AP Bio vocab
Terms in this set (25)
Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
an endergonic reaction (also called a nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
(1) Transfer of energy from catabolism to anabolism, or transfer of energy from exergonic process to endergonic process.
(2) Free energy (from ATP hydrolysis) is coupled or functionally linked to the energy needs of another chemical reaction.
a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the total heat content of a system. It is equal to the internal energy of the system plus the product of pressure and volume.
the change in enthalpy associated with a particular chemical process.
(Science: radiobiology) The amount of disorder in a system.
An exergonic reaction is a chemical reaction where the change in the free energy is negative
Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
The process of the end product of a particular metabolic reaction inhibiting an allosteric Enzyme involved in that reaction as the reaction starts again, thus breaking the reaction cycle.
Fermentation is an anaerobic process in which energy can be released from glucose even though oxygen is not available. Fermentation occurs in yeast cells, and a form of fermentation takes place in bacteria and in the muscle cells of animals.
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid. (cells decreased size)
having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid. (cells increased size/full)
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
An organelle containing digestive enzymes responsible for breaking down
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
net primary productivity
Net primary production is the rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy; it is equal to the difference between the rate at which the plants in an ecosystem produce useful chemical energy (GPP) and the rate at which they use some of that energy during respiration.
The light-requiring part of photosynthesis in higher plants, in which an electron donor is required, and oxygen is produced as a waste product. It consists of two photoreactions, resulting in the synthesis of ATP and NADPH 2.