Chemical Bonding

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Terms in this set (...)

Ionic Bond
a chemical bond resulting from the TRANSFER of electrons from one bonding atom to another- Between metals and nonmetals
Covalent Bond
a chemical bond resulting from SHARING of electrons between 2 bonding atoms- Between nonmetals
Metallic Bond
occurs between metals. A metal consists
of positive ions surrounded by a "sea" of mobile electrons.
Forming of a bond
more stable
The breaking of a bond
less stable
Octet Rule
Rule that states that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons so that each atom has full outermost energy level which is typically 8 electrons
Which of the following substances results from combining atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen?
sugar
Which of the following is an interaction that holds two atoms together?
chemical bond
The joining of atoms to form new substances is called
chemical bonding
An explanation of a phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning is a
theory
People can use _______ to discuss theories of how and why atoms from bonds.
models
How can you determine the number of electrons in an atoms?
atomic number
What do elements within a group number have same number of?
valence electrons
an electron in the outermost energy level
valence electrons
number of protons in an atom
atomic number
family on the periodic table to which an element belongs
group
Which electrons in an atom make chemical bonds? Why?
Valence electrons make bonds and are in the outermost energy level.
How can the periodic table help you determine the number of valence electrons?
Atoms of elements in Groups 1 and 2 have the same number of valence electrons as their group number. Atoms of elements of Group 13-18 have 10 fewer valence electrons than their group number, except for helium, with only 2 valence electrons.
What determines whether an atom will form bonds?
number or valence electrons
Which group on the periodic table contains elements that do not normally form chemical bonds?
group 18
The outermost energy level of an atom is considered full if the level contains _________electrons.
8 valence
The first energy level of any atom can only hold______ electrons.
2
Why is it uncommon for noble gases to form chemical bonds?
They already have a full outer energy level with 8 electrons.
A chemical bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another is
ionic bond
Charged particles that form when atoms gain or lose electrons are
ions
A transfer of electrons between atoms charges the number or electrons in an atom, but the number of _______ stays the same.
protons
If a sodium atom loses its only valence electrons to another atom, the sodium atom becomes a sodium
ion
A sodium ion has a charge of
+1
The chemical symbol for a sodium ion is
Na+
When electrons pull away from atoms, ______ is needed.
energy
Some atoms gain electrons during charges and have a
negative charge
The symbol of oxide is O2 -. How many electrons did the oxygen atom gain?
2
What ending is used for the names of negative ions?
ide
When ions bond, they form a repeating three dimensional patterned called
crystal lattice
What is formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons?
covalent bond
What usually consists of two or more atoms joined in a definite ratio?
molecules
A model that shows only the valence electrons in an atom is
Lewis electron dot diagram
What is the relationship between diatomic molecules and diatomic electrons?
**Elements found in nature as diatomic molecules are diatomic elements.
What is the smallest particle into which covalent bond can be divided?
molecules
A bond formed by the attraction between positively- charged metal ions and the electrons in the metal is a
metallic bond.
What property gives metals the ability to be drawn into wires?
ductility
Where does the energy needed to take electrons from metals come from?
the formation of negative ions
When is energy given off by most nonmetals?
When they gain electrons
Chemical bonding
the combining of atoms to form molecules or ionic compounds
Chemical bond
an interaction that holds atoms or ions together
Valence electron
an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
Ionic bond
a bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another, which results in a positive ion and a negative ion
Ion
a charged particle that forms when an atom or group of atoms gains or loses one or more electrons
Crystal Lattice
the regular pattern in which a crystal is arranged
Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Molecule
the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance
Metallic bond
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them