26 terms

Hug PH CIA Chapter 3 - States of Matter

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matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
viscosity
a liquid's resistance to flow
solid
Matter with a definite shape and volume (space).
surface tension
The uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid that hold them together.
liquid
matter with a definite volume but no definite shape
gas
matter without a definite shape or volume
melting
the change from the solid state to the liquid state
freezing
the change from the liquid state to the solid state
vaporization
the change from the liquid state to the gas state
condensation
the change from the gas state to the liquid state
density
how closely packed the particles of a substance are; mass divided by volume
amorphous
solid where large particles are randomly arranged
crystalline
solid where particles are arranged in repeating, three-dimensional patterns
sublimation
the process of a substance going from the solid state to the gas state without ever being in the liquid state
Kinetic Theory of Matter
All matter is made up of particles that are always in motion. The motion and spacing of the particles determines the state of matter.
plasma
A super heated gas which ionizes (loses or gains electrons) under extreme temperatures. It has no definite volume or shape and conducts electricity and responds to magnetic fields. Examples: Lightning, Neon Signs, Aurora Borealis
fluid
A substance that flows.
Conservation of Matter
a fundamental principle of physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed
Pressure
Force per unit area. The force put on an area. P=F/A
Pascal
A unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter
changes of energy and state graph
Graph that shows how energy is added or taken out of a system to create a change in state. Going up requires energy.
boiling Point
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
dew point
The temperature at which condensation begins (gas becomes a liquid.)
heat of fusion
Amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase.
Charles Law
the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
Boyle's Law
At constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Volume goes up, pressure goes down.

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