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vascular cambium produces:
fascicular cambium (secondary xylem and phloem) and interfascicular cambium (rays)
found only in monocots; increases stem length and left growth; do not have vascular/cork cambium
found everywhere in all major parts; soft, many sided shape; vacuole holds tannons/oil and starch); longevity; cell division (more cortex, pith, mesophyll of leaves, xylem, phloem)
aerenchyma (lots of air spaces), chlorenchyma (lots of chloroplasts), transfer cells (cell wall extensions to increase surface area) are subtypes of _______ _________
thicker cell walls at corners; found just beneath epidermis; longer than wide; storage, strength, support
sclereids (seed coats, shell of nuts/fruits) and fibers (xylem, phloem, cortex for ropes and canvas) form __________
xylem tissue in ______ trees: completely made of tracheids; walls have spiral thickening; most conduction up and some down; lateral flow by means of rays
xylem tissue in _______ trees: made of both xylem vessels and tracheids; most conduction up and some down; lateral flow by means of pits
responsible for water flow laterally; parenchyma cells; found in horizontal rows in cross section; develop from vascular cambium
dead at maturity; transport water and salt; in certain situation, a pair of pits is present when two ____ are in contact with each other (lateral flow)
area of cell where there is no secondary wall formation; controls passage of water and minerals from cell to cell
______ is composed of: sieve tube members, companion cells, fibers, parenchyma cells, ray cells
laid end to end forms sieve tubes; end walls have no large opening; end walls are filled with large pores; porous end walls called sieve plates; sieve tube elements have no nucleus; sieve tubes survive because of companion cells
found in primary gymnosperms; have no nuclei; have no adjacent companion cells; have parenchyma cells (albuminous cells)
suberin, waterproof, protects
protoplasm of cork cells secrete _______ into cork cell walls, making it ______, and ______ tissue beneath
cork cambium produces loose pockets of cork cells; these cells are not impregnated with suberin (process that makes __________)
protoderm, procambium, ground meristem; primary
___________, ______________, and ___________ make up the apical meristem. (Primary/Secondary) tissue
(T/F): phelloderm is secondary tissue that develops directly from phellem during the process of mitosis
________ occur where the primary wall remains intact, develop in tracheids, vessel members, and some fibers, have an expanded border of secondary wall that extends over the pit chamber, are a feature of secondary xylem
a meristematic cell that divides longitudinally to produce elongated xylem elements such as vessels
phyllotaxis: plants with one leaf per node and leaves positioned at 180 degrees from each other
phyllotaxis: plants with two leaves per node where the angle of divergence between successive pairs is 90 degrees
dead, thick, lignin, impermeable, none, water and minerals, leaves, upwards, fibers
xylem: made of ____ cells, thickness, cell wall material: _____, permeable?, cytoplasm? transports ______, carried to ________, direction of flow: _______, tissue also has _______
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