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Chapter 2

age-history confound

in longitudinal studies, the co-occurrence of historical factors with changes in age; affects the ability to interpret results

case study

in-depth description of psychological characteristics and behaviors of an induvidual, often in the form of a narrative

clinical method

flexible, open-ended interview method in which questions are modified in reactions to the child's response

cohort effect

all the acharacteristics shared by induviduals growing up in a specific social and historical content

correlation coefficient

statistical measure, ranging from +1.00 to -1.00, that summarizes the strength and direction of the rrelationship between two variables; does not provide

correlational study

study that assesses whether changes in one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in another variable

cross-cultural study

study that compares induviduals in different cultural contexts

cross-sectional study

study in which induviduals of different ages are examined at the same point in time


providing research participants with a statement of the true goals of a study after initally decieving them or omitting information about its purposes

dependent variable

behavior that is measured; suspected effect of an experimental manipulation


study methods, including observations and interviews, used by researchers to describe the behaviors and underlying meaning systems with a a given culture

experimental design

research method in which one or more independent variables are manipulted to determine the effect on other, dependent variables

field experiment

study in which the experiment manipulations are carried out in a natural setting

independent variable

variable manipulated by the experimenter; the suspected cause

informed consent

participant's formal acknowledgment that he or she understands the purposes, procedures, and risks of a study and agrees to participate in it

longitundinal study

research in which the same participants are repeatedly tested over a period of time, usually years


statistical examination of a body of research studies to assess the effect of the common central variable

microgenetic study

a research approach in which close observations are made of the induvidual child's behavior from one trial to the next

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