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134 terms

Anthro Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
cultural evolution
a model for the development of society that delineates a sequence of cultural change over time
unilineal evolution
early theoretical school that postulated that all cultures proceeded through a series of succesive stages
neoevolutionary model
a model of cultural evolution based on types of technology and food-procurement strategies, and the sociocultural adaptations that resulted from them
multilinear evolution
an evolutionary model of culture emphasizing different development patterns for societies in different habitats
oldowan tools
a very early african tool-making tradition associated with the first members of homo
acheulean hand axes
part of an african and european tool tradition associated with homo erectus and homo ergaster. the tradition also includes cleavers and some flake tools
ecological model
a model that views a culture as part of a larger global ecological system with each aspect of the system interacting with all of the other parts
cultural ecology
the study of the processes by which a society adapts to its environment
optimal-foraging model
a model that aims at understanding how foragers optimize the gathering of food
evolutionary-ecological model
a paradigm of human culture that combines both the neoevolutionary and ecological perspectives
technology
the knowledge, tools, and skills used by humans to manipulate their environments
traditions
cultural choices consistently made by a society and practiced generation to generation
foraging
a food-procurement strategy that involves collecting wild plant and animal foods
nomadic
most foragers are _________
carrying capacity
the maximum population that a habitat can sustain
bands
a type of society common in foraging groups and marked by egalitarian social structure and lack of specialization
family band
a type of band organization consisting of nuclear family units that move independently within an area. joins others when resources are plentiful;travels alone at other times
patrilocal band
a type of band consisting of related males and their wives and children who stay together and forage as a group
reciprocity
a form of exchange that involves the mutual giving and receiving of food and other items between people who are socially equal
generalized reciprocity
institutionalized gift giving and exchange between close kin; accounts are not kept, and there is no expectation of immediate return
balanced reciprocity
exchange and gift giving with the expectation of a return of equal value within a reasonable period of time.
negative reciprocity
an economic exchange aimed at receiving more than is given
egalitarian
refers to members of a society having equal access to status, power, and wealth within the same category, such as age or gender.
low energy budget
the expenditure of minimum energy to acquire the basic needs for survival
division of labor
the manner of dividing work based on criteria such as age or gender
horticulture
a food-procurement strategy based on crop production without soil preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, or use of draft animals
slash-and-burn
the removal of plant materials by cutting and burning preparatory to planting
pastoralism
a food-producing strategy based on herding
nomadic pastoralism
a herding adaptation that makes the most available forage for animals by frequent habitat moves
transhumance
a variety of pastoralism in which herds are moved seasonally
agriculture
a subsistence strategy based on intensive, continuous use of land for the production of plant foods. it typically includes one or more of the following: cultivation of soils, use of fertilizers, and irrigation
cheifdom
a type of society with an office of chief, most commonly hereditary, social ranking, and redistributing economy
stratified society
a society with unequal access to resources within groups of the same gender and status
redistribution
a system of exchange in which wealth is reallocated; found in chiefdom and state societies
market exchange
the trading of goods and services through the use of currency
barter
exchange of products that does not involve currency
commodity money
currency in the form of valued objects such as shells or gold
flat money
paper currency backed by a nation-state's claim of its value
exogamy
a cultural rule that dictates that one must marry outside of a designated group
nuclear family
a married couple and their children
endogamy
a cultural rule that dictates that one must marry within a designated group
levirate
a marriage custom in which a widow marries her deceased husbands brother
sororate
a marriage custom in which a widower marries a sister of his deceased wife
status
a person's position in society
role
the culturally assigned behaviors and expectations for a person's social position
monogamy
a form of marriage in which one woman is married to one man
polygamy
multiple-spouse marriage
polygyny
marriage of one man to two or more women
polyandry
marriage of one woman to two or more men
sister exchange
a common type of marriage consisting of the marriage of cross cousins. men exchange their sisters as marriage partners
cross cousin
ego's mother's brother's child and father's sister's child
parallel-cousin
ego's mother's sister's child and father's brother's child
bridewealth
a form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the groom's kin to the bride's kin
dowry
a form of marriage finance in which valuable gifts are given by the bride's kin to the groom's kin
half-marriage
a custom among the yurok of northwestern california and other patri-centerd groups in which a man pays partial bridewealth and lives with the bride's family and the couple's children belong to the wife and her family
family of orientation
a personal childhood family, where enculturation takes place
consanguineal relatives
kin related by blood
family of procreation
a kin group consisting of an individual and the individual's spouse and children
affinal kin
kin related by marriage
kinship system
the complexity of a culture's rules governing the relationships between affinal and consanguineal kin
extended family
two or more nuclear families that are related by blood and who reside in the same household, village, or territory
household
a common residence-based economic unit
neolocal residence
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to set up an independent household away from both sets of parents
patrilocal residence
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to live in or near the residence of the groom's father
virilocal residence
the custom of living with the husband's relatives after marriage
shabano
a yanomamo village
matrilocal residence
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to live in or near the residence of the bride's mother
uxorilocal residence
the custom of living with the wife's relatives after marriage
matrifocal residence
a residence group consisting of a woman and her children residing without co-residence of a husband
avunculocal residence
a postmarriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to reside with or near the groom's mother's brother.
bilocal residence
the condition in which a newly married couple reside either with or near the groom's parents or the bride's parents.
matri-patrilocal residence
a temporary residence form in which the groom moves to live with the bride's family until bridewealth payments are complete and the couple take up permanent patrilocal residence
role
the culturally assigned behaviors and expectations for a person's social position
status
a person's position in society
ascribed status
the status a person is given at birth and over which that person has no control
achieved status
a status position that is earned through an individual's skills, actions, and accomplishments
descent group
a group of people who share identity and come from a common ancestor
lineage
a unilineal descent group that traces its consanguineal relatives back to a common ancestor
patrilineage
a unilineal descent group passed on through males and traced to a common male ancestor
agnates
members of a patrilineage
matrilineage
a unilineal descent group with membership passed on through females and traced to a common female ancestor
bilateral descent
descent that is traced equally through both mother and father
kindred
a term associated with bilateral descent in which relatives calculate their degree of relationship to Ego. in a ______, only siblings share the exact same set of relatives
double descent
a descent system with two separate lines of descent that are both recognized at the same time
ambilineal descent
a unilineal descent system in which some members of the society acquire and pass on descent affiliation through females, whereas others do so through males.
clan
a descent group consisting of two or more lineages that trace their origin to a mythical ancestor
totem
mythical ancestor or symbol of a clan
phratry
a group of two or more clans that have a tie to one another, often based on historical relationship; obligations and rights are expected between clans in this relationship
moiety
an association that divides a society in half
segmentary lineage
a descent group consisting of sublineage sets
sodality
a group that crosscuts a society and whose membership is based on common interest rather than kinship or residence
kinship term
a word that designates a social relationship between individuals who are related by blood or marriage
bifurcate
the distinction within kinship systems where father's side and mother's side of the family are labeled and treated differently, splitting mother's side of the family from father's side of the family
fictive kin
unrelated family friends who are addressed by kin terms
psychological anthropology
the study of the relationship between culture and personality
sex
the biological aspect of being female, male, or other, assigned at birth based on external genitalia
sexual dimorphism
the biological and behavioral differences between males and females
gender role
the task and behavior assigned by a culture to each sex
gender
the sociocultural construct of masculine and feminine roles and the qualities assigned to these roles
heterosexuality
sexual attraction between members of the opposite sex
homosexuality
sexual attraction between members of the same sex
power
the ability to influence or cause people or groups to do certain things that they would not do otherwise
authority
the exercise of legitimate power; the right to rule invented by members of the community in its leaders
tribe
a type of society marked by egalitarian social structure, based on horicultural and pastoral economies, and integrated by various types of kinship organizations and sodalities
headmen
types of leaders found in tribal and chiefdom societies whose leadership is based on persuasive power
big men
alternate term for headmen common in melanesian societies
nation-state
a group that shares a common cultural heritage, territory, and legitimate political structure
stratified society
a society with unequal access to resources within the same gender and status group
stratified state society
a society in which institutions are based on coercive power and authority. inequality exists within social groupings
social stratification
ascribed and achieved differences between two classes within a society
class
a group of people who have a similar relationship to wealth, power and prestige
caste
a ranked group with membership determined at birth
social control
a process involving a structure and mechanisms to ensure that people do not violate the society's accepted forms of behavior
deviance
the violation of an ideal pattern of behavior within a society
law
the cultural rules formulated by a society and backed up by sanctions
supernatural belief
a belief that transcends the observable, natural world
supernatural beings
invisible beings that exhibit form, personality, attitudes, and powers
supernatural forces
unseen powers that are not personified and may be manipulated to achieve good or evil
polytheistic
a belief system consisting of many supernatural beings of approximately equal power
monotheistic
a belief system that focuses on one all-powerful supernatural being
mana
an impersonal supernatural force that flows in and out of people and objects
magic
the techniques used to manipulate supernatural forces and beings
shaman
a part-time practitioner of the supernatural who has special powers to mediate between the supernatural world and the community
imitative magic
a type of magic based on the notion that working magic on an image of an animal or person will cause the same effect on the actual animal or person
contagious magic
a type of magic based on the idea that something that has contact with a person or animal contains some essence of that being and that magic performed on the item will have the same effect as if performed on the being
priest
a full-time supernatural practitioner who is part of a bureaucracy
ritual
behavior that is formalized, is regularly repeated, and has symbolic content
rites of passage
rituals associated with the social movement of an individual from one culturally defined role and status to another during the passage from birth to death
rites of intensification
rituals, often seasonal, that reinforce group solidarity, cultural values, and group social and political status relationships
revitalization movement
an organized movement, which occurs during times of change, that involves perceived loss of traditional cultural values.
prophet
a person, usually charismatic, who has had direct communication with a god. often receives a message that articulates a plan of action for the group
parietal art
art executed on permanent features such as cave walls, rock shelters, and large blocks of rock
mobile art
art forms that are not fixed to any place and can be moved or carried
ethnomusicology
the study of the music of a contemporary society within the context of that society