AP Psych Test Unit 1 - Psych History

roots of psychology
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edward bradford titchener

the structure of the mind

to figure out structure titchner encouraged introspection (looking inward)

- did this by making his subjects look at items and then reported their responses like feelings

BUT introspection is unreliable and ppl dont know what or why they feel what they feel

- instead of introspection we need something objective
functionalismwilliam james function of things: function of nose, brain james was influenced by darwin's evolution theory -> functions are adapted overtime for survivial james: set up psych lab (greatest achievement)mary calkinsWilliam James's student, became the APA's first female president. james let her in harvard grad school and they wouldnt give her a phDmargaret floy washburnFirst female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921) bec she was a women she wasnt allowed to join the organization of experimental psychologistspsychology definitionscientific and systematic study of peoples behavior and mental processes - includes scientific method/experiments - behavior is smth observable - mental processes is the biology of thinking, analysis, judgments, and to the subjectivepsychology's biggest questionnature vs nurture which influences a person the most? their heredity and biology or their upbringing and surroundings? aka socrates and plato (innate) vs aristotle and locke (tabula rasa)charles darwinbelieved in a mix of innate and tabula rasa theory of evolution -> nature selects traits that best allow a species to reproduce and survive saw nature and nurture mix -> example: polar bear (innate/nature) white fur but also a girl's flirty ways to get a boy's attention (tabula rasa/nurture)Psychology's 3 main levels of analysisthey are called the biopsychosocial approach to understanding behavior biological, psychological, social-cultural influencesmajor approaches of psychologyBiological, Evolutionary, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive, Humanistic, Socio-culturalbiological approachthe body and brain are the dominant influences of behavior and thinking olds, sperryevolutionary approachnature selects traits that allow a species to survive darwinpsychodynamic approachthe unconscious drives peoples' behavior freudcognitive approachfocuses on how we store, process, and use information, like a computer piaget, chomskyhumanistic approachenvironmental influences, especially love and acceptance, determine if we become all we can in life rogers and maslowsocio-cultural approachno one person - Behavior and ideas are different depending on the culture.psychology subfieldsPsychology is broader and more difficult to pin down than other sciences many branches and types of psychologists psychologists work in a very wide range of professionspsychometrics subfieldmeasure abilities, attitudes and traitsbiological psychologists subfieldstudying the link between the brain and minddevelopmental psychologist subfieldwho studies our changes from birth to deatheducational psychologists subfieldwho study teaching and learningpersonality psychologists subfieldwho study our traitssocial psychologist subfieldwho study how we interact in groupsindustrial-organizational psychologist subfieldwho advise businesses on how to improve workers and increase efficiencycounseling psychologist subfieldhelp people deal with issues in their livesclinical psychologist subfieldtreat disorderspsychiatrists subfieldmedical doctors and can prescribe medicine to treat biological disorders