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Chapter 5 The Evolution of Living Things Review Questions
From the 8th grade science Holt Science and Technology book; Cells, Heredity, and Classification
Terms in this set (31)
Where are Fossils commonly found?
The fact that all oranisms have DNA as their genetic material is evidence that ____________?
All organisms may have descended from a common ancestor.
Charles Darwin puzzled over differences in the __________ of the different species of Galapogos finches.
Darwin observed variations among individuals within a population, but he did not realize that these variations were caused by___________?
What has occured when a single population evolves into two populations that cannot interbreed anymore?
Darwin's theory of ________ explained the process by which organisms become well adapted to their environment.
A group of organisms that can mate with each other to produce offspring is known as _____________?
What provides information about organisms that have lived in the past?
In _________ humans select organisms with desirable traits that will be passed from one generation to another.
What helps organisms survive better in its environment?
Populations of insects and bacteria can evolve quickly because they usually have a short ________________.
Identify two ways that organisms can be compared to provide evidence of evolution from a common ancestor.
Skeletal structures and DNA
Describe evidence that supports the hypothesis that whales evolved from land dwelling mammals.
Whales living today still have tiny hip bones inside their bodies even though they do not have hind legs. Scientists believe these hip bones were inherited from whale's land dwelling four-legged ancestors.
Explain how genetics is related to evolution.
In evolution organisms have to adapt to a new environment in a process called natural selection. In order to adapt to a new environment they have to repeatedly breed passing down passing down their DNA and new characteristics each time. The genetics and DNA of the newer organisms change overtime as they adapt to the environment.
Explain the process of speciation.
Sometimes two different species can mate with each other to produce fertile offspring. If the offspring become seperated from the original groups they continue to mate with each other while adapting with the environment. Eventually the new offspring differ so greatly from the original two species that they can no longer successfully mate with them and thus a new species is created.
Why are tuskless elephants on the rise in Uganda?
poachers kill elephants for their tusks so elephants with tusks don't live long enough to reproduce thus fewer elephants with tusks and more tuskless elephants.
Two populations have evolved into two species when _____________.
the populations can no longer interbreed.
Modern scientific explanations of evolution _____________.
combine the principles of natural selection and genetic inheritance.
What ideas did Darwin develop based on books by Malthus and Lyell?
Population and Earth History
What are the four parts of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.
Overproduction, Inherited Variation, Struggle to Survive, and Successful Reproduction.
What knowledge did Darwin lack that modern scientists now use to explain evolution.
Fossils to study and charts of previous organisms.
Members of the same _____________ can mate with one another to produce offspring.
What helps an organism survive?
When populations change over time ___________ has occured.
How does a fossil record show that species have changed over a period of time?
Fossils estimated ages and physical similarities catagorizes them. Fossils found closer to the surface are similar to living things today and fossils found lower are not very similar to living things today.
What is overproduction?
It is when some eggs survive while others don't.
Why might a specific typy of insesticide stop working to kill bugs?
If a certain type of insecticide will kill most bugs but not all, the bugs that are left will reproduce with other bugs that are resistant to the insecticide. Their offspring will also be resistant to the spray.The process of Natural selection has left only those bugs that are resistant to the insecticide.
What is a trait?
A genetic characteristic
What does Inherited Variation mean?
That everything has its own combination of traits.
Give and explain about an example of Struggle to Survive?
Tarantula- some may be killed by predators. Some may die from disease. Some may starve.
What does Successful Reproduction mean?
Better adapted organisms are likely to have more offspring that survive.
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