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CHAPTER 12 REVIEW- WHAP :P

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Justinian
empire reaches its peak HERE
rebuilds Constantinople
Codified Roman law_Corpus iuris civilis
Corpus iruis civilius
the body of the Civil Law
Belisarius
was sent (by Justinian) to regain western empire (but could not hold it)
What kind of government?
highly centralized State- large bureaucracy
The emergence of the Islamic state
seventh century
a.Arab peoples conquered the Sasanid empire and part of Byzantium
b.Prolonged sieges of Constantinople by Islamic armies
c.Byzantium survived partly because of Greek fire
Themes
provinces under generals
strengthen the empire (revival)
Industry and trade
Constantinople was major site of crafts and industry
a.Glass, linen, textiles, gems, jewelry, gold, and silver
b.Silk developed into major industry in sixth century; secrets came from China
Constantinople was clearinghouse for trade
a.Bezant was the standard currency of Mediterranean basin
b.Western anchor of trade route revived silk roads
The legacy of classical Greece
1. Official language went from Latin to Greek
2. State-organized school system trained workforce
a.Primary education: reading, writing, grammar
b.Later education: classical Greek, literature, philosophy, science
c.Higher education in Constantinople: law, medicine, philosophy
3. Byzantine scholarship emphasized Greek tradition
a.Wrote commentaries on Greek literature
b.Preserved and transmitted Greek thought to later cultures
The Byzantine church
1.Most distinctive feature was involvement of the emperor
a.Council of Nicaea (325 C.E.) in which Arianism was declared heresy
b.Iconoclasm controversy (726-843) was started by Leo III
2.Greek philosophy applied to Byzantine theology
Monasticism and popular piety
1.Monasticism origins in early Christian ascetics (hermits)
a."Pillar saints" like St. Simeon Stylite
b.St. Basil of Caesarea (329-379 C.E.) organized monastic movement
2.Mt. Athos, monastery in northern Greece from ninth century to present
3.Monks/nuns very popular with laity
a.Provided social services to the community
b.Opposed iconoclasm
Tensions between eastern and western Christianity
1.Constantinople and Rome: strains mirrored political tensions
2.Ritual and doctrinal differences, such as iconoclasm
3.Schism in 1054--Eastern Orthodox versus Roman Catholic
Early relations between Byzantium and Slavic peoples
1.Byzantines began to influence Bulgarian politics and culture after the eighth century
2.Missions to the Slavs
a. Saints Cyril and Methodius, mid-ninth century
b. Cyrillic writing stimulated conversion to Orthodox Christianity
c. Education and religion tied together, led to more conversions
Byzantium and Russia
1.Mid-ninth century, Russians started to organize a large state: Kiev
2.The conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989
a. Kiev served as a conduit for spread of Byzantine culture and religion
b. Cyrillic writing and literature and Orthodox missions spread Byzantine culture
c. Byzantine art and architecture dominated Kiev: icons and onion domes
3.Princes established caesaropapist control of Russian Orthodox church
4.Russian culture flourishes from eleventh century
a. Moscow claimed to be world's "third Rome"
b. Sent out many missionaries from sixteenth century on
Domestic problems and foreign pressures
1.Generals and local aristocrats allied; new elite class challenged imperial power
2.Western Europe took parts of Byzantium
a. Normans in southern Italy and Sicily
b. Crusaders carved out states and sacked Constantinople (1204)
3.Muslim Saljuq Turks invaded Anatolia, defeated Byzantines at Manzikert, 1071
4.Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453, the end of the empire
Urban life
1.Housing in Constantinople varied widely by class
2.Attractions of Constantinople: baths, taverns, theaters
a. Hippodrome used for mass entertainment
b. Chariot races most popular; Greens and Blues rivalry