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5 p's

Passage, Passenger, Powers, Psyche, Partners


Type of Pelvis= Gynecoid/Anthropoid (good)
Android/Platypelloid (bad)


Size (child)
Presentation (fetal structure entering the pelvis first- vertex should be presenting part).
Position (location of the back of the fetal head)


contraction and relaxation of uterus
voluntary pushing efforts of woman

"F"eeding "D"ogs "I"s "R"ewarding

"F"requency (time from beginning of one vontraction to beginning of another/ clock or monitor paper, computer).
"D"uration (length of each contraction start-finish)
"I'ntensity (muscle tone of the uterus at the acme of contraction MILD, MODERATE, STRONG)
"R"esting Tone (muscle tone of the uterus at rest, between contractions)


maternal emotional status, support, preparation for labor/birth


relationship b/t passenger and passage
Passenger: vertex presentation, sutures shift and move to navigate through the pelvis
Pelvis: "False Pelvis" vs "True Pelvis"
pelvic inlet
pelvic outlet
pelvic floor
Ischial Spines
"zero station"= fetal head at spines
"plus station"= fetal head below the spines, indicated by numbers
"minus station"= fetal head above the spines

Signs of Impending Labor

Lightening: movement of the fetus downward into pelvic cavity (engagement)
Braxton-Hicks Contractions: irregular contractions that occur after 3rd month of pregnancy
Bloody Show: pink-tinged mucous secretions resulting from cervical dilation
Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes: amniotic fluid from the vagina

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