69 terms

ch 18 psych

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social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
suggests how we explain someone's behavior-by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitude
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
foot-in-the-door phenomenom
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. for example, our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
stereotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
ingroup
"us"- people with whom one shares a common identity
outgroup
"them"- those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
just-world phenomenom
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
contrast dispositional and situational attributions, and explain how the fundamental attribution error can affect our analyses of behavior
we usually rely on situational attributions, stressing the influence of external events, to explain our own behavior (and often the behavior of those we know well and see in many different contexts). but in explaining the actions of people we do not know well, we often resort to dispositional attributions, assuming they behave as they do because of their personal traits. this fundamental attribution error (overestimating the influence of personal factors and underestimating the effect of context) can introduce inaccuracies into judgements we make about others
attitude follows ...
behavior
describe the conditions under which attitudes can affect actions
our attitudes are most likely to affect our behavior when social influences are minimal, the attitude is specific to the behavior, and we are very aware of the attitude
explain how role-playing and cognitive dissonance illustrate the influence of actions on attitudes
in role-playing studies, such as Philip Zimbardo's prison experiment, people who behaved in certain ways in scriped scenarios have adopted attitudes in keeping with those roles. Leon Festinger's cogntiive dissonance theory proposes that we feel uncomfortable when we act in ways that conflict with our feelings and beliefs, and we reduce this discomfort by revising our attitudes to align them more closely with our behavior. attitudes adapt to behaviors, rather than drive it
mood linkage
sharing up and down moods
asch's experiments on conformity showed that...
one is made to feel incompetent/insecure
the group has at least 3 people
the group is unanimous
one admires the group's status or attractiveness
one has made no prior commitment to any response
others in the group observe one's behavior
one's culture strongly encourages respect for social standards
social control
the power of the situation
personal control
the power of the individual
minority influence
the power of one or two individuals to sway minorities
describe the chameleon effect
the tendency to unconsciously mimic those around us, as when we yawn when others yawn, or pick up the mood of a happy or sad person. automatic mimicry is an ingredient in the ability to empathize with others
discuss asch's experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence
asch found that people will conform to a group's judgement even when it is clearly incorrect. we may either conform either to gain social approval (normative social influence) or because we welcome the information that others provide (informational social influence). we are most open to informational social influence if we are unsure of what is right and being right matters
describe milgram's experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which obedience was highest
in milgram's experiments, people torn between obeying an experimenter and responding to another's pleas to stop the shocks usually chose to obey orders, even though obedience supposedly meant harming the other person. people were most likely to obey when the person giing orders was nearby and was perceived as a legitimate authority figure; when the person giving orders was supported by a prestigious institution; when the victim was depersonalized or at a distance; and when no other person modeled defiance by disobeying.
explain how the conformity and obedience studies can help us understand our susceptibility to social influence
in the conformity studies, randomly chosen ordinary people conformed in spite of their own beliefs. in the obedience studies, randomly chosen ordinary people obeyed instructions to deliver punishments that, if real, would have harmed total strangers. people who resisted instructions did so early; after that attitudes followed behavior. if we learn from these experiments the underlying processes that can shape our behavior, we may be less susceptible to powerful social influences in real-life situations in which we must choose between adhering to our own standards or being responsive to others
describe the conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation
the presence of either observers or co-actors boosts arousal, strengthening our most likely response. this social facilitation tends to increase performance on easy or well-learned tasks but decrease it on difficult or newly learned ones. the presence of others pooling their efforts toward a group goal can decrease performance when social loafing occurs, as some individuals ride free on the efforts of others. deindividuation, a psychological state in which people become less self-aware and self-restrained, may result when a group experience arouses people and makes them feel anonymous
discuss how group interaction can facilitate group polarization and groupthink
within groups, discussions among like-minded members often produce group polarization, an enhancement of the group's prevailing opinions. this process fosters groupthink, as groups pressure members to conform, suppress dissenting information, and fail to consider alternatives. to prevent groupthink, leaders can welcome a variety of opinions, invite experts' critiques, and assign people to identify possible problems in developing plans
identify the characteristic common to minority positions that sway minorities
minorities that successfully sway group opinions usually express their views consistently
rape myth
the idea that some women invite or enjoy rape and get "swept away" while being "taken".
catharsis hypothesis
the idea that we feel better if we "blow off steam" by venting our emotions
reward theory of attraction
that we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and that we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs
contrast overt and subtle forms of prejudice, and give examples of each
overt prejudice, such as denying a particular ethnic group the right to vote, is discrimination that explicitly expresses negative beliefs and emotions. subtle prejudice, such as feeling fearful in the presence of a stranger with a particular ethnic background, is an implicit expression of negative beliefs and emotions
discuss the social factors that contribute to prejudice
one social factor is inequality (unequal distribution of money, power, and prestige) within a group. they have "haves" usually develop negative attitudes toward the "have-nots" to justify their more privileged positions. definitions of social identity are another source because they promote ingroup bias and discrimination
cite 4 ways that cognitive processes help create and maintain prejudice
we simplify the world by creating categories, but when we categorize people, we often stereotype them. we also tend to judge the frequency of events by vivid cases that come to mind more readily than less vivid ones. we may justify the less-privileged by the just-world phenomenon. hindsight bias ( the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have predicted it beforehand) may contribute to this tendency to blame the victim.
explain how psychology's definition of aggression differs from everyday usage
psychology's definition is any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm or destroy. this is more precise than the everyday definition of aggression.
3 levels of biological influences on aggression
genes influence aggression by influencing temperament. aggression is an interaction between biology and experiences. the amygdala and frontal lobs demonstrate that the brain has neural systems that facilitate or inhibit aggression. studies of the effect of hormones, alcohol, and other substances show that biochemical influences can also attribute to aggression
outline 4 psychological triggers of aggression
biological conditions set the threshold for aggressiveness, but psychological factors can also trigger it. aversive events (such as environmental conditions or social rejection) can create frustration, leading to feelings of anger and hostility. reinforcement for aggressive behavior (such as gaining a treat from another student by bullying) can establish learned patterns of aggression that are difficult to change. people can also learn aggression and become desensitized to violence by observing models act aggressively in person or in the media. media depictions of violence can trigger aggression by providing social scripts, or culturally sanctioned ways of acting in a given situation.
explain how social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict
social conflicts are situations in which people perceive their actions, goals, or ideas to be incompatible. in social traps, 2+ people engage in mutually destructive behavior by rationally pursuing their own personal interests without regard for the well-being of others. helping people to agree on regulations, communicate better, and be more aware of responsibilities can foster cooperation and avoid social traps. people in conflict tend to perceive the worst in each other, producing mirror-images of identical demons. the perceptions can become self-fulfilling prophecies, triggering reactions that confirm the images
describe the influence of proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity on interpersonal attraction
proximity: geographical nearness, promotes attraction because it increases opportunities for interaction and exposure effect. physical attractiveness also increases opportunities for interaction. people prefer being with attractive people, seeing them as healthier, happier, more sensitive, more successful, and more socially skilled. judgement of attractiveness differ by culture, and as time goes by, we find those we care about to be more attractive. similarity of attitudes and interest greatly increases liking after people make it past the first impression.
describe the effect of physical arousal on passionate love, and identify 2 predictors of enduring companionate love
passionate love often matures into a deep affectionate attachment of companionate love. 2 predictors are equality and intimate self-disclosure
describe the steps in the decision-making process involved in bystander intervention
it is the tendency, identified by John Darley and Bibb Latane, for any given observer to be less likely to help if others are present. to offer help, a person must notice the incident, interpret it as an emergency, and assume responsibility for offering help. diffusion of responsibility lowers the likelihood of helping. odds of helping are the highest when the victim is similar to us and appears to need and deserve help, and when we observe others not helping, are feeling guilty, and not in a hurry or preoccupied, are in a small town or rural area, and are in a good mood.
explain altruistic behavior from the perspective of social exchange theory and social norms
social exchange theory proposes that our social behavior-benefits, even altruistic, helpful acts- are based on self-interest. maximizing our benefits (which may include our own good feelings) and minimizing our costs. social norms influence altruistic behaviors by telling us how we should behave.
discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social conflict
friendly contact between prejudiced people can change attitudes. but social conflict is most likely to be reduced when the circumstances favor cooperation to achieve superordinate goals (especially if subgroups disappear) , understanding through communication (sometimes with the help of a third party), and reciprocated conciliatory gestures (such as the GRIT strategy)
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