Schachter & Singer Notecards

James-Lange Theory of Emotion
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Terms in this set (39)
1) If a person experiences a state of arousal for which they have no immediate explanation, they will label this state and describe their feelings in terms of the cognitions available to them at the time
2) If a person experiences a state of arousal for which they have an appropriate explanation, then they will be unlikely to label their feelings in terms of the alternative cognitions available.
3) If a person is put in a situation, which in the past could have made them feel an emotion, they will react emotionally or experience emotions only if they're in a state of physiological arousal.
Type of studyLab experimentDesign of studyIndependent groupsStrength of design of studylowers risk of demand characteristics from PsWeakness of design of studytwice the number of Ps needed4 experimental conditions of the studyIGN: given injection and told nothing else INF: given injection and told true side effects Placebo: given saline injection and told nothing else MIS: given injection and told false side effectsPurpose of "Suproxin" in the studyto ensure Ps had no idea of the true purpose of the studyWhat epinephrine really doesincreases blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, blood flow to muscles and brain, and blood sugarWhy the placebo groups were usedTo test the third hypothesis so they wouldn't have any kind of arousal and it would show if cognition alone would cause the emotion / As a control groupWhat was told to the EPI-INF group about the injection"Your hand will start to shake, your heart will start to pound, and your face may get warm and flushed"What was told to the EPI-MIS group about the injection"Your feet will feel numb, you will have an itching sensation over parts fo your body, and you may get a slight headache"What was told to the EPI-IGN group about the injectionnothingPurpose of the Euphoric conditionto manipulate emotional state of euphoriaPurpose of the Anger conditionto manipulate emotional state of angerSummary of the actions of the confederate in the Euphoric conditiondoodling on paper and playing basketball by crumpling it up and shooting it into the wastebasket; asking P to join in; making paper airplanes and throwing them; building a tower with manila folders and knocking it over; playing with a hula hoopSummary of the actions of the confederate in the Anger conditionstooge would say things such as "it's unfair for them to give you shots," "to hell with it," and at the end they would rip up the paper and storm out of the room2 examples of questions in the Anger condition1. "What is your father's average annual income?" 2. "How many other partners has your mother had sexual interactions with other than your father?"Apparatuses used in the study-tools and room for administering injections, giving various instructions and for observing through a one-way mirror. -Suproxin and epinephrine -items for the euphoria condition: pencils, wastebasket, manila folders, a hula hoop, paper -questionnaires for the anger condition.Purpose of the self-reportUsed to measure: - mood or emotional state - the physical effects of epinephrine and determine whether or no the injection had been successful in producing the necessary bodily state - possible effects of the instructions in the Epi Mis condition - open-ended responses on other physical or emotional sensations they may have experienced during the experimental sessionWhy observations (semiprivate) were used in the studyvery few people self-reported anger even when they showed anger-type reactions when they were with the stooge; S&S believed that Ps felt afraid to reveal their anger because they might forfeit their bonus pointsSummary of the ending of the trial-Ps completed questionnaires on how "happy" or "angry" they were -MIS condition asked questions to make sure possible demand characteristics from false side effects were accounted for -pulse was taken twice: once before injection and once after interaction with stooge -Ps debriefed about study and deception and asked any questions +sworn to secrecyWhy this study was a "double-blind" studyPs were unaware stooges were actors while stooges were unaware of which condition Ps were inRatings of activities in Euphoric conditionIGN & MIS are somewhat more euphoric than placebo but not significantly so4 categories of behavior for Euphoric condition1. joins activity 2. initiates new activity 3. ignores stooge activity 4. watches stooge6 categories of behavior for Anger condition1. agrees with stooge 2. disagrees with stooge 3. neutral behavior 4. initiates agree/disagree with stooge 5. watches stooge 6. ignores stooge2 results of the study showing differences between the groupsIn the Euphoric condition, both IGN and MIS groups reported more happiness and less anger compared to in the Anger condition when IGN group reported less happiness and more angerHow the Two-Factor Theory was supported from the findings of the study-In supporting H1, IGN and MIS showed most emotion as they were unaware of effects of epinephrine and used available stooge to explain arousal -In supporting H2, INF Ps were not impacted by their setting -In supporting H3, placebos only showed more emotion than INF because shots can cause arousal and the lack of epinephrine doesn't mean Ps won't experience arousal2 methodological issues of the study1. People do not usually experience emotions in the way in which Schachter and Singer induced them and are often aware of events before the onset arousal giving us information to interpret our physical cues. 2. No assessment was made of participants' mood to measure any change as a result of the stooge.2 ethical issues of the studyDeception: participants thought that they were receiving a vitamin supplement called Suproxin. They also thought that the confederate was another real participant who had been injected and was completing the questionnaire. Protection: participants were injected, which could have caused physical pain. Also, as they were in situations that were about euphoria or anger, their physiological state on leaving the study was not the same as when they entered.2 ways the study can be applied to everyday life1. It is useful to know that people describe their feelings in terms of cognitions available at that time, especially when people have no immediate explanation for the physiological arousal they experience. 2. This could be useful in hospitals when patients (especially children) are given drugs that might have some side effects that are not desirable. If the patients are engaged in behaviors that might generate euphoria or happiness, this may help them get through any short-term negative side effects.