What does the Executive branch consist of?
Mainly, this means the President, but it also includes the Vice President and the Cabinet (meaning, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, etc.)
How is the President elected?
By getting 270 votes in the Electoral College. In this system, people vote state by state to send representatives from their state to elect the President. Note: Not by getting a majority of the popular vote for the whole country.
What is the President's role regarding the military?
He/she is Commander in Chief of the military. This means he/she has full control over the military. But, the President can't declare war and can't determine the budget for the military.
What does the President swear to do when taking office?
The president promises to "preserve, protect and defend" the Constitution.
What are the four main powers the President has?
Commander in chief, veto power, foreign policy, and appointments.
What is a treaty?
An agreement made between two countries, for trade, peace, cooperation, whatever. The president has the power to make treaties, though they must be approved by the Senate.
What is an appointment, in this context?
To put someone in a political position, such as an ambassador or federal judge. The President nominates people for these jobs, and then the Senate has to approve them.
How long is a President's term? How many terms can the president serve?
A term is four years. Two terms is the maximum.
What powers does the Executive branch have over the Legislative? and what powers does the Legislative branch have over the Executive?
The President can veto bills the legislative makes. The legislative branch can override these vetoes, can impeach the President, has to approve the President's appointments, and has the right to declare War.
What powers does the Executive branch have over the Judicial? and what powers does the Judicial branch have over the Executive?
The President nominates the judges on the Supreme Court and other federal courts. The Judicial branch can rule Executive actions unconstitutional and counteract them in this case.
What is the President's role in the process of passing a law?
If the bill has a simple majority in the Congress (50%+1), then the President's signature determines if the bill becomes a law or not (if not, its called a veto). If the bill has a two-thirds+1 majority in Congress, then the President's signature doesn't matter (thats called an override).