pelvis rotates to allow the full range motion
Balance improves- forward trunk inclination in reduced
Oppositional arm swing with the movement of the legs
Common Gait Problems
Inhibited or exaggerated arm swing
Exaggerated forward lean
Improper foot placement (flat-footed, toe walking, out or in-toeing)
Poor rhythmic action
Asymmetries
Walking during older age- Adults over 60 years old
Step length was about 3cm shorter
Toes out approximately 3 degrees more
A reduced degree of ankle extension
Pelvic rotation was diminished
Shorter stride length
Walk more slowly
Rate controllers in later walking
Fear of falling
Pain from osteoarthritis
A decrease in walking leads to a decrease in muscle mass and flexibility (affects walking patterns)
Running Vs. Walking
Running- a flight phase where neither foot is on the ground
Walking- double support when both feet are in contact with the ground
Start to run about 6-7 months after begin to walk
Rate Limiting Components
Lower Leg Strength- children must acquire a certain level of strength to stand, balance, and propel themselves
Balance Control- Children must be able to maintain an upright posture
Characteristics of Running Gait- Initial
Wide base of support, flat-footed, high guard, stiff and limited arm swing, limited leg swing, stiff and uneven strides
Characteristics of Running Gait- Elementary
Increase stride length, increase arm swing, increase speed, flight phase
Characteristics of Running Gait- Mature
Stride lengthens, clear flight phase, complete extension of support leg, arms swing in opposition, speed increases
Common Running Problems
Inhibited or exaggerated arm swing
Improper foot placement (flat-foot, flipping of foot)
Poor rhythm
Asymmetries
Twisting of the trunk
Exaggerated trunk lean
Developmental Changes in Later Running in Older Women (age 58-60)
Did not tuck their recovering leg as completely
Had shorter stride length
Took fewer strides
Jogged slower
Ran slower
Enhanced Motor Experience
Practice stepping reflex with children
Control group just did passive leg movements
Experimental group walked earlier
Thelen Enhanced Motor Experience
Had infants walk on motorized treadmill
Rhymthic walking pattern observed
Technique is now being used to help children with various disabilities acquire locomotor skills earlier
Motivation
Show delays in skills that involve moving out into the world (delays in reaching, crawling, creeping, walking)
Suggested that this is due to lack of motivation to search and explore

This is found in blind children
Environmental Constraints
Gravity - constrains the way we move
Assessment of Developmental Changes in Jumping
Onset age at which a child can perform certain kinds of jumping
The distance or height of a jump
The jumping form or pattern
Characteristics of Jumping- Initial
begin by executing vertical jump even if they intend to horizontally jump
By age 3, children can change their trunk angle at takeoff to make either a vertical or horizontal jump
Characteristics of initial jumping leg movements
Preparatory crouch is slight
Legs are not fully extended at liftoff
Do not use a two-foot takeoff or landing (one foot takeoff or step out)
Characteristics Initial jumping- arm movements
no arm action, limited arm swing, extension then partial flexion, extension then partial flexion, extension then complete arm swing overhead
Proficient Jumping
See slide image
Proficient Hopping
The swing leg must led the hip, the support leg must extend fully, the arms must move in opposition to the legs, the support leg must flex at landing (absorb the force of the landing, prepare for extension at the next takeoff)
Galloping and Sliding
Asymmetric gaits, consist of a step on one foot, then a leap-step on the other foot
The same leg always leads with the step
Difference between galloping and sliding is the direction of the movement (galloping moving forward and sliding moving sideways)
Skipping
A step and hop on the same foot with alternating feet
APGAR Scale
Check visually 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth
Range 0-10
score and below 3- critically low
4 to 6- fairly low
7 to 10- generally normal
Apgar Measured In
Measured in Appearance, Pulse, Facial Movements, Muscle Tone, Respiration
Motor Milestone
Fundamental motor skill whose attainment is associated with the acquisition of later voluntary movements. The order in which an infant attains these milestones is relatively consistent, although the timing differs among individuals
Phylogenetic
fundamental behavioral activities that occur with the development of the species; biological and resistant to environmental influences (reaching and walking)
Ontogenetic
Not general to the species as a whole but emerging as part of learning and the environment (piano playing, ice skating)
Norm-Referenced
Reflect te test performance of a large representative sample of infants
Advantage: identify slowly developing children
Disadvantage: no information to provide what educational experiences to prescribe to facilitate future development
Criterion-Referened Scale
Determine whether an infant has achieved some pre-established standard performance
Provide info on the infant or child's capabilities in specific task
Norm-Referenced Scale
based on the group
Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Scale
not mutually exclusive
Many norm referenced test can be used as criterion referenced
(performance in relation to a representative sample of infants; specific tasks)
Bayley vs. Denver
Look on slide
World Health Organization- Multicentre Growth Reference Study 6 motor milestones
Sitting without support, creeping, standing with assistance, walking with assistance, standing alone, and walking alone
Culture Influences
First child syndrome- first time mothers hold their infants for long periods of time and avoid putting them on their stomachs
Delay in Crawling
SIDS
Back to Sleep
Not enough tummy time (lost the opportunity to strengthen their neck muscles), interaction of constraints
Spontaneous (stereotypic) movements
infant's movements that occur without any apparent stimulation
Characteristics of spontaneous of movements
movements of parts of the body or the whole body that are repeated in the same form at regular short intervals of about a second or less and may include various forms of kicking, arm waving, banging, bouncing, rocking, twirling, scratching, and swaying
Function of the Spontaneous Movements
Maturation phenomena, compensatory effects, primitive form of goal-directed movements
Prechtl's Method
Qualitative Assessment of General Movements:
the ontogeny of spontaneous motor activity
normal and abnormal GMs from birth to 20 weeks post-term
GMs and follow-up: individual developmental trajectories and their predictive power for later neurological impairments
Infantile Reflex
An involuntary, stereotypical movement response to a specific stimulus; the term refers specifically to such responses seen only during infancy
Primitive reflexes
Postural reflexes
Locomotor reflexes
Importance of Movement
Movement is extremely important to the development of perception
Movement plays a role in perceptual development as well as cognitive development
Relationship between cognition and motor development
Parallel development in cognition and motor functions
Prefrontal cortex (complex cognitive operations) and cerebellum (motor functions)
Both develop in adolescence
MRI, brain area are coactivated during cognitive and motor tasks
Children with cognition disorders frequently have motor deficits (ADHD, dyslexia, autism)
BDNF- brain derived neurotrophic factor
a group of brain proteins, building and maintaining the infrastructure of the nervous system, stimulate growth of neurons, protect against neuron loss, strengthen connections among neurons
Effect of Exercise
Animal Study, exercise increases BDNF in hippocampus (learning and memory problems)
Perception and Action Loop
any info you produce, get an action, not a separate process
Concept of Affordances
As an individual grows and develops changes perception of affordance as action capabilities changes
Perception
is body scaled
alternate- step climbing
human movement emerges as the result of the interaction of the individual with the environment (info about environment and info about individual with that environment)
Self-Produced locomotion in refining perceptual ability
Merry-go-round cats
active cat- walk around
passive- riding in gondola
failed to judge depth, exhibit paw placing or eye blinking when an object approached
Self produced movement is necessary for normal perceptual development
Visual Cliff in Infants
about 10% go over the deep side
Related to age of onset of crawling
Early crawlers are more likely to go off the deep end
What do infants gain from crawling around
gain peripheral vision and way to apply it
Implications of visual cliff work
self-produced locomotion is important for developing an avoidance of heights
Need active movement to get the peripheral movement experience
Spatial Perception
The perception that enables one to deal effectively with spatial properties, dimension, and distances of objects and object relations in the environment
Surface Texture Perception
Walkers (but not crawlers) hesitated to cross the deforming surface
exploring the deforming surface- vision and touch
Crossed the deforming surface by crawling
Choose rigid over deforming surface
Locomotor Experience Slope Perception
at what points will they change their strategy- what degrees
Walkers were more sensitive than crawlers to surface slopes
-Crawlers with less locomotor experience; attempted to crawl up and down slopes regardless the steep of slope
Walkers refused steep descending slops of used another form of locomotion
Posture
The orientation of any body segment relative to the gravitational vector. Usually it is an angular measure from the vertical
Balance
The dynamics of body posture to prevent falling
3 sources of information used for balance control
visual information (if you see a lot, you will change), proprioception information, vestibular information
Visual Information for balance control
about how body is positioned relative to the environment
Proprioception Information for balance control
about how limbs and body parts are positioned relative to each other
Vestibular Information for balance control
About head position and movement
Importance of Postural Control and Balance
Precursor to fundamental motor skills
Degeneration of the balance control system has serious consequences in the elderly
How should balance be assessed?
Depends on the goal
Typical approaches: static v. dynamic; different balance strategies;; use of perceptual info
Static v. Dynamic
Static= goal to stand still
Dynamic= goal to recover successfully from a perturbation
Static Assessments
Measure postural sway
Results: greater postural sway with eyes closed compared to open; greater sway when on foam
distal muscles are usually activated first
Freezing-Freeing degrees of freedom
simplify control by initial freezing to make it a less redundant system
later on combine more DOFs and utilize reactive forces arising
Vision
Easy to study
Postural sway increases when vision is removed (eyes closed), moving visual information can perturb balance
Infants in response to moving room
Action linked to the movement speed
Responses improved with sitting experience- postural response sooner, more accurately, and more consistently
As an individual grow and develops...
Continuously calibrate their sensory info and their sensorimotor coupling
Balance change with aging
Over 60s- experience a decline in the ability to balance
Changes in the body's system proprioceptor receptors, vision decline, muscle strength.
Falls- fractures of the spine, hip, or waist
Proprioception arises from ...
receptors
Location and Function of the Receptor:
Muscle Spindles
Muscles
Length, velocity of contraction
Location and Function of the Receptor:
Golgi Tendon Organs
Tendons
Force
Location and Function of the Receptor:
Ruffini endings, Pacinian Corpuscles
Joint capsule and ligaments
Touch
Location and Function of the Receptor:
Cutaneous
Skin
Touch
Location and Function of the Receptor:
Vestibular Semicircular Canals
Inner ear
Balance or orientation
Proprioception yields information about
The relative position of the body parts to each other (close your eyes, touch index fingers)
The position of the body in space (raise your hand)
The body's movement (twist in gymnastics)
The nature of object that the body comes in contact with (texture of the object)
The proprioception system is functional early in life at
birth
Onset of reflexes indicates that proprioception receptors are functioning
Touch seems to be essential because
infants that are held/touched gain weight faster, spend less time in intensive care
Changes in proprioception system with age
absolute threshold increase
results in decrease in sensitivity to touch, temp, and pain
Newborns feel pain?
React to it but can't feel it because their cerebral cortex is too poorly developed
Perception of the body
Body awareness- identification of body parts
Knowledge of body part label- a function of practice
Spatial dimensions
Up down first and then front back and side
2.5 to 3 you can place an object in front of or behind their bodies, but have difficulty with doing the same with an external object
By 4 yoa, most children can place an object in reference to external object
Intermodal Perception
The perceptual systems don't operate in isolation
2 different perspectives on how senses are developed
Integrational perspective
Unified perspective
Integrational Perspective
Senses are separate
The energy reaching the different senses is of different forms- light, sound, temp, etc.
Infants must learn to integrate different senses
Unified Perspective
Senses are united in bringing information about events but through different modalities
Unified Perspective- Amodal Invariants
many patterns are similar across the modalities
(drummers)
infants have evolved to detect invariants
What perspective in MD is more in line with unified perspective?
ecological approach
Sensation-Sensory Information
Neural activity triggered by a stimulus that activates a sensory receptor
Passive process
Perception
Process of selecting, processing, organizing, and integrating information received fro the sensory receptors
Active process
Vision- Infancy
Infant at birth has very poor acuity
Based on a static image- newborn could not recognize anyone
But perception improves if either the perceiver or object moves (see better if it is moving)
Eye Movements- Infancy
Newborn does not have much control of their eyes
Often move independently
Difficult making smooth pursuit movements
Can only make saccades (jump from one place to another)
Visual Deprivation
Wiring more disturbed when one eye was shut than 2 eyes
1 eye- losing considerable space in the visual cortex
2 eye- visual system is substantially reduced but remains symmetrical
Competitive interaction between left and right eye inputs underlies the process of selective brain wiring
Color Vision
infants are able to perceive colors at birth- limited by poor contrast sensitivity
Peripheral Vision
infants- about 120 degrees
adults- about 180 degrees
Means that person must be in front of an infant in order to get their attention
Retinal Disparity
each eyes sees the visual field from a slightly different angle
a comparison of the 2 slightly different pictures
Motion Parallax
Nearer objects overlap more distant objects as the head moves
Optic Flow
Transformation of the optical array
Preferential Looking
Infants tend to look at objects or events that are new, surprising, or different from those they are familiar with (habituation)
Face Perception
4 day old infants spend a longer time looking at their mother's face than at a female stranger's
Perception of Motion
Direction of motion is not well perceived until 8 weeks of age
Thresholds for detecting velocity are higher in newborns
Presbyopia
around 40
ability to see nearby images clearly (arms not long enough)
Diameter of the pupil decreases with aging
Reducing retinal illuminance- the amount of light reaching the retina
Auditory Perception in Infancy
Fetus responds to sounds pre natally and about 5 months gestationally.
Newborns turn towards sounds
prefer high frequencies, human voices, female voices
Perception of Location Auditory
Perception of location- minimum angle between the 2 locations
6 and 7 monts- 12 to 19 degrees
Adults- 1 to 2 degrees
Perception of Sound Differences Auditory
1 to 4 months- basic speech sounds
Perception of Stimulus Patterns
Differentiate # of groups and Differentiate 3 of groups and # of tone
"tune" the developing auditory system to recognize certain features of language and music
Presbycusis
A loss of hearing sensitivity
can be bc physiological degeneration or lifelong exposure to loud noises
Changes in Hearing with Age
Absolute threshold for hearing pure tones and speech increases- therefore sounds and speech are much louder
Ability to hear high frequency sounds decreases
Ability to distinguish sounds in noisy environment difficult