BY 261 Microbio Lecture exam 1 (lecture 3&4 only) UAB

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organism that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye
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Histoneprotein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatinwhat is the average size, in micrometers of bacteria?1 to 2 micrometers (to see use oil immersion 100xMost bacteria are what shape? a few bacteria are?monomorphic (single/uniform shape, one species all look the same) few are pleomorphic (many shapes)what is .5 micrometers and are pleomorphic (change in shape)?mycoplasma/walking pneumonia5 types of bacteria shapes?bacillus, coccus, spiral, star-shaped/stella, rectangularrod shaped bacteriabacillusspherical shaped bacteria?coccispiral shaped bacteriaspirilla3 types of spiral bacteriavibrio, spirillum, spirochetestar-shaped/ stellar bacteria can be found in? Spiral vibrio shaped bacteria are found in?horse poop from oysters /rice water poopspirochete shape of bacteria has what? what does it look like? ex?has flagella and is like a corkscrew ex; syphyllis can corkscrew into brainpairs of bacteria?diplococci, diplobacilliclusters of bacteriastaphylococcichains of bacteriastreptococci, streptobacilligroup of four bacteriatetradcubelike groups of eight bacterial cellssarcinaeLeft over bad rice make food poisoning which is called?Bacillus cereusBacillius cereus: has green dots in the middle called? is it hard to kill endospores?endspores yes, very hard.Honey bottle says don't give to under 6 months old b/c its bee spit and can pick up endospores. Since honey is high content of sugar it has no expiration date but the infinite doesn't have immune system to fight off the endospores.what is the description of the bacteria cell arrangement of a spherical, coccus with grapelike clusters of cells? what is the description of the bacteria cell arrangement of a spherical, coccus with CHAINS of cells?staphylococcus streptococcuswhat is the description of the bacteria cell arrangement of a cylindrical, bacillus with CHAINs of cells? what is the description of the bacteria cell arrangement of a cylindrical, bacillus with PAIRS of cells?streptobacillus diplobacilluslong helically coiled cells? ex?spirochete ex; treponemaCylindrical, but curved, comma-shaped to helical?vibrioHow can you identify streptococci with a microscope?If it is a chain of coccido prokaryotic cells have this TRUE/FALSE: •Filamentous appendages •Surface layers •no, Cell wall •no, Cell boundary •Intracellulartrue true false false truewhat is External to the cell wall and has a texture that is Viscous and gelatinous? what is it made of? 2 types?glycocalyx made of polysaccharide and/or polypeptides capsule and slime layerin the glycocalyx, what type is neatly organized and firmly attached? what type is unorganized and loose?capsule slime layerglycocalyx contributes is ___________. what is this? The majority of pathogens have this glycocalyx so the body tries to get rid of it... but if it have...? what are these sticky pathogens called?virulence capsule prevents phagocytosis . this extracellular polymeric substance helps form biofilms if it has a capsule than it can get thru the immunity biofilmsBiofilms aresticky microbes that attach to solid surfaces and grow into masses. Ex on rocks, pipes, teeth, and medical prokaryotic cells, what are Filamentous appendages external of the cell and Propel bacteria - Motility? what protein are they made of? what would eukaryotic use instead of this?flagella flagellin eukaryotic cells use tubulin for protein3 parts of flagellafilament, hook, basal bodyoutermost region of flagella?filamentattaches to the filament of flagellahookconsist of rods and pairs of rings; anchors flagellum to cell wall and membrane?basal bodywith flagellar ultrastructure and gram-negative VS gram-positive: what is different for flagellum in gram negative? what is gram positive lacking?gram-neg: thin wall of peptidoglycan, have 4 diff. for support, have a outer membrane all the things above : only 2 ringsTEST Patterns of Flagella Distribution: --momontrichous=? polar flagellum=? -amphitrichous=? -lophotrichous - lopho=? -peritrichous=?one flagella (clockwise=tumble) vibro sp. both end have flagella tuft b/c flagella on one end (counterclockwise= it bunches up and it turns, clockwise=tumble) hairy/have hairy flagella all overFlagella allow bacteria to move toward or away from stimuli?taxisTEST: Flagella rotate to?run or tumbleFlagella proteins are H antigens and distinguish among?serovars (e.g., Escherichia coli O157:H7) #badstrandofE.coliserovarsVariations within a species of gram-negative bacteriawhen a flagellum runs and tumbles, some have NO attractant or repellent. does that make them have a dense pattern or not a dense pattern? what if they have a gradient of atraction concentrationdense not denseAxial Filaments is also called? where are they found anchored where rotation causes cell to move like a ?endoflagella spirochetes anchored at one end of cell like a corkscrewAppendages for Attachment and "Mating"/spikey?fimbriae and pilus/pili-short, thin, hair-like, proteinaceous appendages •up to 1,000/cell -mediate attachment to surfaces -some (type IV fimbriae) required for twitching motility/gliding motility that occurs in some bacteria -can help take up dna sometimes what is this?•fimbriae (s., fimbria/spiky/hairlike)•similar to fimbriae except longer, thicker, and less numerous (1-10/cell) -used for adhesion -made of __________ protein -help motility (gliding/twitching motility) what is this?pili/pilus pilin proteinAn appendages for Attachment and "Mating" that is Involved in DNA transfer from one cell to another?sex/conjugation pilus Antibiotic resistance= 1 conjugation make millions of same cells and can spread antibiotic resistanceWhat has a cell wall? what is it made of? purpose?plants, fungi, bacteria, archaea made of cellulose to help absorb water for the most part keep it all insidePolymer of a repeating disaccharide in rows like: •N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) •N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) (which are both alternating sugars) how are they linked?peptidoglycan polypeptideslabel: pink parts=NAM Brown parts: NAG between green dots=peptide bonds 3 green dots= coming off= tetrapeptide side chains blue cross bridges from brown to brown= peptide-cross bridge brown center in the middle of cylinder= carb backbonewhat can break the bond between NAM and NAG on the glycan chain is called?lysozymechain that comes off the NAM?tetra-peptide chain (A.A)chain/cells that bond the 2 tetrapeptide chains? what bonds them? are they gram-positive or neg?peptide interridge 1,4 glyosidic linkage gram-positive cellsorganism that has an L-chain would be?archaeawhat cell walls have thick peptidoglycan layer and teichoic acids?gram positive cell wallsTheichoic acidsanchor to plasma membrame and its always gram-positive but had negative charge ex; ear infectionwhat cell wall had thing peptidoglycan walls, outer membrane LPS and perplasmic space X2? ex;gram neg ex; organs are gram neg.OUTSIDE WALL; Space/lipid can turn toxic ... endotoxic has no tools to treat them....such as E.coli from cow ... that's why gram negative infection is much harder to treat what is this referring to?lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in gram negin between cell membrane and pep layer there is the periplasmic space. How many negative gram side has two,,, positive gram side has 1...periplasmic spacewith techoic acid: -____________ __________ links cell wall to plasma membrane -Wall teichoic acid links the ______________ -Carry a ______________- charge -Regulate movement of _______ - what postive stain is used to see them?lipoteichoic acid peptidoglycan negative cations methyl bluePolysaccharides and teichoic acids provide __________ ________antigenic specificityantigenicvery specific based on body and induces an immune responseGram-Negative Cell Walls: -Periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane contains? -Outer membrane made of polysaccharides, lipoproteins, and phospholipids =peptidoglycan LPShow do u stain LPS?contributed negative charge which is why u can stain them with crystal violet for positive an negations, then stain with iodine, wash with ethanol, then with thick peptidoglycan level cant escape. Then sarain to make it pink... which is why positive is pink and neg is purple most doctors go to inhibit peptidoglycan with gram positive to prevent infectionProtect from phagocytes, complement, and antibiotics?gram-neg3 characteristics in LPS?O polysaccharide, lipid Am and negative chargewhat functions as antigen (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)O polysaccharideis an endotoxin embedded in the top layer into LPS and has a tail? when it toxic?lipid A toxic w/ e.coliin gram neg. cell walls, what proteins form channels thru membrane?porinsPorinsProteins that allow the passage of certain ions and small polar molecules through membranes. like waterCell Walls and the Gram Stain Mechanism: what forms inside the cell?crystal violet-iodine complexCell Walls and the Gram Stain Mechanism: is this gram positive or gram neg? -Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan -CV-I crystals do not leavepositivecell walls and the gram stain mechanism? is this gram positive or gram neg? -Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan -CV-I washes out; cells are colorless -Safranin added to stain cellsgram negcharacteristic of gram positive cell walls: •___-_________ in basal body of flagella •Produce ________ •High susceptibility to __________ •Disrupted by _______ •Teichoic acid2- rings exotoxins penicillin lysozymecharacteristics of gram negative cell walls: •_____-__________ in basal body of flagella •Produce__________ and ____________ •________ susceptibility to penicillin •LPS4-ring endotoxins and extoxins lowExotoxinssecreted and cause disease ex; Botox -can have antitoxin for it like a spider bite or snake biteAcid-fast/atypical cell walls: -Like gram-__________ cell walls -Waxy lipid (_________ _______) bound to peptidoglycan -_______bacteriumpositive mycolic acid mycobacterum acid-fast is like a gram stain... if u think u have tuberculous they will stain the mycobacterium and it will go pink and decolorize so u add secondary stainMycobacterium causestuberculosis and leprosyOutside peptidoglycan layer is a waxy layer called? what does it do?mycolic acid- repels stainsRed rod-shaped (bacillus) is corded together and lumped together... that is the sputum u see when u see the shadowAtypical Cell Walls have mycoplasmas: -Lack ______ ______, very small, - ___________ -____________in plasma membrane; lipid bilayer has sterols which is eukarotyc characteristic but is not -Walking ___________-lack cell walls -pleomorphic -sterols - pneumoniain archaea, it can be wall-less or can have atypical cell walls of ________________pseudomureinpsedomureinlack NAM and only D- amino acidDamages to cell walls: Lysozyme hydrolyzes bonds in? which bond? archaea affected?peptidoglycan 1-4 glyosidic bondPenicillin inhibits peptide bridges in? which enzyme?peptidoglycan Found by flemming; transpeptidase stops connection of cell walls and inhibits it3 types of cell wall deficient (CWD) bacteria?protoplast, spheroplast, and L-formswhat CWD bacteria is a wall-less gram-positive cell?protoplastwhat CWD bacteria is a wall-less gram-negative cell?spheroplast-Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis: why?Cucumber slice and add salt then it will leak water, RBC will lysis b/c too dry and too much saltwhat CWD bacteria are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes?L-formsCWD bacteria are __________ instead of using bacteria fission?buddingan example of surface layer (S-layer) is called? it is composed of? monomer?glycocalyx polysaccharides. (It's a polysaccharide (moner) and it's a polymer of polysaccharide.) -in bacteria, some have gel looking coat outside pep layer, some are loose and goopyWhat S/Surface layer has: •External to the cell wall •Viscous/gelatinous •Made of polysaccharide and/or polypeptideglycocalyx2 types of glycocalyx?capsule and slime layerwhat type of glycocalyx is hard to remove? If pathogen had this then immune System will try to combat them; WBC will try to kill it but outside layer prevent it and will invade immune systemcapsulewhat type of glycocalyx layer is more goopy and loose?slime-regularly structured layers of protein or glycoprotein -In bacteria, this layer is external to the cell walls-layersthe s-layer is common in?Archaea, where they may be the only structure outside the plasma membranesome cells lack a cell wall like what?mycoplasma -they are pleomorphic and very tinyIntracellular Structure include?•DNA •Ribosomes •Endospores •Gas vesicles •GranulesWhat is this? •Phospholipid bilayer that encloses the cytoplasm (human have sterol w/cholesterol) •Peripheral proteins on the membrane surface •Integral and transmembrane proteins penetrate the membranethe plasma (cytoplasmic) membrane________ and ___________ proteins penetrate the membrane. ____________ proteins are on the surface of the membrane.integral and transmembrane peripheralthe lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane has heads that are? tails?heads= polar/hydrophilic tails=nonpolar/ hydrophobicprotein that is the communication for cell, transport and help make shape?peripheral proteinfluid mosaic modelmodel that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane FLUIDwhat are the 6 structures of the plasma membrane?-Fluid mosaic model - viscous as oil -Proteins move freely/float -Phospholipids rotate/move laterally -Self-sealing; puncture It heals itselfwhat are the 3 functions of the plasma membrane?- selective permeability -Contain enzymes for ATP production -photosynthetic pigments on foldings= chromatophores-The plasma membrane's _____________ __________ allows the passage of some molecules, but not othersselective permeabilitySome membranes have photosynthetic pigments on foldings calledchromatophoressubstances move from high concentration to low concentration; no energy expended?passive transports such as simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis,substances move from low concentration to high concentration; energy expended? (goes against the gradient)active transport requires a transporter proteins and ATP•movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration -Continues until molecules reach equilibriumsimple diffusion -passive transportsolute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane -Transports ions and larger molecules across a membrane with the concentration gradientFacilitated diffusion - passive transportthe movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water to an area of lower water concentration -Through lipid layer -Aquaporins (water channels) -Think of cucumber and saltosmosis -passive transportthe pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane?osmotic pressuresolute concentrations equal inside and outside of cell; water is at equilibrium - CWD bacteria love this environment?isotonic solution like ur lungs•solute concentration is lower outside than inside the cell; water moves into cell - Cucumber and salt?hypotonic solutionsolute concentration is higher outside of cell than inside; water moves out of cell - Wilted lettucehypertonic solution3 types of active transport proteins:uniporters, symporters, antiportersUniporterA carrier protein that transports a single molecule across the plasma membrane.antiporter proteinmoves two substances in opposite directionssymport/couple proteinA membrane transport process that carries two substances in the same direction across the membrane.The substance inside the plasma membrane? how much is water + what other stuff?cytoplasm 80% water plus proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and ionswhat is in the cytoplasm that helps with the shape of the bacteria and our cells?cytoskeletonthe nucleoid contains what 2 things?bacterial chromosome and plasmidscircular thread of DNA that contains the cell's genetic informationbacterial chromosomeextrachromosomal genetic elements; carry non-crucial genes (e.g., antibiotic resistance, production of toxins)plasmids ( tiny small circular genetic material but has nothing to do with DNA... it has genes but not important genes like things that want/need to survive)what is this? -Sites of protein synthesis - Made of protein and ribosomal RNA - 70S= 50S + 30S subunits(we are 80 but dont worry abt math)ribosomeswhat are some examples of inclusions?metachromatic granules (volutin), polysaccharide granules, lipid inclusions, sulfur granules, carboxysomes, gas vacuoles, magnetosomesinclusion that is a phosphate reserve? inclusion that is a energy reserve?metachromatic granules (volutin) lipid inclusion and sulfur granulesinclusions that is a RuBisCO enzyme for CO2 fixation during photosynthesis? inclusion that is a protein-covered cylinders that maintain buoyancy? inclusion that is a iron oxide inclusion;destroy H2O2?carboxysomes gas vacuoles magnetosomesResting cells; produced when nutrients are depleted - survival mode?endosporesendospores are resistant to ? what are they produced by?desiccation, heat, chemicals, and radiation TESTTTTT*****bacillus and clostridium (CDIFF)what is endospore formation called? what is it called when endospore returns to vegetative/mother state?sporulation germinationwhat are the 6 steps of formation of endospore by sporulation1. Spore septum begins to isolate newly replicated DNA and a small portion of cytoplasm 2. Plasma membrane starts to surround DNA, cytoplasm, and membrane isolated in step 1. 3. Spore septum surrounds isolated portion, forming forespore 4.Peptidoglycan layer forms between membranes. 5. spore coat forms 6. endospore is freed from cell.Transformation of Dormant Spores into Active Vegetative Cells includes what 3 steps?activation, germination, and outgrowthwhen the transformation of the dormant spore into an active vegetative spore occurs, what happens in the activation stage?-prepares spores for germination -often results from treatments like heatingwhen the transformation of the dormant spore into an active vegetative spore occurs, what happens in the germination stage?-spore swelling -rupture of absorption of spore coat -loss of resistance -increased metabolic activitywhen the transformation of the dormant spore into an active vegetative spore occurs, what happens in the outgrowth stage?emergence of vegetative cellNewly added taxonomic kingdom?archaebacteriaArchaea cell walls: - lack _________________ -cell walls varies from species to species but usually consist of ____________ ________________ -May have a surface layer of __________ or ________________ -Methanogens have walls containing _____________________-peptidoglycan -complex heteropolysaccharides -protein or glycoprotein -pseudomurein (has L-amino acids instead of D- amino acids)Methanogens have walls containing?pseudomurein (has L-amino acids instead of D-amino acids)Archaebacteria: •Cells usually less than __ _______ long •Cells are mostly _____________, but some are cylindrical, or even odd-shaped. •May or may not have ____________; when more than one present, all attached to one side of cell. •Have one _________ __________ of DNA called a _____________ •____________________ molecules different from all other organisms, although some similarity with eukaryotic cells.1 micron spherical flagella circular loop plasmid tRNAin eukaryotic cells, Genetic material is enclosed within a? what type of proteins are in The dna? cell division in eukaryotic cells are through?membrane bound nucleus HISOTNE proteins **test mitosis and meiosis= sexual reproductionlong projections; few in numberflagellashort projections; numerousciliaFlagella and Cilia both consist of?microtubules made of the protein tubulinMicrotubules are organized as nine pairs in a ring, plus?plus two microtubules in the center (9 + 2 array)eukaryotic flagella compared to prokaryotic flagella?prokaryote= hook, rod, basal body (containing peptidoglycan wall, periplasm, and cytoplasmic membrane ) eukaryotic= outer microtubule pair, plasma membrane, central microtubule pair, flagellum, microtubuleswith the movement of cilium it move in a pattern similar to an?arm of a swimmer doing the breaststrokewith the movement of flagellum, they are much longer than cilia, it moves in an?undulating, whiplike patterncell wall found in plants, algae and fungi are made of? specifically ::: plants? fungi? yeast?carbs cellulose—plants, chitin—fungi, glucan and mannan—yeastsCarbohydrates bonded to proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane is called? where is it found?glycocalyx animalsThe Plasma (Cytoplasmic) Membrane in eukaryotic cells has a similar structure to prokaryotic cell membranes, such as ? differences in structures such as?similar-Phospholipid bilayer, Integral and peripheral proteins diff: -Sterols=complex lipids, - bacteria = hopanoids, -Carbohydrates=for attachment and cell-to-cell recognitionhopanoidsStructurally similar to sterols Present in membranes of many Bacteriathe Plasma (Cytoplasmic) Membrane in eukaryotic cells has a similar function to prokaryotic cell membranes, such as ? differences in structures such as?similarities: -selective permeability -simple diffusion, facilitation, osmosis and active transport diff: endocytosis- pino and phagoEndocytosisprocess by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane broken down into 2 parts phagocytosis and pinocytosisin eukaryotic cells, what is the process of pseudopods extending and engulf particles?phagocytosisin eukaryotic cells, what is the process of the membrane folds inward, bringing in fluid and dissolved substances?pinocytosissubstance inside the plasma and outside the nucleus?cytoplasmfluid portion of cytoplasm?cytosol•made of microfilaments and intermediate filaments; gives shape and support?cytoskeletonmovement of the cytoplasm throughout a cell?cytoplasmic streamingHomologs of all 3 eukaryotic cytoskeletal elements (microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules) have recently been identified in? the prokaryotic cytoskeleton functions include 3 roles in?bacteria and one had been found in archaea cell division, protein localization and determination of cell shapeeukaryotic ribosomes in the 80s: -Consists of the large ______ subunit and the small _______ subunit -Membrane-bound: attached to __________ ____________ -free: in the ______________large 60s AND small 40S attached to ER in the cytoplasmEukarytoic ribosomes in the 70S: - in the _______________ and ____________ - ________________ theoryin the chloroplast and mito -endosymbiotic theoryIdentify at least one significant difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella and cilia, cell walls, plasma membranes, and cytoplasm....The antibiotic erythromycin binds with the 50S portion of a ribosome. What effect does this have on a prokaryotic cell? On a eukaryotic cell?...6 membrane bound organelles in eukaryotic?•Nucleus •Endoplasmic reticulum •Golgi apparatus •Mitochondria •Lysosome ChloroplastDouble membrane structure (nuclear envelope) that contains the cell's DNA?nucelusDNA is complexed with histone proteins to form?chromatinDuring mitosis and meiosis, chromatin condenses into?chromosomesFolded transport network? 2 types?ER 1. rough ER 2. Smooth ERwhat ER is a studded with ribosomes; sites of protein synthesis?rough ERwhat ER had no ribosomes; synthesizes cell membranes, fats, and hormones?smooth ERTransport organelle that Modifies proteins from the ER? Transports modified proteins via?gogli complex secretory vesicles to the plasma membraneA double membrane that Contains inner folds (cristae) and fluid (matrix), and is involved in cellular respiration (ATP production)?mitothe organelle that is the Locations of photosynthesis that Contain flattened membranes (thylakoids) that contain chlorophyll?cholorplastsorganelle that Vesicles formed in the Golgi complex that Contain digestive enzymeslysosomesorganelle that Cavities in the cell formed from the Golgi complex that food into cells; provide shape and storage?vacuolesorganelle that oxidized fatty acids and destroys H2O2?peroxisomesthe organelle that is a Network of protein fibers and centrioles and Forms the mitotic spindle? IS A CRITICAL ROLE In CELL DIVISIONcentrosomesendosymbiotic theory: 1. larger bacterial cells engulfed smaller bacterial cells developing the first ________________ 2. ingested photosynthetic bacteria become? 3. ingested aerobic bacteria became?eukaryotes chloroplasts mitochondriaProkaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells