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Music Exam 2

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when is the Classical period
1750-1825
what is the difference between the classical and baroque eras
Classical is lighter/melodic; Baroque is more extravagant
what events and cultural trends defined the Classical era
Death of Louis XIV, the Enlightenment, 2 revolutions, and classicism
what ideas were associated with the enlightenment
philosophers - dare to think, rise of public sphere, favor humans over divine, favor reason over faith, favor clarity not extravagance
what are the 3 classical instrumental genres discussed in class
symphony, sonata, string quartet
what is a symphony
full classical orchestra, 4 families of instruments all equally important
what is a sonata
showcases solo virtuosity, solo keyboard or duo
what is a string quartet
2 violins, viola, and cello all equally important
what is the multi-movement cycle that symphonies, string quartets, and sonata follows
1st movement: sonata-allegro, 2nd movement: slow and lyrical, 3rd movement: minuet and trio, 4th movement: rondo
what is different about the sonata cycle
there isn't a 3rd movement
what is sonata-allegro form
exposition, development, recapitulation
what is minuet and trio form
triple meter, ABA, dance
what is rondo form
every other section is the same thing
what genres is Haydn known for
string quartet and symphony
what genres is Mozart known for
concerto and sonata
basics of Haydn's career
composed to please the prince, nobility
basics of Mozart's career
difficulty working with court patrons, gave public concerts
what do Haydn and Mozart often do in their music to delight the audience
practical jokes, humor and wit
where is the center of cultural activity in Europe during the Classical era
Vienna
what is opera seria
serious plots, Greek/old heroes, one person singing
what is opera buffa
comic/more real life plots; arias, recitatives, duets, stanzas
what does Beethoven express in his Heiligenstadt Testament
he contemplates suicide because he was going deaf and he was known for his good ear, he was embarrassed
what are the 3 main periods of Beethoven's work
early phase (classical style), middle phase (heroic period), last phase (avant-garde period)
what are some of the core values of the Romantic movements
individualism, emotional expression, nature, supernatural/escape, nationalism and folklore
how is romantic music different from classical music
bigger, louder, more expressive, music is less structured
what is schubrtiad
small gatherings at peoples homes
which composer relied on schubertiad the most
Schubert
what is absolute music
doesn't have a story intended by the composer
what is program music
instrumental music that tells a story or describes a picture or a scene
what is highly associated with the romantic period
program music
which genres during the romantic period may be programmatic
symphony, string quartets, sonatas, concertos, piano miniatures, symphonic poems
what is lieder
german song
what is a song cycle
a group of lieder or miniatures united by a common theme
what is a piano miniature
a piece that is relatively short and the piano only
what is a program symphony
multi-movement programmatic orchestral work
if I tell you that is has multiple movements but there is no program it's a
symphony
composers of symphonies
Haydn, Mozart, or Beethoven
if I tell you it has multiple movements, and I give you some sort of programmatic text, title, or image, it's a
program symphony
composers of program symphonies
Berlioz, Felix Mendelssohn, Beethoven
if I tell you there's only one movement, and I give you some sort of programmatic text, title, or image, it's a
symphonic poem
composers of symphonic poems
Romantic era
4 strings
string quartet
composers of string quartet
Mozart, Haydn, or Beethoven
if I tell you there are multiple movements, piano only
sonata
composers of sonatas
mozart, haydn, beethoven
if I tell you that this is the entire piece and it's relatively short, piano only
piano miniature
composers of piano miniatures
Chopin, Rober Schumann, Clara Schumann, Fanny Mendelssohn
piano and voice (German text)
lied
composers of lied
Schubert, Robert Schumann
if you see it acted, with Germany lyrics
opera buffa
composers of opera buffa
mozart