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87 terms

Botany Test 2

the plant body and the shoot system I
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Apical meristem
primary tissue formed: height and depth
Meristematic Tissue
apical meristem and lateral meristem; primary tissue
lateral meristem
vascular and cork cambium; secondary tissue
Non-meristematic tissue
does not undergo mitosis; simple tissue and complex tissue
simple non-meristematic tissues
parenchyma, collenchyma, schlerenchyma
apical meristem
SAM and RAM
primary growth in a plant
protoderm, ground meristem, procambium
protoderm
epidermis; for protection
ground meristem
ground tissue; storage
procambium
primary xylem and phloem; transport
lateral
vascular cambium, cork cambium, intercalary meristems: make up ______ meristem
vascular cambium produces:
fascicular cambium (secondary xylem and phloem) and interfascicular cambium (rays)
cork cambium produces:
phellem (cork), phelloderm (soft cork), phellogen (more cork cambium)
intercalary meristems
found only in monocots; increases stem length and left growth; do not have vascular/cork cambium
schlerenchyma tissue includes types of:
sclereids and fibers
parenchyma tissue
found everywhere in all major parts; soft, many sided shape; vacuole holds tannons/oil and starch); longevity; cell division (more cortex, pith, mesophyll of leaves, xylem, phloem)
parenchyma tissue
aerenchyma (lots of air spaces), chlorenchyma (lots of chloroplasts), transfer cells (cell wall extensions to increase surface area) are subtypes of _______ _________
collenchyma tissue
thicker cell walls at corners; found just beneath epidermis; longer than wide; storage, strength, support
schlerenchyma tissue
very thick cell walls; dead at maturity/no active cytoplasm; support
schlerenchyma tissue
sclereids (seed coats, shell of nuts/fruits) and fibers (xylem, phloem, cortex for ropes and canvas) form __________
complex tissues
xylem, phloem, epidermis, periderm are all simple/complex tissues?
xylem
conduct water and dissolved substances up the plant
xylem
cells in ___________: parenchyma, fibers, vessel elements, tracheids, ray cells
trachieds
thick secondary walls, tapered at the end; in cone-bearing trees and flowering trees
cone-bearing trees
xylem tissue in ______ trees: completely made of tracheids; walls have spiral thickening; most conduction up and some down; lateral flow by means of rays
flowering trees
xylem tissue in _______ trees: made of both xylem vessels and tracheids; most conduction up and some down; lateral flow by means of pits
rays
responsible for water flow laterally; parenchyma cells; found in horizontal rows in cross section; develop from vascular cambium
tracheids
dead at maturity; transport water and salt; in certain situation, a pair of pits is present when two ____ are in contact with each other (lateral flow)
pit
area of cell where there is no secondary wall formation; controls passage of water and minerals from cell to cell
torus
thickened region of pit membrane (part of pit)
phloem
conduction throughout plant of dissolved foods
phloem
______ is composed of: sieve tube members, companion cells, fibers, parenchyma cells, ray cells
gymnosperms
sieve cells and albuminous cells (gymno/angio-sperms?)
phloem tissue
laid end to end forms sieve tubes; end walls have no large opening; end walls are filled with large pores; porous end walls called sieve plates; sieve tube elements have no nucleus; sieve tubes survive because of companion cells
angiosperm
Flowering plant
gymnosperms
pine trees (______sperms)
sieve cells
found in primary gymnosperms; have no nuclei; have no adjacent companion cells; have parenchyma cells (albuminous cells)
flowering plants and deciduous trees
sieve tube elements are found in:
epidermis tissue
outermost layer of plant; usually 1 cell thick
fatty substance
cutin
protective layer
cuticle
deposited on cuticle through microscopic channels in cell wall
wax
epidermis tissue
cutin, cuticle, and wax all compose which type of tissue?
root hairs
tubular extension of epidermal cell (provides for more surface area)
stomata
pores found in leaves and stems
trichome
gland cell of leaf
periderm tissue
in woody plants, epidermis is lost and replaced by _________.
suberin, waterproof, protects
protoplasm of cork cells secrete _______ into cork cell walls, making it ______, and ______ tissue beneath
phelloderm
tissue inside the cork cambium that is living
gas exchange between outside environment and interior cells
lenticles function:
lenticles
cork cambium produces loose pockets of cork cells; these cells are not impregnated with suberin (process that makes __________)
protoderm, procambium, ground meristem; primary
___________, ______________, and ___________ make up the apical meristem. (Primary/Secondary) tissue
protoderm
epidermis is made from the ________
procambium
________ makes up primary xylem and phloem, and fascicular cambium
ground meristem
________ is made up of ground tissue, pith and pith rays, and cortex
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
3 tissue/cell types that make up ground tissue
cortex
interfascicular cambium and cork cambium derive from the ________
phellem and phelloderm
_____ and _____ make up cork cambium
false
(T/F): phelloderm is secondary tissue that develops directly from phellem during the process of mitosis
true
(T/F): the youngest secondary xylem is the layer of cells closest to the vascular cambium
pectin
complex tissue cells are glued to each other by a material called ___________
bordered pits
________ occur where the primary wall remains intact, develop in tracheids, vessel members, and some fibers, have an expanded border of secondary wall that extends over the pit chamber, are a feature of secondary xylem
plasmodesmata
companion cells communicate with sieve elements by means of _______________
dicotyledonous
a plant that forms an embryo with two seed leaves
internode
distance along the stem between points of leaf attachment
herbaceous
type of plant in which xylem cell walls are thin and not lignified
angiosperm
produces seeds with an ovary (____sperm)
terminal bud
a bud that forms at the tip of a branch
soft wood
gymnosperm wood
stolon
a stem that grows horizontally above ground
springwood
(season-wood) xylem tissue with large diameter vessels
fusiform initial
a meristematic cell that divides longitudinally to produce elongated xylem elements such as vessels
corm
a propagule that stores reserves in stem tissue rather than leaf tissue
alternate
phyllotaxis: plants with one leaf per node and leaves positioned at 180 degrees from each other
spiral
phyllotaxis: one leaf per node but the angle divergence between leaves is 137.5 degrees
opposite
phyllotaxis: plants with two leaves per node where the angle of divergence between successive pairs is 90 degrees
whorled
phyllotaxis: three or more leaves per node
bulb
a short stem surrounded by fleshy storage leaves known as scales
rhizome
a thickened stem that grows below the ground often horizontally
cladophyll
flattened photosynthetic stems that look and function like leaves
tuber
an enlarged terminal portion of an underground stem that funciton in storage
thorn
stems that arise in leaf axils and function in protection against predators
open
stomata open/close when water potential moves from epidermal cells to guard cells
close
stomata open/close when water potential moves from guard cells to epidermal cells
pressure, solute
water potential = ______ potential + _______ potential
dead, thick, lignin, impermeable, none, water and minerals, leaves, upwards, fibers
xylem: made of ____ cells, thickness, cell wall material: _____, permeable?, cytoplasm? transports ______, carried to ________, direction of flow: _______, tissue also has _______
living, thin, cellulose, permeable, lining, food, growing parts and storage organs, up and down, companion cells
phloem: made of ____ cells, thickness, cell wall material: _____, permeable?, cytoplasm? transports ______, carried to ________, direction of flow: _______, tissue also has _______