At first, the era of religious reformation brought war between France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The biggest results of the religious struggle was the appearance of churches, importance of education and lead to the increase of power of national governments and a decrease in the power of the pope.Most people in southern and eastern Europe and the native population of Ireland remained Catholic while in England and norther Europe, including Scandinavia, various faiths became established with the backing of central government. During the 1400s and 1500s, many new universities had appeared due to humanists. People signed up for universities after the 1500s. Jesuits and other religious orders worked to strengthen the faith of Catholics in their schools. Protestants encouraged Christian to study the Bible. But education didn't bring greater tolerance for new ideas. Both Catholics and Protestant authorities opposed views that differed from their own. In Protestant regions, each government took responsibility for the leadership of the official church. In Catholic areas, rulers loyal to the pope managed to gain some degree of control over their churches.