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when is the Classical period


what is the difference between the classical and baroque eras

Classical is lighter/melodic; Baroque is more extravagant

what events and cultural trends defined the Classical era

Death of Louis XIV, the Enlightenment, 2 revolutions, and classicism

what ideas were associated with the enlightenment

philosophers - dare to think, rise of public sphere, favor humans over divine, favor reason over faith, favor clarity not extravagance

what are the 3 classical instrumental genres discussed in class

symphony, sonata, string quartet

what is a symphony

full classical orchestra, 4 families of instruments all equally important

what is a sonata

showcases solo virtuosity, solo keyboard or duo

what is a string quartet

2 violins, viola, and cello all equally important

what is the multi-movement cycle that symphonies, string quartets, and sonata follows

1st movement: sonata-allegro, 2nd movement: slow and lyrical, 3rd movement: minuet and trio, 4th movement: rondo

what is different about the sonata cycle

there isn't a 3rd movement

what is sonata-allegro form

exposition, development, recapitulation

what is minuet and trio form

triple meter, ABA, dance

what is rondo form

every other section is the same thing

what genres is Haydn known for

string quartet and symphony

what genres is Mozart known for

concerto and sonata

basics of Haydn's career

composed to please the prince, nobility

basics of Mozart's career

difficulty working with court patrons, gave public concerts

what do Haydn and Mozart often do in their music to delight the audience

practical jokes, humor and wit

where is the center of cultural activity in Europe during the Classical era


what is opera seria

serious plots, Greek/old heroes, one person singing

what is opera buffa

comic/more real life plots; arias, recitatives, duets, stanzas

what does Beethoven express in his Heiligenstadt Testament

he contemplates suicide because he was going deaf and he was known for his good ear, he was embarrassed

what are the 3 main periods of Beethoven's work

early phase (classical style), middle phase (heroic period), last phase (avant-garde period)

what are some of the core values of the Romantic movements

individualism, emotional expression, nature, supernatural/escape, nationalism and folklore

how is romantic music different from classical music

bigger, louder, more expressive, music is less structured

what is schubrtiad

small gatherings at peoples homes

which composer relied on schubertiad the most


what is absolute music

doesn't have a story intended by the composer

what is program music

instrumental music that tells a story or describes a picture or a scene

what is highly associated with the romantic period

program music

which genres during the romantic period may be programmatic

symphony, string quartets, sonatas, concertos, piano miniatures, symphonic poems

what is lieder

german song

what is a song cycle

a group of lieder or miniatures united by a common theme

what is a piano miniature

a piece that is relatively short and the piano only

what is a program symphony

multi-movement programmatic orchestral work

if I tell you that is has multiple movements but there is no program it's a


composers of symphonies

Haydn, Mozart, or Beethoven

if I tell you it has multiple movements, and I give you some sort of programmatic text, title, or image, it's a

program symphony

composers of program symphonies

Berlioz, Felix Mendelssohn, Beethoven

if I tell you there's only one movement, and I give you some sort of programmatic text, title, or image, it's a

symphonic poem

composers of symphonic poems

Romantic era

4 strings

string quartet

composers of string quartet

Mozart, Haydn, or Beethoven

if I tell you there are multiple movements, piano only


composers of sonatas

mozart, haydn, beethoven

if I tell you that this is the entire piece and it's relatively short, piano only

piano miniature

composers of piano miniatures

Chopin, Rober Schumann, Clara Schumann, Fanny Mendelssohn

piano and voice (German text)


composers of lied

Schubert, Robert Schumann

if you see it acted, with Germany lyrics

opera buffa

composers of opera buffa


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