His. and Systems Exam 1

Ch. 1
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Terms in this set (39)
Humanistic psychologyA system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature.Cognitive psychologyA system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human natureCh.2MechanismThe doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry.Determinismthe doctrine that acts are determined by past eventsReductionismThe doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas)EmpiricismThe pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience.Mind-body problemThe question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities.Reflex action theoryThe idea that an external object (a stimulus) can bring about an involuntary responseDerived ideasderived ideas are produced by the direct application of an external stimulusInnate ideasinnate ideas arise from the mind or consciousness, independent of sensory experiences or external stimuliPositivismthe doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observableMaterialismThe doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter.Simple ideassimple ideas are elemental ideas that arise from sensation and reflectionComplex ideasComplex ideas are derived ideas that are compounded of simple ideas and thus can be analyzed or reduced to their simpler componentsAssociationthe notion that knowledge results from linking or associating simple ideas to form complex ideasPrimary qualitiesPrimary qualities are characteristics such as size and shape that exist in an object whether or not we perceive themSecondary qualitiessecondary qualities are characteristics such as color and odor that exist in our perception of the objectMentalismThe doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person.Creative synthesisThe notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities; the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements.Ch.3ExtirpationA technique for determining the function of a given part of an animal's brain by removing or destroying it and observing the resulting behavior changes.Clinical methodPosthumous examination of brain structures to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavioral conditions that existed before the person died.Electrical stimulationA technique for exploring the cerebral cortex with weak electric current to observe motor responses.Two-point thresholdthe threshold at which two points of stimulation can be distinguished as suchJust noticeable differencethe smallest difference that can be detected between two physical stimuliAbsolute thresholdThe point of sensitivity below which no sensations can be detected and above which sensations can be experiencedDifferential thresholdThe point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in sensation.PsychophysicsThe scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes