AP Psych - Motivation, Eating & Emotion

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Intrinsic Motivation
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Drive Reduction TheoryA theory of motivation stating that motivation arises from imbalances in homeostasis. (Ex: Eating when we feel hungry.)HomeostasisA tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state. This applies to weight, hunger, etc. and is the basis for Drive Reduction Theory.Needs... Drive... ActionThe three steps of Drive Reduction TheoryArousal TheoryA theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation. In other words, we do things because they are interesting but we also don't like being overstimulated. If that happens we want a break from the action.Optimum ArousalWhen all biological needs are met, we don't want too little arousal (because we'll be bored), but we don't want too much (because we'll be stressed); includes curiosity-driven behaviors.Yerkes-Dodson LawThe psychological principle stating that in general, performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal. But for very boring tasks we need high arousal and for stressful task we need low arousal.Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs(level 1) Physiological Needs (level 2) Safety and Security (level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection (level 4) Self Esteem (level 5) Self ActualizationBiological & Physiological NeedsIn Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Basic life needs such as air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.Security NeedsIn Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The need to protect oneself from physical and economic harm.Social Needs / Belongingness & Love NeedsIn Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The need for love, companionship, friendship and acceptance.Self-Esteem NeedsIn Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The need to like and respect yourself, and to feel important and useful.Self-Actualization NeedsIn Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The need to be the best one can be and be doing what is right for you.Criticisms of Maslow's Hierarchy- Has little empirical support - Cultural differences - Does not explain why people have several needs at the same timeHungerThe natural physical drive to eat, prompted by the body's need for foodSatiationThe feeling of being full (opposite of hunger)InsulinHormone related to hunger. When this is high we feel hungry.GlucoseHormone related to hunger. When this is low we feel hungry.Lateral HypothalamusThe part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signals.Ventromedial HypothalamusThe part of the hypothalamus that produces feelings of fullness as opposed to hunger, and causes one to stop eating.Set PointThe point at which one's body tries maintain weightBasal Metabolic RateThe body's resting rate of energy output.External IncentivesIn relation to eating, these cause us to be hungry and include the sight, sound, and smell of food.Eating by the ClockEating because it is "time" to eat (Breakfast, lunch, and dinner)Situational CuesIn relation to eating, these cause us to be hungry and include things like taking a break, the lunch bell, etc.Social EatingPeople tend to eat more when they eat in a groupBulimia NervosaAn eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, starving, or excessive exercise.Binge Eating DisorderAn eating disorder characterized by eating very large amounts of food, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.Anorexia NervosaAn eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves.James-Lange TheoryThe theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli. (Stimuli --> Physiological Reaction (body) --> Emotion) (Tip to remember: Just Linear JL)Cannon-Bard TheoryThe theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both physiological responses and emotion. (Stimuli --> Physiological Response (body) + Emotion) (Tip to remember: Cannot-B Separated CB)Facial Feedback HypothesisThe idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them. (Ex: If you smile and fake laugh, you'll begin to actually feel happy.)Schachter-Singer Two-Factor TheoryThe theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label (think about) the arousal. (Stimuli --> Physiological Response (body) + Cognition (brain) --> Emotion)Lazarus' Cognitive-Meditational TheoryThe theory our experienced emotions are the result of physically aroused but can be modified based on our cognitively appraisal (what we think about) the arousal. (Ex: Scared when you fall but thrilled on the ride at the fair.) (Stimuli --> Physiological Response (body) + Cognitive Appraisal (what your brain thinks) --> Emotion)Zajonc & LeDoux's TheoryThe theory that some emotional responses occur instantly, sometimes we feel before we think.ValenceIn emotion, how positive or negative an emotion is. (Ex: happiness is positive, sadness is negative). Emotions can be categorized by this and arousal.ArousalIn emotion, the strength of an emotion. (Ex: both angry and bored have a negative valence, but angry is a high emotion while bored is low.)HypothalamusPart of the brain that controls the body's major drives, including hunger, thirst, sex, etc. and therefore is key to the Drive Reduction Theory and Instinct Theory.AmygdalaPart of the Limbic system that regulates our sense of fear.Basolateral ComplexPart of the Amygdala that receives messages from the Thalamus and produces high senses of arousal (fear, anger, etc.). It then sends that message on to the Central Nucleus to be acted on.Central NucleusPart of the Amygdala that takes information from the Basolateral Complex and then acts on it (telling the heart to beat faster or the body to get ready to fight, etc.).HippocampusThe part of the Limbic System that "writes" long-term memories, including emotional responses.Body LanguageNonverbal communication through gestures, facial expressions, behaviors, and posture.Paul EkmanPsychologist who studied emotion and found that facial expressions are universal.Universal Facial ExpressionsDisgust, Sadness, Happiness, Fear, Anger and SurpriseCultural Display RuleThe norms or standards that govern what emotions (and how and how much we show them) are acceptable in certain situations.Polygraph TestsA test that measures physiological responses to attempt to determine if a person is telling the truth or lying.