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people who specialized in grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric (of Greek and Latin influence), and Hebrew in order to learn the Bible.
A technique used by Renaissance painters to make their paintings more life-like. They made distinct objects smaller than those in the foreground of the painting. It created the illusion of depth on the flat canvas.
He was a Dutch scholar that lived from 1466-1536. He wrote the "Praise of Folly" that argued for a return to the original, simple message of Jesus and ridiculed ignorance, superstition and vice among Christians.
In the 1300's, they were spiritual rewards for good deeds such as financing crusade for poor and providing food for the needy. In the 1500's Johann Tetzel, a monk, that was sent to north Germany to ask people to buy indulgences. They pardoned you or your family from sins to get into heaven. You paid money to the church
He started in law school then joined a monastery. He believed that good deeds meant little and inner faith in God mattered the most. In 1517 he posted 95 theses on the door of Wettenburg church that argued against indulgences, and other church practices.
He was a French Philosopher that was a follower of Zwingli. He believed in predestination, God has already chosen (predestined) who will go to heaven (called the elect). Evidence of the elect were good morals, self-disciplined, and dedication to God.
A society of Jesus founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534. The priest would take vows of poverty, Chasity, and obedience to the Pope. They were organized like a military because they were strict and disciplined. They gained 1,000 members in 22 years and went to Asia and America. It slowed the spread of Protestantism and stressed education (founded colleges)
The removal of "enchantment" or magic from nature. Before, people believed spirits and witches caused events to happen. But later residents of cities and towns became more sophisticated in their attitudes. People's understanding of how things happen in the world began to change. People sought ration for day-to-day events.
He was a playwright and poet that wrote comedies, tragedies, and histories. His greatest strength is how he can transform well-known stories into dramatic masterpieces. He portrayed personality and human emotions with skill. For example, he transformed the moody Hamlet into Romeo and Juliet.
He was a playwright that wrote about humanly, rather than godly, actions. He used powerful language and imagery to convey his thoughts. Some of his works are composed in verse form.
Edict of Nantes
Made by King Henry IV of France that let the Huguenots have the freedom to worship and have some political rights
Council of Trent
Started by Pope Paul III. It defined the church doctrine. It removed the sales of indulgences and tightened the discipline of the clergy. It also told that ceremonies were necessary and told people that priests were necessary because God only granted forgiveness through the church. The council also stressed that people had free will. These decisions were effective for many within the Catholic Church.
He was an Italian diplomat that wrote "The Book of Courtier". He wrote about the court of Urbino and how people should act in polite society.
He was an artist that painted the "Last Judgement" on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. He had to face the fig leaf campaign where people of the church painted fig leaves on inappropriate body parts Michelangelo painted. He avenged them by painting a fresco and putting the people on the bottom near hell with donkey ears. He also made the sculpture David. He also wrote poetry and helped rebuild St. Peter's Basilica.
He was an artist that created the Assumption of the Virgin. The Holy Roman Emperor was a patron of the arts so he became one of the first artists to become wealthy.
He was an Italian realistic painter. His works were so real that one person tried to brush off a fly that was actually painted into his painting.
An English humanist and friend of Erasmus. In 1516 he published "Utopia" where he condemned governments as corrupt and argued that private ownership caused unnecessary conflicts between people. He described an ideal society. In More's ideal society, all male citizens were equal.
It was emphasized by John Calvin. They believed that in the beginning of time God predestined those who will go to heaven. This people were called the elect. Evidence of the elect were people who were self-disciplined, dedicated to God, and had high moral standards. It was a common belief among Protestant thinkers in the 1500s.
What was wrong with the Catholic Church that it needed to reform?
The Catholic Church was interested in having political power, making money and doing misconduct, vice. They need to reform back into saving souls, doing charity work and having spirituality and morality.
Why did Luther's ideas spread so quickly?
He introduced his ideas by posting his 95 theses on the door of the Wettenburg Church. This made many Catholics who came to the Church read and gossip about his opinions. Later, he took advantage of the printing press and printed his ideas.
What were the results of Reformation?
At first, the era of religious reformation brought war between France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The biggest results of the religious struggle was the appearance of churches, importance of education and lead to the increase of power of national governments and a decrease in the power of the pope.Most people in southern and eastern Europe and the native population of Ireland remained Catholic while in England and norther Europe, including Scandinavia, various faiths became established with the backing of central government. During the 1400s and 1500s, many new universities had appeared due to humanists. People signed up for universities after the 1500s. Jesuits and other religious orders worked to strengthen the faith of Catholics in their schools. Protestants encouraged Christian to study the Bible. But education didn't bring greater tolerance for new ideas. Both Catholics and Protestant authorities opposed views that differed from their own. In Protestant regions, each government took responsibility for the leadership of the official church. In Catholic areas, rulers loyal to the pope managed to gain some degree of control over their churches.
Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
The Renaissance started in Italy because the Roman Empire reminded Italians of Roman glory. The Crusades and trade influenced them of Greek and Roman learning. Plus, trade with southwestern Asia and Africa helped Italians learn of Arab and African achievements in science and medicine. Plus wealthy citizens or rulers became patrons of arts.
What was the classical Greek and Roman influence on the Renaissance?
Greek and Roman literature became a classical education to study grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric.
What were the beliefs of the following religions:
a. Lutheranism- believed Christians can have a direct relationship with God so there was no need for confession or saints. They also believe they should interpret the Bible for themselves.
b. Calvinism- They relieved on faith and on the Bible. It emphasized predestination which meant that God has already chosen (predestined) who will go to heaven. They were called the elect. Evidence of the elect are good-morals, self-discipline, and dedication to God.
c. Anglican- The king ruled the church, it is very similar to Catholicism which means they allowed divorce.
What were the origins of the following religions:
a. Lutheranism- The origin of Lutheranism started when Luther posted his 95 statements arguing about indulgences and the church's practice
b. Anglican- Started when there was an argument between the Pope and King Henry VIII. King Henry was upset with the pope so he withdrew England from the Catholic church and began a new church. Parliament passed a series of laws that created the Church of England, with king at its head
c. Calvinism- The origin was a vicor at the cathedral in Zwich, Switzerland called Huldrych Zwingli. He met up with Luther and discussed about church doctrines. They disagreed with the forms of worship and use of religious images but agreed on the action of the church.
What was the difference between Northern and Italian Renaissance artists and writers?
Unlike Italian humanists, Eramus and other humanists were interested in early Christian period as well as Greek and Roman culture. Eramus believed that the ideas of Christianity and of classical civilization could be harmonized. Writers criticized the church's lack of spirituality. Artists wanted to perfect certain techniques of painting in oil on canvas. They paid attention to detail. They painted countrysides an used their paintings to criticize things around them such as intolerance. They also painted their humans more bald, frail, and imperfect rather than godly. But they still reflected on the ideas of Christian humanism such as the Bible.
Why did the Reformation start in Germany?
The Reformation started in Germany because unlike other countries "Germany" was not a unified nation. It was made up of 300 independent states. Weak rulers could not control independent ideas about religion nor could they prevent abuses of power from the pope.
What were some methods of the Counter Reformation?
Some methods of the Counter Reformation were to use extreme practices against criminals and traitors (used against Catholics to keep them Catholic,) to make a list of banned books ( it will be easier than burning the books one by one since the printing press printed them faster), defined the Catholic Doctrine (ended indulgences, tightened clergy discipline, ceremony was necessary, priests were necessary [confession], and every person has free will [salvation through good works]) and used Jesuits (a society of Jesus) to preach Catholicism which slowed the spread of Protestantism. It was successful.
Why were magic and superstition attractive to the people during the Renaissance?
Magic and superstition were attractive to people during the Renaissance. They wanted a reason or explanation to the events happening around them. They believed -demons- made life difficult. They blamed bad witches for turning relationships sour. They also called wise people good witches.
What was the impact of the printing press of the Reformation and humanism?
During the Reformation, the printing press spread the ideas of Protestantism by Martin Luther.Allowed ideas and knowledge to spread faster. Almanacs & Broadsides were sold to the public by peddlers. Almanacs contained predictions on the weather, medical advice, & the beliefs and concerns of ordinary people. Broadsides involved news of a crime or other event or a royal decree. The Printing press spread the ideas of what humanists thought.Translations of the Bible, the message of Luther and Calvin, & stories that attacked the church,
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