24 terms

Ch 5: Electrons in an Atom

STUDY
PLAY
amplitude
the height of a wave from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough
atomic emission spectrum
a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors
atomic orbital
A three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location
aufbau principle
states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
de Broglie equation
predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and Planck's constant
electromagnetic radiation
A form of energy exhibiting wavelike behavior as it travels through space; can be described by wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed
electromagnetic spectrum
Includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation, with the only differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies and wavelengths
electron configuration
the arrangment of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by 3 rules, the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, & Hund's rule.
electron-dot structure
consists of an element's symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom's valence electrons
energy sublevel
the energy levels contained within a principle energy level
frequency
the number of waves that pass a given point per second
ground state
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
Hund's rule
states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
Pauli exclusion principle
states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins
photoelectric effect
a phenomenon in which photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
Planck's constant
h, which has a value of 6.6261x10^-34 Js, where J is the symbol for Joules
principal energy level
the major energy levels of an atom
principal quantum number
n, which the quantum mechanical model assigns to indicate the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals
quantum
The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
quantum mechanical model of the atom
an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom
valence electron
the electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals; determine the chemical properties of an element
wavelength
The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave; is usually expressed in meters, centimeters, or nanometers