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a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants and animal communities.


refers to the weather conditions such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and winds, in an area over a long period of time.


the distance north or south of the equator and is measured in degrees.


the height of an object above sea level.

Tropical rain forests

located in a belt around the Earth near the equator.

Emergent Layer

The top layer of the rain forest.


The second layer of the rain forest considered the primary layer of rain forest.


plants that use the entire surface of a tree as a place to live.


Third layer of the rain forest where very little light reaches.

Temperate rain forest

occurs in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Temperate rain forests habe large amounts of precipitation, high humidity, and moderate temperatures.

Temperate decidious forests

where trees drop their leaves each fall.


the northern coniferous forest that stretches in a broad band across the Northern Hemisphere just below the Antarctic Circle.


located in tropical and subtropical areas near the equator and between tropical rain forest and desert biomes.

Temperate grassland

a biome that is dominated by grasses and that has very few trees.


is a type of temperate woodland biome that is dominated by more broad-leafed evergreen shrubs than by ever-green trees.


are areas that recieve less than 25 cm of precipitation a year and have little or no vegetation.


a biome that is dominated by grasses, lichens, and herbs and that is located primarily north of the Arctic Circle.


a layer of soil underneath the topsoil which is permanently frozen soil.

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