high; above; exceeding
the capacity to do work
potential energy stored in bonds of molecules
release to power to work the cell
the study of energy transformation
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can be changed from one form to another
1st law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed
2nd law of thermodynamics
energy transformations increase disorder
lost in heat
some energy is...
what is the measure of disorder/entropy?
endergonic and exergonic
2 types of reactions:
stores more energy than it releases
releases more energy than it stores
"energy in" reactions
absorbs energy and yields rich potential energy
releases energy and yields products that contain less potential energy then their reactants
example of an endergonic reaction:
example of an exergonic reaction:
thousands of chemical reactions
cells carry out...
the sum of endergonic and exergonic is...
uses exergonic reactions to fuel endergonic reactions
production of ATP
example of energy coupling:
_________ shuttles chemical energy and drives cellular work.
powers all forms of cellular work
adenine (nitrogenous base), ribose, and triphosphate
ATP consists of...
a chain of 3 phosphate groups which are negatively charged
in the bonds between the phosphate groups
where is the energy of an ATP molecule located?
the phosphate groups are easily broken by...
energy is released
ATP becomes ADP when...
ATP drives endergonic reactions by...
chemical, mechanical, and transport
3 types of cellular work:
synthesis of molecules
example of chemical work:
energy; dehydration synthesis
ATP provides ________ for __________ to link amino acids together
movement of cell of body; any movement
example of mechanical work:
phosphate group; changes
the transfer of _________ changes the _________ of contractive proteins
movement of substances across membranes
pumping ions across a cellular membrane
example of transport work:
phosphate group; ions
transfer of a __________ causes the receiving membrane protein to change shape-- enabling ________ to pass through.
ATP is a renewable source that cells regenerate
cellular work can be sustained because...
speed up the cell's chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers
reactions would not happen fast enough for a living thing
energy of activation
for a chemical reaction to begin reactants must absorb some energy
a certain amount of energy
in order for a reaction to start, there has to be....
speeds up a rate of reaction by decreasing the energy activation needed to begin the reaction
the activation requirement
enzyme; cellular reaction
a specific _________ catalyzes each __________ _________
have unique 3-D shapes
specific reactant that the enzyme acts upon
area of the enzyme where reactant fits; a pocket on surface; fits only one kind of substrate, making enzymes specific
specific fit of reactant in active sight; when it slightly conforms
ezymes mostly end in
the enzyme that breaks down sucrose
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