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Fundamentals of Biology II Chapter 26
Terms in this set (100)
Which of the following traits are shared derived characters of Charophytes and Land Plants?
Sporopollenin, Rings of Proteins for Cellulose production, flagellated sperm
Which of the following traits are shared derived characters of Land Plants?
Walled Spores, cuticle and stoma, apical meristems, alternation of generations and embryos
What key features are found in some of the earliest fossils of land plants?
spores, cuticle and stoma, branching, water transport tissues, myocorrhizae
What is a sporophyte?
Diploid; Produces spores via meiosis which are haploid
What is a gametophyte?
Haploid Produces gametes (via regular mitosis) which are single cells which merge to form zygotes
What are nucleariids
Sister to Fungi; Amoebas feed on algae and bacteria
When does meiosis occur in fungi?
following the fusion of nuclei
In animals, an individual consisting of diploid cells is the life stage which signals to attract a mate and determines whether the potential mate is compatible. What life stages typically accomplish these functions in fungi?
Which of the following is a role NOT performed by any fungi?
You are presented with several single-celled organisms, including one thought to belong to Fungi. What unique feature helps you identify the fungus?
presence of chitinous cell walls
Which of the following terms are monophyletic?
vascular plants, bryophytes, seed plants, archaeplastids, gymnosperms, angiosperms, eudicots, monocots
In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?
A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and life cycle, he notes the following characteristics: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to
Which of the following evolutionary innovation(s) of seed plants enabled them to outcompete ferns and other seedless plants?
reduced, dependent gametophytes
What are two reasons seeds are adaptive for life on land as compared to spores?
nutrient supply, dormancy
How many genetically different life-cycle stages are represented in a gymnosperm seed?
A microspore develops into what?
A fossil plant that is ancestral to angiosperms (a proto-angiosperm) might have what characteristic that distinguishes it from gymnosperms?
What features of lichens allow them to be so successful as new colonizers on bare rock?
Fungal hyphae have extensive surface area for absorbing runoff water and nutrients without any soil, Fungal hyphae break down the rock surface, The symbiosis of two life forms results in complimentary functions, Lichen trap other particles, slowly building a soil.
What has contributed to increased species diversity in Angiosperms as compared to Gymnosperms?
There are a lot of plant diseases caused by fungus. However, provide at least two reasons that eliminating all fungus from earth might be bad for plants.
Mycorrhizae; Endophytes; Decomposers involved in nutrient cycling
The closest algal relatives of land plants are _____.
inseedless plants, a fertilized egg will develop into
Which of the following traits was most important in enabling the first plants to move onto land?
the development of sporopollenin to prevent the desiccation of zygotes
The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always _____.
Which of the following is a difference between plants and fungi?
Fungi are heterotrophic, and plants are autotrophic.
Fungi obtain nutrients through _____.
The body of most fungi consists of threadlike _____, which form a network called a _____.
hyphae ... mycelium
The diploid phase of the life cycle is shortest in which of the following?
What sexual processes in fungi generate genetic variation?
karyogamy and meiosis
Select the correct statement contrasting gametophytes and sporophytes.
Sporophytes are diploid, whereas gametophytes are haploid.
Select the correct statement about the life cycle of a fern.
Plant gametophytes are haploid multicellular bodies.
Select the correct statement(s) about fungal life cycles.
In some fungi, plasmogamy precedes karyogamy by decades, Fungi reproduce sexually but do not have male or female genders
In fungi, haploid hyphae fuse to produce dikaryotic and then diploid nuclei, only to restore the haploid condition by meiosis before the growth of new hyphae. What is the significance of a transient diploid state in fungi?
These sexual processes generate genetic variation.
Select the correct statement(s) about the origin of fungi.
Multicellularity probably arose independently in fungi and animals.
An important example of interaction between fungi and certain other organisms is mycorrhizae, in which the fungal partners _____.
help plants take up nutrients and water
all fungi are
Which of the following characteristics of plants is ABSENT in their closest relatives, the charophyte algae?
alternation of generations
closest relatives of fungi
The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to __________.
an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition
seedless plants include
bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails
Most bryophytes, such as mosses, differ from all other plants in that they _____.
lack true leaves and roots
What evolutionary development allowed plants to grow tall?
lignified vascular tissue
During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of _____ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.
ferns and other seedless plants
In contrast to bryophytes, in vascular plants the dominant stage of the life cycle is the _____.
When you look at a pine or maple tree, the plant you see is a _____.
The adaptation that made possible the colonization of dry land environments by seed plants is most likely the result of the evolution of _____.
In gymnosperms megaspores develop into _____ .
In gymnosperms megaspores develop into _____ .
presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule
Angiosperms are different from all other plants because only they have _____.
Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?
At some point in the life cycle of all plants...
...the sporophyte is dependent on its gametophyte parent.
angiosperms are most closely related to
Which of these was the dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant animals?
Plants evolved from green algae approximately _____ million years ago.
_____ are an example of seedless vascular plants.
The living plants that are most similar to the first plants to bear gametangia are the _____.
A fruit is usually __________.
a mature ovary
archaeplastida appear across clade
Multicellular, Eukaryotic, Photosynthetic, Cellulose cell walls, Chloroplasts
archaeplastida shared derived traits
Cell walls made by protein rings, Similar flagellated sperm structure, Genetic and molecular similarity, Sporopollenin (Prevent drying out)
derived traits of land plants
alternation of generations, walled spores produced by sporangia, apical meristems, most: cuticle and stoma
alternation of generations
Zygotes (single cell diploid) develop as embryos (multicelluar) protected by maternal gametophyte tissue
walled spores produced by sporangia
Spores (n) are produced by Sporophyte (2n), Sporopollenin (which Charophytes have around Zygote (2n))
cell division (mitosis) at root and shoot tips
470 million years ago: spores
(Preserve well because of sporopollenin);
425 million years ago: fossilized spore producing structures; 400 million years ago: Water transport (Xylem), Stomata, Branched Sporophytes
heterotrophs that absorb (secrete digestive enzymes, digests living or dead material), chitin in cells walls (keeps cell from bursting), increase surface area (hyphae, yeast)
multicellular filaments that form mycelium
mutualism between fungus and plants
hyphae pushing against plant's plasma membrane; types = Ectomycorrhizal, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
outside root and inside cell wall pushing against plasma membrane
outside root and extracellular spaces
increase growth rates in plants
animal fungi split
1-1.5 billion years ago; oldest accepted fossils, 460 million years ago
fungus to land
Probably moved with early land plants; Soon after (405 million years): Mycorrhizal - Fossil evidence looks like arbuscular mycorrhizae; Plants genes for symbiosis found (at least inactive) across Land Plants clade - Suggesting ancient mycorrhizal mutualism
nonvascular, paraphyletic, rhizoids (attachment, no nutrient or water transport), short, swimming, flagellated sperm
specialized cells form tubes, transport water and nutrients
seedless vascular plants
vascular (xylem, phloem), roots and leaves, tall (outcompete bryophytes for light), paraphyletic, swimming flagellated sperm, dominate moist Carboniferous; lycophytes, monilophytes
club mosses; microphyll leaf = single vascular strand
tracheid that transport water and minerals
tubes that transport sugars and amino acids
all other vascular plants, multiple vascular strands
rhizoids, short, gametophytes dominate; liverworts, mosses, hornworts
embryo, food, gymnosperms (naked seeds), angiosperms (inside ovaries, which mature into fruit)
terrestrial adaptations of seed
Dry conditions & protect from UV = Seed coat, Reduced, protected gametophyte, Pollen grain (gametophyte) protects sperm
- No more flagellated sperm
female; Integument from sporophyte protects diploid sporophyte which produces:
Megaspore (single-cell haploid) which grows into Female gametophyte which produces and supplies food to:
Egg: fertilized becomes next generation sporophyte (diploid)
male; single cell haploid microspore grows into pollen grain male gametophyte which protects sperm; all protected by cell wall (sporopollenin)
advantages of seeds over spores
SPORES = single celled; SEEDS = multicelled, protected embryo, stored food supply, can be dormant longer
90% of all plant species today, key adaptation: flowers, fruits
ealry fossil angiosperm
Split from Gymnosperms 305 million years ago, Woody origin, Key traits 125 million years ago: Archaefructus, Begin to dominate 100 million years agomid-Cretaceous (overlap with end of dinosaurs)
symbiotic mutualism (fungus and green algae, fungus and cyanobacteria), fossils (420 million years old, probably did the same thing back then), breakdown rock into soil, decomposers
360-300 million years ago, plants reduced global CO2
increased nutrient cycling
plants = fixing carbon dioxide --> sugars, gathering mineral nutrients; fungi = decomposing, breaking down organic compounds, assisting plants
decomposers, mutualists (mycorrhizae, lichens, endophytes), pathogens (parasites: chestnut blight)
Fungus inside all (we think) plant leaves or other parts, Toxins that deter herbivores, Aid in plant tolerance
plant animal interactions
herbivores: evolutionary arms race, pollinators: can form reproductive barrier - speciation
more likely to be pollinator position specific, and lead to pollinator driven speciation
plant pollinator interactions
probably leads to high angiosperm divesity
plant human interactions
habitat destruction - species extinction, rivals mass extinction at end of dinosuars
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