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chapter 8 biology
Terms in this set (41)
"Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that _____.
energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration?
heat, carbon dioxide, and water
Which of the following statements about equilibrium of chemical reactions is correct?
A reaction that is at equilibrium is not capable of doing any work.
The following reaction
A --> B + C + heat
is a(n) _____ reaction.
A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously.
Which of these reactions requires a net input of energy from its surroundings?
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction?
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction.
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?
It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
What is energy coupling?
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
Which of the following statements is correct regarding competitive and noncompetitive enzyme inhibitors?
Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme while noncompetitive inhibitors bind to an enzyme away from the active site.
Which of the following statements correctly describes cofactors and coenzymes?
Both are nonprotein enzyme helpers; but most cofactors are metal ions, and coenzymes are organic molecules that are a specific type of cofactor.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding ATP?
The energy in an ATP molecule is released through hydrolysis of one of the phosphate groups.
Which of the following is true regarding metabolic pathways?
Metabolic pathways consist of a series of reactions, each catalyzed by a different enzyme.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding kinetic and potential energy?
Kinetic energy is associated with the relative motion of objects, and potential energy is the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure.
How does ATP drive transport work inside a cell?
By phosphorylating a transport protein
An exergonic reaction __________ free energy, and an endergonic reaction __________ free energy.
Cells use ATP constantly, but ATP is considered a renewable resource. What process makes this possible?
ATP can be regenerated by the addition of a phosphate group to ADP.
At low temperatures, a particular enzyme catalyzes a reaction, but at a slow rate. At high temperatures, the enzyme is completely inactive. What statement best explains the difference in how temperature affects the function of this enzyme?
At low temperatures, there is not enough free energy for the enzyme to function at a high rate, and at high temperatures, the enzyme is denatured, leaving it nonfunctional.
The process of stabilizing the structure of an enzyme in its active form by the binding of a molecule is an example of __________.
What best characterizes the role of ATP in cellular metabolism?
The free energy released by ATP hydrolysis that may be coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate.
Which of the following correctly states the relationship between anabolic and catabolic pathways?
Anabolic pathways synthesize more complex organic molecules using the energy derived from catabolic pathways.
Which of the following states the relevance of the first law of thermodynamics to biology?
Energy can be freely transformed among different forms as long as the total energy is conserved.
An exergonic (spontaneous) reaction is a chemical reaction that __________.
releases energy when proceeding in the forward direction
Which of the following is changed by the presence of an enzyme in a reaction?
The activation energy
The primary manner in which cells manage their energy resources in order to do work is called energy coupling. Which of the following statements accurately defines energy coupling?
Exergonic reactions drive endergonic reactions.
If the entropy of a living organism is decreasing, which of the following is most likely to be occurring simultaneously?
Energy input into the organism must be occurring to drive the decrease in entropy.
At low pH, a particular enzyme catalyzes a reaction at a high rate. At neutral pH, the enzyme is completely inactive. What statement best explains the difference in how pH affects the function of this enzyme?
The enzyme is adapted for low pH but is denatured at neutral pH, leaving it nonfunctional.
Which of these statements about enzyme inhibitors is true?
The action of competitive inhibitors may be reversible or irreversible.
ATP allosterically inhibits enzymes in ATP-producing pathways. The result of this is called __________.
Which of the following statements about enzymes is true?
Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction without changing the ΔG for the reaction.
go to explanation
How does ATP drive mechanical work inside a cell?
By binding to motor proteins
What would the value of ΔS be for a chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into smaller components?
Which of the following reactions would be endergonic?
Glucose + fructose → sucrose
In general, the hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by __________.
releasing free energy that can be coupled to other reactions
As ATP begins to build up in a cell, metabolism slows down. How does this happen?
ATP acts as an allosteric inhibitor to many of the enzymes involved in metabolism, thus slowing their function.
Which of the following is an example of the second law of thermodynamics as it applies to biological reactions?
The aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose produces six molecules each of carbon dioxide and water.
Enzyme activity is affected by pH because __________.
high or low pH may disrupt hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions and thus change the shape of the active site
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