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46 terms

Linguistics Chapter 6

Semantics and Pragmatics
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semantics
The study of the meaning of linguistics expressions, such as morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.
pragmatics
The study of the effect of context on meaning.
lexical semantics
The branch of semantics that deals with the meaning of words.
structural semantics
The branch of semantics that deals with the meaning of utterances larger than words.
referent
The actual concrete item or concept to which the word refers.
referential meaning
The meaning of an utterance that describes the referent, an action, or a state of being.
sense
The extended meaning of a word or phrase that, in context, clarifies the referent.
shifting referents
Referents that are different for each speaker and each sentence. (Pronouns have shifting referents.)
semantic properties
The elements of meaning that make up the lexical entry of the word in the speaker's mind.
semantic domain
A set of words that share semantic properties.
distinctive feature analysis
The process of analyzing the semantic properties of a word.
markedness
As it relates to semantics means the concept that some words or morphemes are more common or usual than others.
hyponyms
More specific words that constitute a subclass of a more general word.
synonyms
Words that have similar meanings and share the same semantic properties.
denotation
The referential meaning of a word or morpheme, often the first meaning listed in a dictionary.
connotation
An affective meaning for a word or morpheme.
homonyms
Words that sound the same but have different meanings.
polysemous
Words that have more than one meaning.
antonyms
Words that are opposite in one of their semantic properties.
complementary pairs
Antonyms that negate each other.
gradable pair
Antonyms that are part of a larger set of related words and express the concept that one of them is more, whereas the other is less.
relational opposites
Antonyms that express a symmetrical relationship between two words.
structural semantics
The study of how the structure of sentences contributes to meaning.
contradictions
Utterances in which the semantic properties of one word unexpectedly do not match with those of another.
oxymorons
Phrases that combine contradictory words.
anomalous utterances
Utterances that include words in which the semantic properties don't match.
metaphors
Anomalous utterances in which two dissimilar items are symbolically considered to be similar.
idioms
Utterances in which there is a contradiction between the meaning of the parts of the utterance and the entire utterance.
pragmatics
The study of the effect of context on meaning.
social meaning
The information in an utterance about the social identity of the speaker.
affective meaning
The meaning of an utterance that conveys the emotions of the speaker.
speech acts
Actions performed by an utterance, such as daring, questioning, or betting.
performative sentences
The utterances that perform speech acts.
discourse analysis
The process of discovering the rules of discourse.
discourse
A series of connected utterances, such as a conversation, story, lecture, or any other communication event.
new information
Information that the speaker believes is being introduced to the listener for the first time.
old (given) information
Information that the speaker has previously introduced or believes the listener knows.
deixis
Refers to words that shift reference, that change meaning according to the context and/or the speaker.
presupposition
The set of assumptions that the speaker makes about the listener's knowledge or circumstances. These assumptions are necessary in order to make an utterance meaningful.
greeting rituals
A special kind of discourse that are not at all important for the information they convey, but are important for their social function.
maxims of conversation
The cultural expectations that guide people when they are conversing.
cooperative principle
The basis for the maxims of conversation, and assumes that each person is trying in good faith to communicate and understand.
Maxim of Quantity
Say neither more nor less than is required.
Maxim of Quality
Say only what you believe to be the truth.
Maxim of Relevance
Say only what is appropriate for the topic.
Maxim of Manner
Be brief, concise, and clear.