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a model for the development of society that delineates a sequence of cultural change over time
early theoretical school that postulated that all cultures proceeded through a series of succesive stages
a model of cultural evolution based on types of technology and food-procurement strategies, and the sociocultural adaptations that resulted from them
an evolutionary model of culture emphasizing different development patterns for societies in different habitats
acheulean hand axes
part of an african and european tool tradition associated with homo erectus and homo ergaster. the tradition also includes cleavers and some flake tools
a model that views a culture as part of a larger global ecological system with each aspect of the system interacting with all of the other parts
a model that aims at understanding how foragers optimize the gathering of food
a paradigm of human culture that combines both the neoevolutionary and ecological perspectives
a type of society common in foraging groups and marked by egalitarian social structure and lack of specialization
a type of band organization consisting of nuclear family units that move independently within an area. joins others when resources are plentiful;travels alone at other times
a type of band consisting of related males and their wives and children who stay together and forage as a group
a form of exchange that involves the mutual giving and receiving of food and other items between people who are socially equal
institutionalized gift giving and exchange between close kin; accounts are not kept, and there is no expectation of immediate return
exchange and gift giving with the expectation of a return of equal value within a reasonable period of time.
refers to members of a society having equal access to status, power, and wealth within the same category, such as age or gender.
a food-procurement strategy based on crop production without soil preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, or use of draft animals
a herding adaptation that makes the most available forage for animals by frequent habitat moves
a subsistence strategy based on intensive, continuous use of land for the production of plant foods. it typically includes one or more of the following: cultivation of soils, use of fertilizers, and irrigation
a type of society with an office of chief, most commonly hereditary, social ranking, and redistributing economy
a society with unequal access to resources within groups of the same gender and status
a system of exchange in which wealth is reallocated; found in chiefdom and state societies
a common type of marriage consisting of the marriage of cross cousins. men exchange their sisters as marriage partners
a form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the groom's kin to the bride's kin
a form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the bride's kin to the groom's kin
a custom among the yurok of northwestern california and other patri-centerd groups in which a man pays partial bridewealth and lives with the bride's family and the couple's children belong to the wife and her family
family of procreation
a kin group consisting of an individual and the individual's spouse and children
the complexity of a culture's rules governing the relationships between affinal and consanguineal kin
two or more nuclear families that are related by blood and who reside in the same household, village, or territory
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to set up an independent household away from both sets of parents
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to live in or near the residence of the groom's father
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to live in or near the residence of the bride's mother
a residence group consisting of a woman and her children residing without co-residence of a husband
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to reside with or near the groom's mother's brother.
the condition in which a newly married couple reside either with or near the groom's parents or the bride's parents.
a temporary residence form in which the groom moves to live with the bride's family until bridewealth payments are complete and the couple take up permanent patrilocal residence
a status position that is earned through an individual's skills, actions, and accomplishments
a unilineal descent group with membership passed on through females and traced to a common female ancestor
a term associated with bilateral descent in which relatives calculate their degree of relationship to Ego. in a ______, only siblings share the exact same set of relatives
a descent system with two separate lines of descent that are both recognized at the same time
a unilineal descent system in which some members of the society acquire and pass on descent affiliation through females, whereas others do so through males.
a descent group consisting of two or more lineages that trace their origin to a mythical ancestor
a group of two or more clans that have a tie to one another, often based on historical relationship; obligations and rights are expected between clans in this relationship
a group that crosscuts a society and whose membership is based on common interest rather than kinship or residence
a word that designates a social relationship between individuals who are related by blood or marriage
the distinction within kinship systems where father's side and mother's side of the family are labeled and treated differently, splitting mother's side of the family from father's side of the family
the biological aspect of being female, male, or other, assigned at birth based on external genitalia
the sociocultural construct of masculine and feminine roles and the qualities assigned to these roles
the ability to influence or cause people or groups to do certain things that they would not do otherwise
the exercise of legitimate power; the right to rule invented by members of the community in its leaders
a type of society marked by egalitarian social structure, based on horicultural and pastoral economies, and integrated by various types of kinship organizations and sodalities
types of leaders found in tribal and chiefdom societies whose leadership is based on persuasive power
a group that shares a common cultural heritage, territory, and legitimate political structure
a society with unequal access to resources within the same gender and status group
stratified state society
a society in which institutions are based on coercive power and authority. inequality exists within social groupings
a process involving a structure and mechanisms to ensure that people do not violate the society's accepted forms of behavior
unseen powers that are not personified and may be manipulated to achieve good or evil
a part-time practitioner of the supernatural who has special powers to mediate between the supernatural world and the community
a type of magic based on the notion that working magic on an image of an animal or person will cause the same effect on the actual animal or person
a type of magic based on the idea that something that has contact with a person or animal contains some essence of that being and that magic performed on the item will have the same effect as if performed on the being
rites of passage
rituals associated with the social movement of an individual from one culturally defined role and status to another during the passage from birth to death
rites of intensification
rituals, often seasonal, that reinforce group solidarity, cultural values, and group social and political status relationships
an organized movement, which occurs during times of change, that involves perceived loss of traditional cultural values.
a person, usually charismatic, who has had direct communication with a god. often receives a message that articulates a plan of action for the group
art executed on permanent features such as cave walls, rock shelters, and large blocks of rock
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