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Resource Partitioning

Species adapt to competition by evolving to use slightly different resources, or to use their shared resources if different ways, thus minimizing interference with eachother.


Individuals of one species, a predator, hunt, capture, kill, and consume individuals of other species.


When multiple organisms seek the same limited resource

Fundamental Niche

The full niche of a species

Realized Niche

The portion of fundamental niche that is fully realized by a species.


A relationship in which one organism, or parasite, depends on another, the host, for nourishment or some other benefit while simetanously doing the host harm


When animals feed on the tissues of plants.


Where two or more species benefit from interaction with one another.


A parasitic or mutualistic relationship between different species of organisms that live in close physical proximity


In which one organism is harmed and the other is unaffected


One species benefits and the other is unaffected.

Trophic levels

Rank in the feeding heiarchy of a food chain. Organisms at higher trophic levels consume those at lower trophic levels

Food webs

A visual map of feeding relationships and energy flow

Keystone Species

species that has strong wide reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundancce

Primary succession

Follows a disturbance so severe that no vegetation or soil life remains from the community that occupied the site.

Secondary Succession

Begins when a disturbance dramatically alters an existing community but does not destroy all lving things or all organic matter in soil

Poineer species

Species that arrive first and colonize the new substrate

Invasive species

A species that spreads widely and rapidly becoms domminant in a community, interfering with the community's normal functioning.


A major regional complex of similar communities


Climate diagrams

Temprate Deciduous Forest

Characterized by broad leafed trees that are deciduous and loose their leaves

Temprate Grasslands

Occur where temperature differences between winter and summer become more extreme and rainfall diminishes.

Temperate rainforest

Heavy rainfall and has confederous trees

Tropical Rainforest

Year round rain and unirformly warm temperatures

Tropical dry forest

Wet and dry seasons each span about half a year


Tropical grassland interspread with clusters of trees


rainfall is very sparse, its dry


Almost as dry as desert, at high altitudes, cold winters and cool summers


One who eats plants


Once who eats plants and animals


One who eats animals

Boreal Forest

Has bogs and lakes and few evergreen treew. cooler and drier


Mostly evergreen shrubs and is densly thicketed. Mild winters and warm, dry summers.

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