Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System
Terms in this set (33)
-Cocci in chains.
can be mild to severe.
-Classified by hemolytic capability on blood agar.
bacteria produce toxins that digest skin and muscle tissue.
Strep throat: Symptoms & Complications
Symptoms: Fever & Sore Throat.
Complications: Ear infection as bacteria pass thru eustacian tube from throat to ears.
"Diptheria Corynbacterium Diptheriae"
"Diptheria Corynbacterium Diptheriae"
-Toxin secreted which kills epithelial cells of pharynx.
-creates dead cells/WBCs/fibers/mucus-all of these combined creates a Psedomembrance which can block respiration & may be fatal
Prevented by DTap Vaccine.
Pertusis "whooping cough"-BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS.
Gram negative & rod shaped.
Toxin paralyzes cilia in respiratory tract, mucus movement is inhibited.
S/S: Mild cough at 1st with flu-like symptoms.
High pitched whooping cough as child tries to inhale.
referred to as the 100 day cough-usually a long recovery.
Prevented by Vaccine: DTaP " aP: acellular pertusis"- where cellular extracts from dead bacteria are used.
-inflammation of meninges covering the brain.
Neisseria Meningitidis: gram negative "Diplococcus"
-gets through the respiratory tract breaks barriers gets to blood vessels & then to cerebrospinal fluid.
-can range from mild to fatal.
Dx- spinal tap, look for diplococci
Tx- Antibiotics & antitoxins.
"H. Influenza" Type B -HiB
Gram Negative - Rod Shaped
-5% mortality rate
Tx: Tetramune - 4 in one: vaccine includes DTaP & H Influenza type B -HiB vaccine.
-Incidence of HiB in USA tumbles after intro of vaccine.
Acid Fast, Rod Staining
-kills up to a million people a year
-forms tubercles or nodules- the body attempts to wall off the bacteria they are made of WBC calcium salts & fibers.
Symptoms: fever, blood in sputum, chest pain, night sweats, weight loss.
Diagnosis: Mantoux test: injected bacterial protein after 2-3 days if a red welt is >5mm it's considered high risk.
Referred for Chest X-ray.
Treatment: Open air-send patient away from city (doesn't cure but it's helpful)
primarily affects the elderly
- usually only causes Secondary Diseases
because Streptococcus Pneumoniae is a resident organism.
-affect sick or immunocompromised persons. " e.g. ingluenza, HIV."
-Tens of thousands of fatalities in the US a year.
Primary atypical pneumonia
"the smallest bacteria"
Occurs in healthy people
No cell wall to this mycoplasma
"penicillin won't treat it"
Walking Pneumonia- victim wil survive to walk another day because it doesn't get into the blood stream and is localized in the lungs
Treatment: antibiotics to target ribosomes of these bacteria:
Diagnosis: CAST Test- cold Agglutin Screening Test= victim antibodies will clump type O red blood cells at 4 degrees celsius.
Other Pneumonia causing bacteria
Klebsiella Pneumonia & Serratia Marcescens
They Cause Nosocomial infections!!!
Legionnaire's Disease: Legionella Pneumophila
Gram Negative, Difficult to grow in lab
Organism exists in air conditioners & humidifiers. " Standing Water"
Can also live in Protozoa.
Legionellosis: mortality rate of 15-20%
1st outbreak killed many veterans.
Celebrating the 1976- 200 year anniversary of America "ie. Legionairres convention)
Name of Bacteria: Coxiella Burnetii
Type of Bacteria: Rickettsiae- "also small & can enter respiratory tract"
Resevoir: Cows, Sheep, Goats.
Causes: contact with animals or their milk "affects animal care workers"
1.) Entry: Aerosol from infected sheep, goats or cattle.
2.) Spread: Hematogenous (through blood)
3.) Disease: Pneumonitis, Endocarditis, Granulomas.
4.) Exit: Usually none in man
Psittacosis: Chlamydia Psittaci
Exotic Birds are usually carriers.
Don't inhale bird droppings or kiss your parakeet too much.
Prevention: quarantine birds, give them water with antibiotic.
Anthrax "Respiratory": BACILLUS ANTHRACIS
Spore forming gram positive rod: acquired via animal contact or Bioterrorism.
Symptoms: Respiratory failure- often fatal.
Tx: Antibiotics-Cipro: Ciproflaxacin.
Anthrax Vaccine only given to soldieers for its heavy side effects.
Bubonic Plague "Respiratory": YERSINIA PESTIS
Can be a highly fatal disease.
Gram Negative Rod- Stains on both ends "bipolar staining."
Entry via respiratory system. "highly contagious & fatal"
May spread to blood & lymphatic systems.
Buboes: purple lesions near lymph nodes-where bleeding & swelling have occurred.
In the Past: killed 1/3 of Euro population in the 1300s "Black Death"
Has 8 segments of RNA.
2 spike proteins "N & H"
N Spike aides in release of the virus.
major changes in the flu genome.
usually what causes pandemics.
usually due to recombination between different flu strains.
Ex. Avian Influenza "H5N1"- about 50% fatal since humans have not been exposed to it in the past.
Tx: Amantadine & Tamiflu
Small changes due to mutation.
Happen each year. "new flu vaccine each year"
Tx: Amantadine & Tamiflu
40% of acute respiratory infections in children.
Big problem for children under 6 yrs old.
Similar to influenza "milder symptoms"
often misdiagnosed as a "cold"
20+ virsues can cause them
Vaccine development not possible because one vaccine cannot account for this many viruses.
Adenovirus, Rhinovirus & Coronavirus
produce inflammation in the upper respiratory tract.
60% hand, 45% nose, 35% saliva, 5% home objects
they have a crown of spike proteins.
SARS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
spreads thru close person-to-person contact.
Symptoms: mild to fatal " severe pneumonia common"
has killed many health care workers tending to patients.
SARS coronavirus "SARS-CoV"- newly emerging disease, 2003 begins to spread around the world.
Respiratory Syncytial Disease
affects the lower respiratory tract in young children- especially those under 1yrs of age.
also known as Viral Pneumonia
Syncytia Formation: giant cell fusions form in the lungs.
Tx: Immune Globulin, Antibody Mixture Preparation, Ribavirin.
"Vaccine"- just Immune Globulin: collection of antibodies from other persons.
Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcus Neoformans
usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals.
-Causes 25% of all fungal fatalities.
-Resistance based on T cells "HIV patients often killed by this"
Transmission: Airborne->lungs->brain-> causes meningitis.
Source: Bird Droppings
Tx: Amphotericin B "Very strong side effects"
Pneumocystis Pneumonia: Pneumocystis jiroveci
causes illness & death within immunosupressed individuals.
Pneumocystis jiroveci: fungas that has protozoan-like qualities, including a "trophozoite" or feeding form life stage.
Relation to AIDS-kills many HIV patients "& rarely anyone else"
Tx is difficult.