55 terms

Ch. 11 Elbow Joint

ligaments, bones, muscles, origins and insertions
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The entire elbow includes _ bones, _ ligaments, _ joints, and _ capsule.
3 bones, 3 ligaments, 2 joints, one capsule
Name the three bones of the elbow.
Humerus, Ulna, and Radius
Definition of Elbow Joint
The articulation of the humerus with the ulna and radius.
Trochlea articulates with _, and the Capitulum articulates with the _.
trochlear notch of the ulna, head of the radius
Definition of Radioulnar Joint
The articulation between the radius and ulna.
Definition of Carrying Angle
In the anatomical position, the longitudinal axes of the humerus and forearm form an angle.
Carrying angles in males is _, and in females is _.
5 degrees in males, between 10 and 15 degrees in females.
Infraglenoid Tubercle
The raised portion of the inferior lip of the glenoid fossa that provides attachment of the long head of the triceps muscle.
Supraglenoid Tubercle
Raised portion on the superior lip of the glenoid fossa that provides attachment for the long head of the biceps muscle.
Coracoid Process
Projection on the anterior surface of the scapula that provides attachment for the short head of the biceps muscle.
Trochlea
Located on the medial side of the distal end; articulates with the ulna
Capitulum
On the lateral side next to the trochlea; articulates with the head of radius
Medial Epicondyle
Located on the medial side of the distal end above the trochlea; larger and more prominent than the lateral epicondyle; provides attachment for the pronator teres muscle.
Lateral Epicondyle
Located on the lateral side of the distal end above the capitulum; provides attachment for the anconeus and supinator muscles.
Lateral Supracondylar Ridge
Located above the lateral epicondyle; provides attachment for the brachioradialis muscle
Olecranon Fossa
Located on the posterior surface between the medial and lateral epicondyles; articulates with the olecranon process of the ulna
Definition of Ulna
The medial bone of the forearm lying parallel to the radius.
Olecranon Process
Located at the proximal end of the ulna, on the posterior surface; forms the prominent point of the elbow and provides attachment for the triceps muscle
Trochlear Notch
AKA semilunar notch; articulates with the trochlea of the humerus; makes up the anterior surface at the proximal end
Coronoid Process
Located just below the trochlear notch; with the ulnar tuberosity, provides attachment for the brachialis muscle
Radial Notch
Located at the proximal end on the lateral side just distal to the trochlear notch; articulation point for the head of the radius
Ulnar Tuberosity
Located below the coronoid process; provides an attachment for the brachialis muscle
Styloid Process of the Ulna
At the distal end on the posterior medial surface
Head of the Ulna
At the distal end on the lateral surface; the ulnar notch of the radius pivots around it during pronation and supination
Head of Radius
Proximal end; has cylinder shape with a depression in the superior surface where it articulates with the capitulum of the humerus
Radial Tuberosity
Located on the medial side near the proximal end; provides attachment for the biceps muscle
Styloid Process of the Radius
Located on the posterior lateral side of the radius at the distal end; provides attachment to the brachioradialis muscle
Medial Collateral Ligament
Triangular, spans the medial side of the elbow; attaches on the medial epicondyle of the humerus and runs obliquely to the medial sides of the coronoid process and olecranon process of the ulna
Lateral Collateral Ligament
Triangular, attaches proximally on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and distally on the annular ligaments and the lateral side of the ulna
Annular Ligament
Attaches anteriorly and posteriorly to the radial notch of the ulna, encompassing the head of the radius and holding it against the ulna
Joint Capsule of the Elbow
Attaches around the distal end of the humerus and encompasses the trochlea and capitulum, and the fossas located above them; the capsule is strengthened anteriorly and somewhat posteriorly by the annular ligament. The collateral ligaments reinforce the capsule on the sides of the joint.
Interosseous Membrane
Broad, flat membrane is located between the radius and the ulna for most of their length; keeps the two bones from separating and provides more surface area for attachment of the forearm and wrist muscles
Humeroulnar Joint
articulation between trochlea and trochlear notch; anterior curve of distal humerus facilitates flexion but limits extension
Proximal Radialulnar Joint
At the proximal end the head of the radius pivots within the radial notch of the ulna
Distal Radioulnar Joint
Due to the shape of the radius, the distal end of the radius rotates around the distal end of the ulna
Brachialis: Origin, Insertion, Action, Nerve
O- distal half of humerus, anterior surface
I- coronoid process and ulnar tuberosity of the ulna
A- elbow flexion
N- musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Note: lies deep to the biceps muscle
Biceps Brachii: Origin, Insertion, Action, Nerve
O- Long Head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula; Short Head: coracoid process of the scapula
I- radial tuberosity of radius
A- elbow flexion and forearm supination
N- musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Brachioradialis Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action, and Nerve
O- lateral supracondylar ridge on the humerus
I- styloid process of the radius
A- elbow flexion
N- radial nerve (C5, C6)
Pronator Teres Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action, Nerve
O- medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
I- lateral aspect of radius at its midpoint
A- forearm pronation, assistive in elbow flexion
N- median nerve (C6, C7)
Note: Covered by the brachioradialis muscle at its distal attachment, crosses elbow anteriorly, has the ability to flex the elbow
Triceps Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action, Nerve
O- Long Head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, Lateral Head: inferior to greater tubercle on posterior humerus, Medial Head: posterior surface of humerus
I- olecranon process of the ulna
A- elbow extension
N- radial nerve (C7, C8)
Note: medial head lies deep to the long and lateral head
Anconeus Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action, Nerve
O- lateral epicondyle of humerus
I- lateral and inferior to olecranon process of ulna
A- assists in elbow extension; not a prime mover in any joint action
N- radial nerve (C7, C8)
Note: keeps annular ligament from being pinched in the olecranon fossa during elbow extension
Pronator Quadratus Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action, Nerve
O- distal one-fourth of ulna
I- distal one-fourth of radius
A- forearm pronation
N- median nerve (C8, T1)
Supinator Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action, Nerve
O-lateral epicondyle of humerus and adjacent ulna
I- anterior surface of the proximal radius
A- forearm supination
N- radial nerve (C6)
Name muscles for Elbow Flexion
Biceps, Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Pronator Teres
Name muscles for Elbow Extension
Triceps, Anconeus
Name muscles for Forearm Pronation
Pronator teres, pronator quadratus
Name muscles for Forearm Supination
Biceps, Supinator
Brachialis _ Nerve
Musculocutaneous (C5, C6)
Biceps _ Nerve
Musculocutaneous (C5, C6)
Brachioradialis _ Nerve
Radial (C5, C6)
Triceps _ Nerve
Radial (C6, C7)
Anconeus _ Nerve
Radial (C7, C8)
Pronator Teres _ Nerve
Median (C6, C7)
Pronator Quadratus _ Nerve
Median (C8, T1)
Supinator _ Nerve
Radial (C6)