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113 terms

anatomy: heart

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apex
anterior
posterior=base
diaphragmatic surface
surfaces of heart
mediastinum
where the heart lies
suspends the heart; a double-layered sac of tough, fibrous connective tissue and mesothelium
pericardium
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
layers of heart wall
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
auricles
black arrows
coronary sulcus
blue/purple arrows
anterior interventricular sulcus
teal/green arrow
posterior interventricular sulcus
light green arrow
ascending aorta: oxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
aortic arch: oxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
brachiocephalic artery: oxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
left common carotid artery: oxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
common carotid artery: oxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
left subclavian artery: oxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
ligamentum arteriosum
superior vena cava: deoxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
inferior vena cava: deoxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
pulmonary trunk
pulmonary artery: deoxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
pulmonary veins: oxygenated
carries oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
remnant of the ductus arteriosus, which shunts blood from pulmonary trunk to distal aortic arch in fetus
ligamentum arteriosum
ductus arteriosus function in fetus
allows blood to bypass fetus's fluid-filled lungs
coronary sinus
superior vena cava opening
inferior vena cava opening
pectinate muscles
features of right atrium
features (which chamber?):
superior vena cava opening
inferior vena cava opening
coronary sinus opening
pectinate muscle
features of left atrium
features (which chamber?):
pulmonary vein opening
pectinate muscles
features of right ventricle
features (which chamber?)
trabeculae carneae
papillary muscles
chordae tendinae
tricuspid valve
pulmonary semilunar valve
interventricular septum
features of left ventricle
features (which chamber?):
trabeculae carneae
papillary muscles
chordae tendinae
bicuspid valve
aortic semilunar valve
feature of interatrial septum
fossa ovalis
fossa ovalis
papillary muscles
usually pink not white
trabeculae carneae
red arrows
chordae tendineae
red arrows
bicuspid valve
tricuspid valve
pulmonary semilunar valve
aortic semilunar valve
interventricular septum
red arrows
function of fossa ovalis
prevents blood from flowing through interatrial septum, preventing deoxygenated and oxygenated blood from mixing
function of foramen ovale in fetal circulation
shunts highly oxygenated blood from right atrium to left atrium
closure of foramen ovale in heart
baby takes its first breath so lungs now oxygenate the blood; blood is no longer oxygenated at the placenta
SVC/IVC from body-->right atrium--> tricuspid valve-->right ventricle--> pulmonary semilunar valve-->pulmonary trunk-->pulmonary arteries-->lungs--> pulmonary veins-->heart-->left atrium-->bicuspid valve-->left ventricle-->aortic semilunar valve-->aorta-->body(systemic circuit)
SVC/IVC from body-->right atrium--> tricuspid valve-->right ventricle--> pulmonary semilunar valve-->pulmonary trunk-->pulmonary arteries-->lungs--> pulmonary veins-->heart-->left atrium-->bicuspid valve-->left ventricle-->aortic semilunar valve-->aorta-->body(systemic circuit)blood circulation(start with deoxygenated blood entering heart)
left atrium and left ventricle
bicuspid valve lies between...
right atrium and right ventricle
tricuspid valve lies between...
pull valves to keep them close, preventing both backflow of blood and the prolapse of valves in the heart
function of chordae tendineae and papillary muscles
blood pushes the cusps of the valves closed; the cusps open in the direction of blood flow so if blood moves the opposite way, the valves will close
closure of semilunar valves is due to..
coronary arteries
supply blood to the heart muscle itself
cardiac veins
carry deoxygenated blood from the heart; drain into coronary sinus then into right atrium
coronary sulcus holds...
coronary sinus
anterior interventricular groove holds...
right and left coronary arteries
posterior interventricular groove holds...
right coronary artery
SA node-->internodal fibers-->AV node -->AV bundle--> bundle branches--> purkinje fibers
conduction system of the heart
where the heart contracts first
apex
where depolarization happens first
SA node
purpose of slight delay in conduction at the AV node
allow ventricles to fill before contraction
positioning of purkinje fibers
travel down interventricular septum then turn superiorly to allow ventricles to start to contract at apex, ejecting blood up and out of the heart
conduction
are purkinje cells specialized more for conduction or contraction?
hormones(epinephrine), neural (ANS: parasympathetic via vagus nerve and sympathetic via cardiac nerves)
what controls heart rate?
SA node
internodal fibers
AV bundle
bundle branches
AV node
purkinje fibers
SA and AV nodes
Vagus nerve innervation in the heart
tunica intima-->tunica media--> tunica adventitia
layers of blood vessels (deep to superficial)
heart-->arteries-->arterioles--> capillaries-->venules-->veins-->heart
peripheral circulation closed double loop system
arterioles
control of regional blood flow and peripheral resistance
arteries
function in high pressure system
elastic
muscular
arterioles
3 types of arteries(from biggest to smallest)
broad and very elastic tunica media, tunica adventitia contains vasa vasorum
elastic artery features
small blood vessels that supply the outer wall of the artery with blood; located in tunica adventitia of elastic arteries
vasa vasorum
vasa vasorum of elastic artery
tunica media of elastic artery
red arrow
tunica adventitia of elastic artery
red arrow
tunica intima of elastic artery
red arrow
elastin
red arrows
vasa vasorum of elastic artery
red circles
tunica intima of elastic artery
upper circle w/arrow
tunica media of elastic artery
big circle
tunica adventitia of elastic artery
big circle
tunica media extremely broad and surrounded by internal and external elastic lamina; tunica adventitia is very thin (not really visible in histo)
features of muscular arteries
tunica adventitia of muscular artery
red circle
tunica media of muscular artery
red circle: also notice elastic lamina surrounding the layer
muscular artery
what is this a slide of?
muscular artery
what is this a slide of?
veins
act as reservoirs of blood
large lumen; tunica adventitia is thicker than tunica media
features of veins
tunica media is very thin
features of arterioles
exchange of metabolites, gases, nutrients; control local blood flow
function of capillaries
artery
red arrow: artery or vein?
vein
red arrow: artery or vein?
brachiocephalic veins
subclavian artery
red circle
radial artery
red circle
ulnar artery
red circle
axillary artery
red circle
brachial artery
red circle
descending thoracic aorta
descending abdominal aorta
bronchial arteries
1. internal carotid
2. common carotid
3. vertebral
4. left subclavian
6.brachial
8.celiac trunk
9.left renal
10.ulnar
11.radial
12.superior mesenteric
13.inferior mesenteric
15.femoral
17.popliteal
20.anterior tibial
21.peroneal/fibular
22.posterior tibial
24.plantar
25.internal iliac
26.external iliac
27.common iliac
28.right renal
29.descending aorta
30. ascending aorta
31.right subclavian
32.brachiocephalic
arteries:
label #'s 1-4,6,8-13,15,17,20-22,24-32
1.celiac trunk
2.left gastric
4.splenic
8.gastroduodenal
12.right hepatic
14.left hepatic
arteries: label #'s 1,2,4,8,12,14
hepatic portal vein
superior mesenteric vein
inferior mesenteric vein
splenic vein
gastric vein
veins of hepatic portal system
1. inferior vena cava
2/3.gastrics
4.splenic
7. inferior mesenteric vein
14. superior mesenteric
16.hepatic portal vein
17/18. hepatics
veins: label #'s 1-4,7,14,16-18
allows another way for blood to reach the right atrium in case one of the vena cava is blocked; it runs along thoracic vertebrae
function of azygos vein
external jugular vein