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Chapter 6

STUDY
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Resource Partitioning
Species adapt to competition by evolving to use slightly different resources, or to use their shared resources if different ways, thus minimizing interference with eachother.
Predation
Individuals of one species, a predator, hunt, capture, kill, and consume individuals of other species.
Competition
When multiple organisms seek the same limited resource
Fundamental Niche
The full niche of a species
Realized Niche
The portion of fundamental niche that is fully realized by a species.
Parasitism
A relationship in which one organism, or parasite, depends on another, the host, for nourishment or some other benefit while simetanously doing the host harm
Hebivory
When animals feed on the tissues of plants.
Mutualism
Where two or more species benefit from interaction with one another.
Symboisis
A parasitic or mutualistic relationship between different species of organisms that live in close physical proximity
Amensalism
In which one organism is harmed and the other is unaffected
Commensalism
One species benefits and the other is unaffected.
Trophic levels
Rank in the feeding heiarchy of a food chain. Organisms at higher trophic levels consume those at lower trophic levels
Food webs
A visual map of feeding relationships and energy flow
Keystone Species
species that has strong wide reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundancce
Primary succession
Follows a disturbance so severe that no vegetation or soil life remains from the community that occupied the site.
Secondary Succession
Begins when a disturbance dramatically alters an existing community but does not destroy all lving things or all organic matter in soil
Poineer species
Species that arrive first and colonize the new substrate
Invasive species
A species that spreads widely and rapidly becoms domminant in a community, interfering with the community's normal functioning.
Biome
A major regional complex of similar communities
Climatographs
Climate diagrams
Temprate Deciduous Forest
Characterized by broad leafed trees that are deciduous and loose their leaves
Temprate Grasslands
Occur where temperature differences between winter and summer become more extreme and rainfall diminishes.
Temperate rainforest
Heavy rainfall and has confederous trees
Tropical Rainforest
Year round rain and unirformly warm temperatures
Tropical dry forest
Wet and dry seasons each span about half a year
Savannas
Tropical grassland interspread with clusters of trees
Desert
rainfall is very sparse, its dry
Tundra
Almost as dry as desert, at high altitudes, cold winters and cool summers
Herbivore
One who eats plants
Omnivore
Once who eats plants and animals
Carnivore
One who eats animals
Boreal Forest
Has bogs and lakes and few evergreen treew. cooler and drier
Chaparral
Mostly evergreen shrubs and is densly thicketed. Mild winters and warm, dry summers.