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18 terms

Child Development

Chapter 2
STUDY
PLAY
age-history confound
in longitudinal studies, the co-occurrence of historical factors with changes in age; affects the ability to interpret results
case study
in-depth description of psychological characteristics and behaviors of an induvidual, often in the form of a narrative
clinical method
flexible, open-ended interview method in which questions are modified in reactions to the child's response
cohort effect
all the acharacteristics shared by induviduals growing up in a specific social and historical content
correlation coefficient
statistical measure, ranging from +1.00 to -1.00, that summarizes the strength and direction of the rrelationship between two variables; does not provide
correlational study
study that assesses whether changes in one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in another variable
cross-cultural study
study that compares induviduals in different cultural contexts
cross-sectional study
study in which induviduals of different ages are examined at the same point in time
debriefing
providing research participants with a statement of the true goals of a study after initally decieving them or omitting information about its purposes
dependent variable
behavior that is measured; suspected effect of an experimental manipulation
ethnography
study methods, including observations and interviews, used by researchers to describe the behaviors and underlying meaning systems with a a given culture
experimental design
research method in which one or more independent variables are manipulted to determine the effect on other, dependent variables
field experiment
study in which the experiment manipulations are carried out in a natural setting
independent variable
variable manipulated by the experimenter; the suspected cause
informed consent
participant's formal acknowledgment that he or she understands the purposes, procedures, and risks of a study and agrees to participate in it
longitundinal study
research in which the same participants are repeatedly tested over a period of time, usually years
meta-analysis
statistical examination of a body of research studies to assess the effect of the common central variable
microgenetic study
a research approach in which close observations are made of the induvidual child's behavior from one trial to the next