the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something
a distinguishing feature of your personal nature
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
(genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids
parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
The fusion of sperm and egg produced by the same individual organism.
brushing the pollen from one plant onto the female organ of another plant
hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
different forms of a gene
having two identical alleles for a trait
having two different alleles for a trait
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
Law of Segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome
hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
Rule of Multiplication
A statistical rule stating that the probability of two independent events occuring together is the product of their individual probabilities.
Rule of Addition
A statistical rule stating that the probability of either of two indpendent (and mutually exclusive) events ocuring is the sum of their individual probabilities minus the probability of them both occuring together.
traits most commonly found in nature
the descendants of one individual
individuals who have one copy of a recessive autosomal allele
development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
the act of mating closely related individuals
genetic disorder that causes progressive deterioration of brain cells. caused by a dominant allele. symptoms do not appear until the age of 30 or so
(pregnancy) extraction by centesis of amniotic fluid from a pregnant woman (after the 15th week of pregnancy) to aid in the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities
Chorionic Villus Sampling
a prenatal test to detect birth defects at an early stage of pregnancy
technique for using high-pitched sound waves to form an image of the fetus in the womb
a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another
one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele
ABO Blood Group
blood type determined by the hereditary presence or absence of antigens A and B on red blood cells
When both phenotypes appear in heterozygous individuals; Examples: Blood type A crossd with B = type AB
A single gene having multiple effects on an individuals phenotype
recessive disorder, sickle shaped cell, can't carry oxygen and can clog blood vessels, can cause many problems including paralysis
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
generalization that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns
the proportion of offspring of a genetic cross that have phenotypes different from the parental phenotypes due to crossing over between linked genes during gamete formation
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual
gene located on the X or Y chromosome
congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding
sex-linked recessive allele, not able to distinguish red from green color
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
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