128 terms

Test #4: The Age of Jackson - Manifest Destiny (1828 - 1850)

Ralph Waldo Emerson
wrote "The American Scholar" and "Self Reliance"; said "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies, America lies beyond"; transcendentalist
Henry David Thoreau
wrote Walden and "Civil Disobedience"
John Humphrey Noyes
perfectionist, established the Oneida community
Ann Lee
worshipped by the Shakers as the female incarnation of God
Charles Fourier
French advocate of "Phalanxes"
Robert Owen
Scottish industrialist, founded New Harmony
Charles G. Finney
greatest revivalist of the of the 2nd Great Awakening
Horace Mann
"Father" of the Public School Movement
William H. McGuffy
author of the famous reader used by school children in the 19th century
Cessare Becarria
Italian who wrote for prison reform and against capital punishment
Dorothea Dix
argued for separate asylums for the mentally ill
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
for women's suffrage, refused to use "obey" in her marriage vows
Lecertia Mott
Quaker, helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention; woman delegates to London anti-slavery conference not recognized
Joseph Smith
founded the Mormons, killed by angry mob
Brigham Young
led the Mormons into Utah
Alexis de Tocqueville
wrote "Democracy in America"
North American Phalanx
best example of a successful Fourier phalanx
followers of a Calvinist Baptist Minister who taught that the 2nd coming of Christ would come in 1844
taught that God had once been a man and that all men can become divine
The North (of the U.S.)
% of schoolchildren in this area about 70%
The South (of the U.S.)
% of schoolchildren in this area about 33%
Auburn, N.Y.
first of the new penitentiaries, or criminal asylums in 1821
Worcester, Massachusetts
first of the new mental asylums, established in 1833
Maine Law of 1851
forbade sale of intoxicating beverages
Seneca Falls, N.Y.
site of the first women's rights convention
Sarah Josepha Hale
female editor of Godney's Ladies Book
Thomas H. Gallaudet
opened the first school for pupils with hearing impediments
Solitary Confinement
believed to contribute to moral regeneration of the inmate
William Ellery Channing
influental unitarian minister
Thomas Hart Benton
Missouri senator, expansionist, wanted to stand up to Britain over the Oregon territory issue
Andrew Jackson
ignored the Supreme Court's protection of the southeast Indian tribes
Martin Van Buren
New Yorker, president, architect of Independent Treasury Bill
Worcester vs. Georgia
Supreme Court ruled that Georgia law could not be enforced in the Cherokee Nation
John Q. Adams
lost in the 1828 election to Jackson
John Tyler
first vice-president to become president when a president died
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
established boundary of Maine (between US and Britain); US gained more land (including iron ore in MN), Britain gained Halifax/Quebec route
William H. Harrison
first president to die while in office
Specie Circular
decree that required all public lands to be purchased with "hard" or metallic money
John Slidell
sent to Mexico City to offer $25 million for California and territory to the east
"pet banks"
banks in which Jackson deposited federal money; these were his chief weapon in his struggle with the U.S. Bank
Stephen F. Austin
granted land tract by Mexico to bring in settlers of the Roman Catholic faith
John C. Fremont
helped overthrow Mexican rule in California
Robert Hayne
SC senator who sought to safeguard minority interests in the South in a debate with Webster
Sam Houston (commander in chief)
former TN governor; tragic marriage, alcoholism, living with Indians, Texas
Zachary Tyler, Winfield Scott
the two American generals who led the main invasion forces in Mexico
Maysville Road Bill
vetoed by Jackson, would have provided funds for internal improvements
Kit Carson
guide who accompanied Fremont; showed Kearney the way from Santa Fe to CA
James Beckwith (Beckwourth)
born a slave (white father, mulatto mother), freed in 1810; mountain man in VA; lived among the Crow Indians in the West; member of Gen. Kearney's forces in CA
James G. Birney
Kentucky anti-slavery leader; presidential candidate of Liberty party in 1840, free soil (keep slavery out of territories) platform
Benjamin Henry Lantrobe
British born; first professional architect in US (classical revival style); completed the Capitol building in Washington DC; cathedral in Baltimore
Daniel Webster, Henry Clay
two able and experienced leaders of the Whigs who had hoped to govern through a weak president 1841 - 1845
"tyranny of the majority"
term used by de Tocqueville in Democracy in America which described why, although individuals have legal freedom in American democracy, there is great pressure for them to conform
John Jacob Astor
fur trader and real-estate spectacular millionaire
Mary Lyon
raised money to launch a "Female Seminary", now Mount Holyoke College
Hannah Forsharn Lee
woman author who wrote on living within one's income (Three Experiences in Living) in response to 1837 economic panic
John James Audubon
wrote Birds of America
Margaret Fuller
edited a transcendentalist journal, The Dial
Angelina Grimke, Sarah Grimke
sisters who spoke at anti-slavery gatherings
James Fenimore Cooper
wrote of the rugged individualist; hero - Narry Bumpo
Charlotte Cushman
most talented actress of the 1800s
Washington Irving
wrote Knickerbocker's History of New York
Edgar Allen Poe
excelled in the horror short story
John C. Calhoun
as vice-president under Jackson, he changed from a nationalist to a Southern sectionalist
James K. Polk
first dark horse candidate to be nominated for the presidency
Peggy Eaton
daughter of a Washington boardinghouse keeper who married Secretary of War under Jackson
Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson
two presidents whose names became adjectives
the BUS ("eastern money")
Jacksonians hated ________ and instead favored easy money
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians forced to leave their lands; traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, more than 800 miles (1,287 km), to the Indian Territory; more than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during this 116-day journey
political & social democracy, rapid expansion of the west, the president as representative of all the people
What are the 3 main characteristics of Jacksonian Democracy?
conservatives, popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners; mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists; took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution; policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System; generally upper class in origin; included Clay and Webster
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Abolition of the property requirement (for voting)
the most important political aspect of "Jacksonian Democracy"
Panic of 1837
Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress
Election of 1824
There were four candidates, not two: Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, Henry Clay of Kentucky, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and John Q. Adams of Massachusetts; since the votes were spread out, no candidate got a majority of the electoral vote and won; Jackson got the most votes, but not a majority; Adams came in second, then Crawford, then Clay; election went to the House
corrupt bargain
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abominations
The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
Rachel Jackson
This person was criticized in the election of 1828 because of her divorce troubles and supposed "adultery".
Election of 1828
Andrew Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams, 178 electoral college votes to 83 electoral college votes; marks the first success of the new national party system
South Carolina Exposition
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.
Tariff of 1832
a slightly lower tariff compared to the Tariff of 1828. It fell short of the South's demands
group who tried to get the necessary 2/3 vote to nullify the tariff in South Carolina Legislature
Force Bill
the "Bloody Bill" that authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties
Clay's compromise
said that the tariff rate would be reduced by about 10% over 8 years; reason why the Nullification Crisis of 1832 did not end in civil war
tribe who settled down to become farmers; largely accepted Christianity; devised alphabet so they could write; soon set up a government with a legislative, executive, and judicial branch.
Five Civilized Tribes
collective name for the Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, Chickasaws and Seminoles
Indian Removal Act
law passed in 1830 that forced many Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River
Bureau of Indian Affairs
A government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans
The Bank War
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power, and was too rich. Whigs were scared he was going to destroy the Bank, so Clay and Webster decided to apply for renewal early, before the next election. Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the charter, but the people agreed with him
Anti-Masonic Party
gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential secret society; opposed Andrew Jackson; drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants
Divorce Bill
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Battle of the Alamo
Siege in the Texas War for Independence of 1836, in which the San Antonio mission fell to the Mexicans. Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were among the courageous defenders
New Democracy
based on universal white manhood suffrage rather than old property qualifications
Westward Movement
settlement of western lands as eastern cities became too crowded and new lands became available after the Louisiana Purchase
Black Forties
term used to describe the 1840s, when the potato famine struck Ireland and caused the mass imigration of Irish to America.
those born in America who were opposed to immigrants
Know-Nothing Party
Secret Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
legalized labor unions
sprang out of the Enlightenment (AKA "Age of Reason") and was based on scientific or logical reasoning rather than faith; rejected "the divinity of Christ"; the clockmaker theory
Believed God existed in 1 person, but not the Holy Trinity; rejected the divinity of Christ; believed people were essentially good at heart, not born under "original sin"; believed people were saved through "good works", not through faith in Christ; attracted intellectual types, notably Ralph Waldo Emerson; drew people even farther from Christianity
2nd Great Awakening
The renewal of religous faith in the 1790's and early 1800's; started many reform movements including public education, temperance (not drinking alcohol), women's suffrage (right to vote), prison reform, and better treatment for the mentally handicapped; missionaries went westward in attempt to Christianize Native Americans; Methodists and Baptists were the big winners in the movement; gap between the classes and regions were widened
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.
cult of domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Oneida Community
radical experiment that practiced free love, birth control, and flourished largely because of superior steel products
philosophy that emphasized the truth to be found in nature and intuition
Aroostook War
clash over the Maine-Canada boundary where a road was proposed to connect Halifax and Quebec
manifest destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
lower the tariff, restore independent treasury, clear up Oregon border issue, acquire California
James K Polk's 4-point mission for himself and the nation
49th parallel
line at which the Oregon Territory was drawn in 1846
spot resolution
Resolution offered by Congressman Abraham Lincoln demanding to know the precise location where Mexicans had allegedly shed American blood on the "America" soil
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Mexican Cession
Mexican territories of California and New Mexico given to the United States in 1848
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico; failed in the Senate
Oregon Country (date of map on pg 13)
Mexican Cession (date of map on pg 13)
Texas Annexation (date of map on pg 13)
Louisiana Purchase (date of map on pg 13)
midwestern British Cession (date of map on pg 13)
The United States up to the Louisiana Purchase (date of map on pg 13)
Original 13 Colonies (date of map on pg 13)
Western Florida (date of map on pg 13)
Eastern Florida (date of map on pg 13)
northeastern British Cession (date of map on pg 13)
Perpetual Union Theory
proposed by Daniel Webster; declared that the Constitution is not a compact between sates, but between the US gov't and the people of the nation; "a rope of sand", the Union will collapse
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history
Frontier Thesis
theory proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner
frontier made Americans equal, democratic, nationalistic; frontier gave Americans faith in the future; frontier acted as a "safety valve" for the factory workers
What are 3 of Frederick Jackson Turner's arguments in his "frontier thesis"?
Gadsden Purchase (date of map on pg 13)