3 Waves - iGCSE Physics Edexcel

3.1 use the following units: degree (°), hertz (Hz), metre (m), metre/second (m/s) and second (s)
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Terms in this set (29)
Wavelength is the distance from a point on one wave to the same point on the next wave.
IE peak to peak

Amplitude of a wave is its height, measured from the middle of the wave to its top

Wavefront is a way of picturing waves from above: Each wavefront is used to represent a single wave.

The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing a point every second
Waves per second
Measured in Hertz (HZ)

Timeperiod is time taken for a wave to pass through a point
Measured in seconds
Image: 3.3 know the definitions of amplitude, wavefront, frequency, wavelength and period of a wave
-When waves hit an object, such as a barrier, they can be reflected
-Angle of incidence = angle of reflection
i = r

-When waves enter a different medium, their speed can change.
-Wavelength can increase or decrease
-Direction changes

If the waves slow down:
-the waves will bunch together causing wavelength to decrease. -Waves travel closer to the normal

If waves speed up:
-Waves spread out, causing the wavelength to increase
-Waves turn away from the normal
3.11 know the order of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency, including the colours of the visible spectrumIn order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength: Radio Waves - Highest wavelength. Lowest frequency Microwaves Infrared (IR) Visible Light Ultraviolet (UV) X - Rays Gamma Rays - Highest frequency. Lowest wavelength Light=ROYGBIV Red - Highest wavelength. Lowest frequency Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet - Highest frequency. Lowest wavelength3.12 explain some of the uses of electromagnetic radiations, including: • radio waves: broadcasting and communications • microwaves: cooking and satellite transmissions • infrared: heaters and night vision equipment • visible light: optical fibres and photography • ultraviolet: fluorescent lamps • x-rays: observing the internal structure of objects and materials, including for medical applications • gamma rays: sterilising food and medical equipment.radio waves: broadcasting and communications microwaves: cooking and satellite transmissions infrared: heaters and night vision equipment visible light: optical fibres and photography ultraviolet: fluorescent lamps x-rays: observing the internal structure of objects and materials, including for medical applications gamma rays: sterilising food and medical equipment.3.13 explain the detrimental effects of excessive exposure of the human body to electromagnetic waves, including: • microwaves: internal heating of body tissue • infrared: skin burns • ultraviolet: damage to surface cells and blindness • gamma rays: cancer, mutation and describe simple protective measures against the risksMicrowave: Heat damage to organs Infrared: Skin burns Visible light: bright lights cause eye damage UV: kills and mutates cells X rays: Kills and mutates cells, causes cancer Gamma rays: Kills and mutates cells, causes cancer3.14 know that light waves are transverse waves and that they can be reflected and refractedLight are part of EM spectrum All EM waves can undergo reflection and refraction.3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)angle of incidence = angle of reflection i = r3.16 draw ray diagrams to illustrate reflection and refractionREFLECTION When an object is placed in front of a mirror, an image of that object can be seen in the mirror. Light from the object hits the mirror, reflecting from it. When it does so, the angle of incidence = the angle of reflection To an observer, the reflected rays appear to have come from the right hand side of the mirror. An image of the object will appear where these two virtual rays cross. REFRACTION As the light enters the block it bends towards the normal line. When it leaves the block it bends away from the normal line.3.17 practical: investigate the refraction of light, using rectangular blocks, semi-circular blocks and triangular prismsMethod: Place the glass block on a sheet of paper, and carefully draw around the block using a pencil. Take a ray box and carefully aim the box so that a single ray of light passes through the block. Using a pencil, mark some points along the path of the ray: Before it reaches the block; Where it hits the block; Where it leaves the block; After it has left the block. Now remove the block from the paper and, using a ruler and pencil, draw straight lines connecting points: a and b; b and c; c and d. The resulting line will show the path of the ray. Replace the block within its outline and repeat the above process for a ray striking the block at a different angle.3.18 know and use the relationship between refractive index, angle of incidence and angle of refraction: sin i / sin rSnell's law Refractive index= sin (angle of incidence)/ sin (angle of refraction) n = sin i / sin r3.19 practical: investigate the refractive index of glass, using a glass blockPlace the glass block in the centre of a piece of paper and draw around it in pencil. Remove the block and then, using a protractor, draw a line crossing the longest edge of the block (about midway down) at 90 degrees (the normal line). Using a protractor and ruler draw other lines, crossing this point, at 10 degree intervals (relative to the normal) going up to 70 degrees maximum. These angles will form the angle of incidence (the independent variable) for this experiment. Replace the block and then, using a ray box, shine a ray of light along the first of the above lines (10 degrees). Use a pencil to mark the point at which the ray emerges from the other side of a block. Repeat the above two steps for the other lines. Once complete, remove the block and then use a pencil and ruler to draw some lines linking the point of entry of each ray to the point of exit. Using a protractor, measure the angle between each of the above lines and the normal, recording each result in a table along with the appropriate angle of incidence. Repeat the above procedure three times and take averages of each of the results. To find the refractive index of the block: Plot a graph of sin i (y-axis) against sin r (x-axis). The refractive index is equal to the gradient of the graph.3.20 describe the role of total internal reflection in transmitting information along optical fibres and in prisms-Sometimes, when light is moving from a denser medium towards a less dense one, light is fully reflected -Called TIR, and is used to reflect light -Used to reflect light along optical fibres, allowing the high speed transmission of data on the internet. -Optical fibre is cheaper than copper wires -Can carry more information than copper wire of same size3.21 explain the meaning of critical angle c-The angle of incidence which produces an angle of refraction of 90 degrees, or reflection -When the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, TIR occurs -Only occurs from a high refractive index medium to a low refractive index medium.3.22 know and use the relationship between critical angle and refractive index: sin c = 1 / nCritical angle of a material is related to refractive index. sin c = 1 / n n = 1 / sin c3.23 know that sound waves are longitudinal waves which can be reflected and refractedSound waves consist of vibrating air molecules. -Longitudinal wave. As with all waves, sound waves can be reflected and refracted.3.24P know that the frequency range for human hearing is 20-20 000 Hz3.25P practical: investigate the speed of sound in air3.26P understand how an oscilloscope and microphone can be used to display a sound wave3.27P practical: investigate the frequency of a sound wave using an oscilloscope3.28P understand how the pitch of a sound relates to the frequency of vibration of the source3.29P understand how the loudness of a sound relates to the amplitude of vibration of the source