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Ralph Waldo Emerson

wrote "The American Scholar" and "Self Reliance"; said "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies, America lies beyond"; transcendentalist

Henry David Thoreau

wrote Walden and "Civil Disobedience"

John Humphrey Noyes

perfectionist, established the Oneida community

Ann Lee

worshipped by the Shakers as the female incarnation of God

Charles Fourier

French advocate of "Phalanxes"

Robert Owen

Scottish industrialist, founded New Harmony

Charles G. Finney

greatest revivalist of the of the 2nd Great Awakening

Horace Mann

"Father" of the Public School Movement

William H. McGuffy

author of the famous reader used by school children in the 19th century

Cessare Becarria

Italian who wrote for prison reform and against capital punishment

Dorothea Dix

argued for separate asylums for the mentally ill

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

for women's suffrage, refused to use "obey" in her marriage vows

Lecertia Mott

Quaker, helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention; woman delegates to London anti-slavery conference not recognized

Joseph Smith

founded the Mormons, killed by angry mob

Brigham Young

led the Mormons into Utah

Alexis de Tocqueville

wrote "Democracy in America"

North American Phalanx

best example of a successful Fourier phalanx


followers of a Calvinist Baptist Minister who taught that the 2nd coming of Christ would come in 1844


taught that God had once been a man and that all men can become divine

The North (of the U.S.)

% of schoolchildren in this area about 70%

The South (of the U.S.)

% of schoolchildren in this area about 33%

Auburn, N.Y.

first of the new penitentiaries, or criminal asylums in 1821

Worcester, Massachusetts

first of the new mental asylums, established in 1833

Maine Law of 1851

forbade sale of intoxicating beverages

Seneca Falls, N.Y.

site of the first women's rights convention

Sarah Josepha Hale

female editor of Godney's Ladies Book

Thomas H. Gallaudet

opened the first school for pupils with hearing impediments

Solitary Confinement

believed to contribute to moral regeneration of the inmate

William Ellery Channing

influental unitarian minister

Thomas Hart Benton

Missouri senator, expansionist, wanted to stand up to Britain over the Oregon territory issue

Andrew Jackson

ignored the Supreme Court's protection of the southeast Indian tribes

Martin Van Buren

New Yorker, president, architect of Independent Treasury Bill

Worcester vs. Georgia

Supreme Court ruled that Georgia law could not be enforced in the Cherokee Nation

John Q. Adams

lost in the 1828 election to Jackson

John Tyler

first vice-president to become president when a president died

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

established boundary of Maine (between US and Britain); US gained more land (including iron ore in MN), Britain gained Halifax/Quebec route

William H. Harrison

first president to die while in office

Specie Circular

decree that required all public lands to be purchased with "hard" or metallic money

John Slidell

sent to Mexico City to offer $25 million for California and territory to the east

"pet banks"

banks in which Jackson deposited federal money; these were his chief weapon in his struggle with the U.S. Bank

Stephen F. Austin

granted land tract by Mexico to bring in settlers of the Roman Catholic faith

John C. Fremont

helped overthrow Mexican rule in California

Robert Hayne

SC senator who sought to safeguard minority interests in the South in a debate with Webster

Sam Houston (commander in chief)

former TN governor; tragic marriage, alcoholism, living with Indians, Texas

Zachary Tyler, Winfield Scott

the two American generals who led the main invasion forces in Mexico

Maysville Road Bill

vetoed by Jackson, would have provided funds for internal improvements

Kit Carson

guide who accompanied Fremont; showed Kearney the way from Santa Fe to CA

James Beckwith (Beckwourth)

born a slave (white father, mulatto mother), freed in 1810; mountain man in VA; lived among the Crow Indians in the West; member of Gen. Kearney's forces in CA

James G. Birney

Kentucky anti-slavery leader; presidential candidate of Liberty party in 1840, free soil (keep slavery out of territories) platform

Benjamin Henry Lantrobe

British born; first professional architect in US (classical revival style); completed the Capitol building in Washington DC; cathedral in Baltimore

Daniel Webster, Henry Clay

two able and experienced leaders of the Whigs who had hoped to govern through a weak president 1841 - 1845

"tyranny of the majority"

term used by de Tocqueville in Democracy in America which described why, although individuals have legal freedom in American democracy, there is great pressure for them to conform

John Jacob Astor

fur trader and real-estate spectacular millionaire

Mary Lyon

raised money to launch a "Female Seminary", now Mount Holyoke College

Hannah Forsharn Lee

woman author who wrote on living within one's income (Three Experiences in Living) in response to 1837 economic panic

John James Audubon

wrote Birds of America

Margaret Fuller

edited a transcendentalist journal, The Dial

Angelina Grimke, Sarah Grimke

sisters who spoke at anti-slavery gatherings

James Fenimore Cooper

wrote of the rugged individualist; hero - Narry Bumpo

Charlotte Cushman

most talented actress of the 1800s

Washington Irving

wrote Knickerbocker's History of New York

Edgar Allen Poe

excelled in the horror short story

John C. Calhoun

as vice-president under Jackson, he changed from a nationalist to a Southern sectionalist

James K. Polk

first dark horse candidate to be nominated for the presidency

Peggy Eaton

daughter of a Washington boardinghouse keeper who married Secretary of War under Jackson

Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson

two presidents whose names became adjectives

the BUS ("eastern money")

Jacksonians hated ________ and instead favored easy money

Trail of Tears

The Cherokee Indians forced to leave their lands; traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, more than 800 miles (1,287 km), to the Indian Territory; more than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during this 116-day journey

political & social democracy, rapid expansion of the west, the president as representative of all the people

What are the 3 main characteristics of Jacksonian Democracy?


conservatives, popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners; mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists; took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution; policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System; generally upper class in origin; included Clay and Webster

Spoils System

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

Abolition of the property requirement (for voting)

the most important political aspect of "Jacksonian Democracy"

Panic of 1837

Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress

Election of 1824

There were four candidates, not two: Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, Henry Clay of Kentucky, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and John Q. Adams of Massachusetts; since the votes were spread out, no candidate got a majority of the electoral vote and won; Jackson got the most votes, but not a majority; Adams came in second, then Crawford, then Clay; election went to the House

corrupt bargain

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

Tariff of Abominations

The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.

Rachel Jackson

This person was criticized in the election of 1828 because of her divorce troubles and supposed "adultery".

Election of 1828

Andrew Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams, 178 electoral college votes to 83 electoral college votes; marks the first success of the new national party system

South Carolina Exposition

A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.

Tariff of 1832

a slightly lower tariff compared to the Tariff of 1828. It fell short of the South's demands


group who tried to get the necessary 2/3 vote to nullify the tariff in South Carolina Legislature

Force Bill

the "Bloody Bill" that authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties

Clay's compromise

said that the tariff rate would be reduced by about 10% over 8 years; reason why the Nullification Crisis of 1832 did not end in civil war


tribe who settled down to become farmers; largely accepted Christianity; devised alphabet so they could write; soon set up a government with a legislative, executive, and judicial branch.

Five Civilized Tribes

collective name for the Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, Chickasaws and Seminoles

Indian Removal Act

law passed in 1830 that forced many Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River

Bureau of Indian Affairs

A government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans

The Bank War

Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power, and was too rich. Whigs were scared he was going to destroy the Bank, so Clay and Webster decided to apply for renewal early, before the next election. Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the charter, but the people agreed with him

Anti-Masonic Party

gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential secret society; opposed Andrew Jackson; drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants

Divorce Bill

A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.

Santa Anna

Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)

Battle of the Alamo

Siege in the Texas War for Independence of 1836, in which the San Antonio mission fell to the Mexicans. Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were among the courageous defenders

New Democracy

based on universal white manhood suffrage rather than old property qualifications

Westward Movement

settlement of western lands as eastern cities became too crowded and new lands became available after the Louisiana Purchase

Black Forties

term used to describe the 1840s, when the potato famine struck Ireland and caused the mass imigration of Irish to America.


those born in America who were opposed to immigrants

Know-Nothing Party

Secret Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's

Commonwealth vs. Hunt

legalized labor unions


sprang out of the Enlightenment (AKA "Age of Reason") and was based on scientific or logical reasoning rather than faith; rejected "the divinity of Christ"; the clockmaker theory


Believed God existed in 1 person, but not the Holy Trinity; rejected the divinity of Christ; believed people were essentially good at heart, not born under "original sin"; believed people were saved through "good works", not through faith in Christ; attracted intellectual types, notably Ralph Waldo Emerson; drew people even farther from Christianity

2nd Great Awakening

The renewal of religous faith in the 1790's and early 1800's; started many reform movements including public education, temperance (not drinking alcohol), women's suffrage (right to vote), prison reform, and better treatment for the mentally handicapped; missionaries went westward in attempt to Christianize Native Americans; Methodists and Baptists were the big winners in the movement; gap between the classes and regions were widened

American Temperance Society

An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.

cult of domesticity

the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house

Oneida Community

radical experiment that practiced free love, birth control, and flourished largely because of superior steel products


philosophy that emphasized the truth to be found in nature and intuition

Aroostook War

clash over the Maine-Canada boundary where a road was proposed to connect Halifax and Quebec

manifest destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.

lower the tariff, restore independent treasury, clear up Oregon border issue, acquire California

James K Polk's 4-point mission for himself and the nation

49th parallel

line at which the Oregon Territory was drawn in 1846

spot resolution

Resolution offered by Congressman Abraham Lincoln demanding to know the precise location where Mexicans had allegedly shed American blood on the "America" soil

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million

Mexican Cession

Mexican territories of California and New Mexico given to the United States in 1848

Wilmot Proviso

Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico; failed in the Senate


Oregon Country (date of map on pg 13)


Mexican Cession (date of map on pg 13)


Texas Annexation (date of map on pg 13)


Louisiana Purchase (date of map on pg 13)


midwestern British Cession (date of map on pg 13)


The United States up to the Louisiana Purchase (date of map on pg 13)


Original 13 Colonies (date of map on pg 13)


Western Florida (date of map on pg 13)


Eastern Florida (date of map on pg 13)


northeastern British Cession (date of map on pg 13)

Perpetual Union Theory

proposed by Daniel Webster; declared that the Constitution is not a compact between sates, but between the US gov't and the people of the nation; "a rope of sand", the Union will collapse

Frederick Jackson Turner

United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history

Frontier Thesis

theory proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner

frontier made Americans equal, democratic, nationalistic; frontier gave Americans faith in the future; frontier acted as a "safety valve" for the factory workers

What are 3 of Frederick Jackson Turner's arguments in his "frontier thesis"?


Gadsden Purchase (date of map on pg 13)

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