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suspends the heart; a double-layered sac of tough, fibrous connective tissue and mesothelium
remnant of the ductus arteriosus, which shunts blood from pulmonary trunk to distal aortic arch in fetus
features of right atrium
features (which chamber?):
superior vena cava opening
inferior vena cava opening
coronary sinus opening
features of right ventricle
features (which chamber?)
pulmonary semilunar valve
features of left ventricle
features (which chamber?):
aortic semilunar valve
function of fossa ovalis
prevents blood from flowing through interatrial septum, preventing deoxygenated and oxygenated blood from mixing
function of foramen ovale in fetal circulation
shunts highly oxygenated blood from right atrium to left atrium
closure of foramen ovale in heart
baby takes its first breath so lungs now oxygenate the blood; blood is no longer oxygenated at the placenta
SVC/IVC from body-->right atrium--> tricuspid valve-->right ventricle--> pulmonary semilunar valve-->pulmonary trunk-->pulmonary arteries-->lungs--> pulmonary veins-->heart-->left atrium-->bicuspid valve-->left ventricle-->aortic semilunar valve-->aorta-->body(systemic circuit)
SVC/IVC from body-->right atrium--> tricuspid valve-->right ventricle--> pulmonary semilunar valve-->pulmonary trunk-->pulmonary arteries-->lungs--> pulmonary veins-->heart-->left atrium-->bicuspid valve-->left ventricle-->aortic semilunar valve-->aorta-->body(systemic circuit)blood circulation(start with deoxygenated blood entering heart)
pull valves to keep them close, preventing both backflow of blood and the prolapse of valves in the heart
function of chordae tendineae and papillary muscles
blood pushes the cusps of the valves closed; the cusps open in the direction of blood flow so if blood moves the opposite way, the valves will close
closure of semilunar valves is due to..
carry deoxygenated blood from the heart; drain into coronary sinus then into right atrium
SA node-->internodal fibers-->AV node -->AV bundle--> bundle branches--> purkinje fibers
conduction system of the heart
positioning of purkinje fibers
travel down interventricular septum then turn superiorly to allow ventricles to start to contract at apex, ejecting blood up and out of the heart
hormones(epinephrine), neural (ANS: parasympathetic via vagus nerve and sympathetic via cardiac nerves)
what controls heart rate?
peripheral circulation closed double loop system
broad and very elastic tunica media, tunica adventitia contains vasa vasorum
elastic artery features
small blood vessels that supply the outer wall of the artery with blood; located in tunica adventitia of elastic arteries
tunica media extremely broad and surrounded by internal and external elastic lamina; tunica adventitia is very thin (not really visible in histo)
features of muscular arteries
1. internal carotid
2. common carotid
4. left subclavian
30. ascending aorta
label #'s 1-4,6,8-13,15,17,20-22,24-32
arteries: label #'s 1,2,4,8,12,14
hepatic portal vein
superior mesenteric vein
inferior mesenteric vein
veins of hepatic portal system
1. inferior vena cava
7. inferior mesenteric vein
14. superior mesenteric
16.hepatic portal vein
veins: label #'s 1-4,7,14,16-18
allows another way for blood to reach the right atrium in case one of the vena cava is blocked; it runs along thoracic vertebrae
function of azygos vein
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