History Chapter 9 Section 3&4
Terms in this set (48)
Beginning of Section 3
Beginning of Section 3
Americans on Foreign Seas
Sea travel was dangerous in the early 1800s. One year a man traveled to China and traded for a cargo of tea and silk. This sold well and led the the American trade system flourishing. Soon merchants were trading all around the world. This was boosted by the war between France and Britain because their ships remained docked.
By 1800 the United States had almost 1,000 merchant ships in active use.
Sailing on foreign seas was dangerous because of piracy. This was common place around the Mediterranean from the Barbary Coast along north Africa. Most pirates demanded money to leave ships alone, so countries in Europe payed the tribute because they assumed it was cheaper than losing cargo and going to war.
War with Tripoli
The United States initially payed these tributes. One day the ruler of Tripoli requested more money and Jefferson refused which sparked a war.
In response, Jefferson sent ships to blockade Tripoli off from the world. The ships were not strong enough to hold them and the war continued.
One day the pirates seized the Philadelphia (ship) and the crew. Stephen Decatur, one of the captured crew, escaped out and burned the Philadelphia to stop the pirates from using it. After the war starting in 1801, it finally ended in June, 1805 by the United States paying $60 million for the prisoners back and no more interference.
Freedom of the Seas
Jefferson started his second term in peace, but Britain and France were still at war across the sea which threatened American peace.
Neutral Rights Violated
Initially when Britain and France went to war, American had prosperous trade with both countries because we had neutral rights.
After two years, both countries lost their patience. Finally in 1805, Britain started to seize ships trading with France and France started to seize ships trading with Britain.
the right to sail the seas and not take sides if the nation is not involved in a conflict.
American Sailors Kidnapped
The British were lacking sailors for their navy because most deserted from the horrible living conditions. This led to them stopping American ships to search for people suspected to be British deserters. They then forced them to return to work. However, they also took thousands of native-born Americans unlawfully.
The practice of forcing people to server in the navy of another country.
Attack on the Chesapeake
The British frequently waited for American ships outside all harbors to board and search them. A famous occurrence of this was when the Leopard, a British war ship, stopped the Chesapeake, an American trading vessel. The British captain demanded to search the ship, but the Chesapeake refused. The Leopard opened fire on the Chesapeake killing three crew members. This caused a wave of anti-British fury throughout America.
Madison responded calling the attack an outrage but Jefferson refused to go to war.
Responded or acted in retaliation to.
A Disastrous Trade Ban
Jefferson responded to punish the British by cutting off our trade with them. He had Congress pass the Embargo Act which banned trade with all other countries. This was to prevent people from indirectly trading with France and Britain. It was an attempt to hurt Britain by blocking the trade of agriculture.
This act was a complete disaster. It destroyed all American commerce with other nations and did not effect Britain. They just turned for Latin America for all their agriculture. Congress quickly revoked this act and put the Nonintercourse Act in place that banned trade only with France and Britain, but this unsuccessful.
An act passed by congress banning trade with all other countries. This was to prevent indirect trade with France and Britain.
A ban on trade with another country.
A weaker version of the Embargo Act that banned trade with only France and Britain. It was unsuccessful.
Jefferson Leaves Office
Jefferson made sure to follow Washington's precedents and not run for a third term.
This lead to the next election in 1808 between Madison for the Republicans and Pinckney for the Federalists. Madison won in a landslide with 122 electoral votes to Pinckney's 47.
Madison came into power in bad conditions because of the effects of the Embargo Act still in people's minds as well as Britain's continued seizing of American ships.
Closer to War
In 1810, Congress permitted trade with either Britain or France depending on which one lifted their trade restrictions first. Napoleon seized this opportunity for France. However, we began to trade but they continued to seize American ships and profit off them. America had faced the fact that we were on the verge of war, but the main issue was choosing who the enemy was.
Issues began to arise in the West with the Native Americans. Ohio had recently formed in 1803, so white settlers wanted more land in the Ohio Valley and continued to move into land promised to the Native Americans.
Tension grew as Native Americans renewed their contracts with the British and fur traders in Canada.
A Shawnee leader named Tecumseh lead the formation of a confederation (group) in the Northwest.
Tecumseh believed that a strong alliance of Native Americans backed by the British could stop white movement into Native American land. He was a persuasive political speaker who believed individual treaties with Native American nations were worthless and that no one can own the land in the first place.
Tecumseh also allied with his brother, Tenskwatawa, known as The Prophet. He attracted a following and founded Prophets town in Indiana near where the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers meet.
A powerful Shawnee chief who built a confederation of Native American nations in the Northwest. He believed the Native Americans should unite against America and that no one should be allowed to own the land.
A Meeting With Harrison
William Henry Harrison who was the governor of the Indiana Territory at the time feared the power of the two Shawnee brothers. He warned Tecumseh that the American army could crush the Native Americans. Tecumseh responded that we were unjustly taking land that was not ours to take.
The Battle of Tippecanoe
When Tecumseh went south to spread his confederacy, Harrison attacked Prophets town on the Tippecanoe River and crushed them within hours. The Battle of Tippecanoe was a victory for America, but it led to the Native Americans allying with the British which we had hoped to prevent.
A group of young Republicans who wanted war with Britain. The two main leaders were Clay in Kentucky and Calhoun in South Carolina. They were mainly from the West and South. Their main reason for military support was to gain more land. In the west they wanted the forests of southern Canada and in the South they wanted the fertile land of Spanish Florida.
They also in general wanted to expand the nation's power with the renewal of patriotism throughout the country.
However, this was not followed everywhere. The Federalists in the Northeast had nothing to gain from this war and strongly opposed it.
The War Hawk leader from Kentucky.
The War Hawk leader form South Carolina.
Loyalty to one's country
Finally in the spring of 1812, Madison and Congress finally decided to declare war with Britain. Sadly just a few weeks earlier, Britain had decided to end their policy of seizing American ships. This information took too much time to cross the Atlantic before the policy was set in motion. Sadly, once the war was set in motion it would be difficult to stop with the renewed nationalism for America.
Beginning of Section 4
Beginning of Section 4
America was completely unprepared for war. They only had roughly 7k troops and 50k-100k poorly trained state militia. Support of the conflict was not unanimous and some even opposed the war, informally titled "Mr. Madison's War".
The war began in July of 1812. William Henry Hull led the American army from Detroit into Canada, but was stopped by Tecumseh. He surrendered Detroit to the British.
Later William Henry Harrison made an unsuccessful attempt from Ohio to invade Canada.
They assumed that to make any headway in Canada, America would have to take control of Lake Erie.
Misjudged usually assuming lower than the actual amount.
Oliver Hazard Perry who controlled the American naval forces on Lake Erie was ordered to seize control from Britain. In September of 1813 he sent the message to Harrison that he had defeated the British naval force and the lake was now America's.
Now blocked from the north, the British and Native Americans tried to pull back from the Detroit area. Harrison cut them off which led to the Battle of the Thames. In October in that battle, Tecumseh was killed crushing the Native American confederation with him. America also attacked the town of York in Canada (present-day Toronto) and burned the Parliament building despite not conquering Canada.
This was the beginning of the victories for America in the west in the War of 1812.
Some further victories in the great lakes greatly boosted American morale.
Armed private ships licensed by one country to attack merchant ships from another country.
Setbacks for Native Americans
Before Tecumseh's death, he had discussed with the Creeks in the Mississippi Territory about joining his confederacy, but the Confederacy died with Tecumseh and so did his support to the Native Americans.
In march of 1814, Andrew Jackson attacked the Creeks and killed over 500 of them. This forced the Native Americans to give up most of their land in the region.
An American general who led an American army into the Battle of Horseshoe Bend to defeat the Native American Creeks.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
A battle between the Native American nation of the Creeks and an American army force led by Andrew Jackson. The Creeks were slaughtered and forced to give up most of their land.
The British Offensive
The tables turned in favor of the British in the spring of 1814 after winning the war against Napoleon. This allowed them to send more forces to America.
Attack on Washington D.C.
The British sailed into Chesapeake Bay in August of 1814. They surrounded the capital and quickly overpowered the local militia and marched into the capital.
They proceeded to burn and destroy everything even remotely related to the government. The Capitol Building and the president's mansion were among the buildings burned, but luckily a thunderstorm put out the fires.
August 24th, 1814 was a low point for Americans.
Baltimore Holds Firm
The British did not try to hold Washington D.C., but sailed north to Baltimore. The people in Baltimore were ready for the British and held firm against them in Fort McHenry and in the harbor which kept them from entering the city.
Francis Scott Key
An attorney who watched the bombs burst over Fort McHenry during the night of September 13. The next day when he woke up he still saw the American flag flying over the fort. He was so deeply moved that he wrote a poem known as "The Star Spangled Banner" which Congress later designated as the national anthem.
Defeat at Plattsburgh
General Sir George Prevost lead more than 10k British troops into New York to capture Plattsburgh which was along the shore of Lake Champlain. An American naval force defeated the British fleet. Fearing the Americans would surround them, the British retreated back into Canada.
Eventually the British decided the war was going to be too costly and unnecessary, so they pulled their troops from America.
The War Ends
The Americans and British representatives met in Ghent, Belgium in December of 1814 to sign the Treaty of Ghent in which both countries agreed on peace.
Before the word of the treaty reached the United States, one final battle occurred in new Orleans. The British army troops moved towards New Orleans where Andrew Jackson and his troops were waiting for them. The redcoats got destroyed by Jackson's soldiers because of their strategic positions behind bales of cotton which absorbed the bullets. The British troops were slaughtered. Although this battle was worthless, it still gave America one final decisive victory. This made Andrew Jackson a hero and gained him his fame which helped him win presidency in 1828.
Treaty of Ghent
A treaty signed between the United States and Britain that did nothing but agree on peace between the nations.
Battle of New Orleans
A battle in New Orleans where the redcoats attacked Jackson's soldiers. Hundreds of British soldiers were killed because the Americans were able to hide behind large bales of cotton which absorbed British bullets, but left the British defenseless. This all occurred after the Treaty of Ghent was signed.
Many Federalists did not support "Mr. Madison's War" from the start. They gathered at the Hartford Convention in Connecticut. Some Federalists even favored secession, but most wanted to remain with the Union. They made a list of proposed amendments to the Constitution to protect their ideals.
Once the War of 1812 was won, the Federalists seemed unpatriotic. The party quickly lost respect and lost favor in the country. The War Hawks moved in and took control of the Republican party with the same philosophy as the Federalists to have a strong national government. They also favored trade and growth of the nation in any way either in economy of land.
After the War of 1812, American patriotism was renewed and a strong national identity was formed. The young United States also gained a new respect from other nations in the world.