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A vast grouping of stars


Large clouds of dust and gas where new stars are born

Spiral Galaxies

Flat galaxies that include stars and nebulas (the milky was is an example)

Globular Clusters

Tight groups of stars in a halo around the Milky Way

Star Clusters

Stars that occur in small groups in galaxies

Stars are made mostly of

Hydrogen gas and helium gas

What is produced when hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium?

The sun's energy, like the energy of others stars in our universe


huge group of stars, dust, gas, and other celestial bodies bound together by gravitational force


a star that explodes and becomes extremely luminous in the process

black hole

a region in space where a collapsed star creates a vacuum and "sucks" up all of the surrounding stars/planets

Hubble's Law

the red shift distance law of galaxies

Cosmic microwave background radiation was discovered in


The term universe means

all of time, space, matter and energy

The big bang theory states the universe was formed

13.7 billion years ago

Friedrich Franz Friedmann

the first scientist to come up with the idea of big bang was

solar nebula

gravity pulled gas and dust together to form


the study of the origin, properties, processes, and evolution of the universe

big bang theory

the theory that state the universe began with a tremendous explosion 13.7 billion years ago

Scientists can calculate the age of the universe by

measurig the distance from Earth to various galaxies

A second way to calculate the age of the universe is

to calculate the ages of old, nearby stars

Milky Way

the galaxy we live in

The expansion of the universe can be compared to

raisin bread baking in an oven

To understand how the universe formed,

scientists study the movement of galaxies

Observations show that the universe is


Cosmic background radiation helps support

big bang theory

Scientists think that the universe may

expand forever

The distance that light travels in space in 1 year is

apparent magnitude

How are objects organized in the universe?

objects are organized according to a loosely repeated pattern and are part of a larger system.

Scientists think that the universe will

expand forever

According to the big bang theory, what filled the universe after the original explosion

cosmic background radiation

What are individual objects in the universe a part of?

a larger system

According to the big bang theory, ___ filled the universe after the original explosion.

cosmic background radiation

The Milky Way is

spiral galaxy

Galaxies that do not fit into any other class

irregular galaxy

Usually has very bright center and very little dust and gas

elliptical galaxy

Edwin Hubble

the astronomer for whom the Hubble Space Telescope is named


the brightness of a star


an enormous cloud of gas and dust in space that is the first stage of star formation


a large, hot ball of gases, which is held together by gravity and gives off its own light


a star that explodes, often a super giant that has become unstable

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