Research Exam 1

Evidence based practice must include
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Terms in this set (45)
Philosophical origin: logical positivism vs. naturalistic, interpretive, humanistic

Focus: concise, objective, reductionistic vs. broad, subjective, holistic

Reasoning: logistic, deductive vs. dialectic (investigatign), inductive

Basis of knowing: cause-and-effect relationships vs. meaning, discovery, understanding

Theoretical focus: tests theory vs. theory development
Non-maleficence- avoid harm to an individual or societyJusticeFair and equalTuskegee study- syphilis in malesWillowbrook study- mentally retarded children were infected with hepatitisJewish chronic disease hospital study- injected with liver cancer cells - no consent treating physicians unawareScientific MisconductNot disclosing a portion of the data from the original study sample that was not used in the final data analysisDeclaration of HelsinkiTherapeutic researach - results might benefit participantsNational Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects- Principle of respect for persons - prinicple of beneficence - principle of justiceNuremberg code- voluntary consent of human subjects is absolutely essentialRespect for persons- self determination (participation and withdrawing) - No coercion (forcing someone to be in a study) - Full disclosure, no deception - Voluntray consent - people with diminished autonomy have special protectionsPriciple fo Beneficence- freedom from harm and exploitation - high anticipated benefit may balance high risksPrinciple of justice- fair treatment - right to privacy: anonymity and confidentiality5 human rights- self determination - privacy - anonymity and confidentiality - fair treatment - discomfort and harmSelf-determination could be violated if:- coercion: forcing someone to be in the study - covert data collection: subjects are unaware study is taking place - Deception: misinforming subjects about the studyWho has diminished autonomy?- legally and mentally incompetent subjects - neonates and children - terminally ill subjects - pregnant women andfetuses - people confined to an institutionAnonymity- no one, not even the reseracher knows the identify of the subjectsDescriptive research- Exploration and description of phenomena in real-life situations - new meaning is discovered and the description of concets is accomplished - helps identify relationshipsCorrelational- looks at the relationship between two or more variable s - Determines the strength (p-value) and type of relationship - explains what is seen - no cause and effectQuasi- experiemtnal- examines cause and effect - less control by reseracher than true experimental design - not randomly selected - all variables in the study cannot be controlled by the researcherExperimental- Controlled manipulation of at lease one independent variable - experimental and control groups - RANDOM ASSIGNMENT - Looks at cause and effect - highly controlled, objective, systemic studies - measures independent and dependent variableApplied Research- attempts to solve real world problems in clinical practice - studies the effects the intervention may have on patients - applies findings in the real world on real patientsRigor- striving for excellence - precise measurement tools - represenation samples - tightly controlled study design - logical reasoning - precision, accuracy and detailExtraneous variables- interfere iwth hypothesized relationships between variables - can decreased through sample selection and the use of defined reserach settingsSampling- Process of selecting subjects who are representative of the populationRandom sampling- each member has an equal chance of being selected - has the most controlConvenience sampling- whoever is availableResearch problem vs purpose- Problem - area of concern needed reserach for nursing practice. The problem identifies, describes, or predicts the research situation - purpose - comes from the problem and identifies the specifc goal of the study - the purpose involves variables, population, and setting for the study - collects literature about the problemFramework- abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing's body of knowledgeTheory- integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, expalin, predict and control phenomenaConcrete vs. abstract variables- Concrete: temp, weight - Abstract: creativity, empathyQualitative reserach- A systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning - understanding human experiences - focuses on understanding the whole - consistenct with holistic philosophyWhich of the following is not a common data collection method in qualitative research?- Obtaining written surveys!!4 types of descriptive analysis- Reflexive though - Bracketing - Data reduction - CodingReflexive thought- Researcher explores personal feelings and experiences that may influence study and integrates this understanding into the study - requires conscious awareness of selfBracketing- phenomenological reserach - help reseracher avoid misinterpreting phenomenon as it is being experienced by patient - laying aside what researcher knows about the experience being studied