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Chapter 14 Biology
Terms in this set (35)
A family record that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations is called a
A person that has ONE copy of an AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE allele and does not express the trait, but can pass it along to his/her offspring is called a
The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis is called
This picture of an organism's chromosomes is called a
The person shown at the left is a __________ because they have two X chromosomes.
The chromosomes that DO NOT determine sex are called
Which parent determines the sex of the baby?
The dense region in the nucleus of female cells that forms when one of the X chromosomes is randomly inactivated is called a _______
Most sex-linked genes are found on the
Which of the following genetic disorders results from nondisjunction?
Which of the following is an AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT genetic disorder?
Which of the following is an AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE genetic disorder?
Heterozygous persons with one sickle cell allele and one normal allele also show resistance to ___________
Which food group must persons with PKU avoid in order to prevent retardation?
Which genetic disorder is more common in Caucasians?
Explain why X-linked disorders like colorblindness, hemophilia, and muscular dystrophy are carried by females BUT show up more frequently in MALES.
They are more common because the males because males have only one X Chromosome
Explain why eating "sugar free" foods causes a person with Phenylketonuria to become retarded.
The sugars have phenylalanine in it.
How are cells with MONOSOMY different from HAPLOID cells?
Monosomy- one chromosome
How do twins form?
Fraternal twins develop from two eggs that are released and fertilized at the same time by two different sperm.
Identical twins develop from one egg that splits into two
Brain deteriorates starting about age 30-40.
Lose ability to walk, talk, think→ early death;
Caused by extra CAG repeats in the code
Abnormal hemoglobin protein causes red blood
cells to sickle; causes circulatory problems and
organ damage; caused by SUBSTITUTION A→T
Eating foods containing phenylalanine causes mental retardation; enzyme to break down phenylalanine doesn't work; All babies born in US are tested for this
Inability to distinguish the colors
(especially red from green)
X-linked recessive disorder in which the protein that clots blood is missing causing excessive bleeding after injuries
Trisomy-21; Three #21 chromosomes; characteristic facial features; slanted eyes; mental retardation; some heart defects;
X0 females; females have only one X chromosome; infertility
Males with extra X chromosomes (XXy, XXXy, XXXXy); infertility; males with some female characteristics
Protein for transporting Cl - ions doesn't work; Thick mucous clogs lungs and digestive organs
Disorder in which lipids accumulate in the brain causing retardation, blindness and early death
"Dwarfism"; defect in bone formation causing normal sized head/torso, but short arms/legs
Progressive weakening and loss of skeletal muscles causing paralysis and eventual death
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
A mutation that causes a protein to be NON-FUNCTIONAL would appear
RECESSIVE to the normal working allele.
A mutation that codes for a new protein whose action masks the normal allele appears as a DOMINANT mutation.
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