How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

65 terms

Biology 5.1-5.6

STUDY
PLAY
iso
alike; the same
endo
within; inner
ex
out
hyper
high; above; exceeding
hypo
low
-lysis
split or break
energy
the capacity to do work
kinetic
energy of motion
potential
stored energy
heat
thermal energy
chemical energy
potential energy stored in bonds of molecules
glucose molecules
release to power to work the cell
thermodynamics
the study of energy transformation
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can be changed from one form to another
1st law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed
2nd law of thermodynamics
energy transformations increase disorder
entropy
disorder
lost in heat
some energy is...
heat
what is the measure of disorder/entropy?
endergonic and exergonic
2 types of reactions:
endergonic reactions
stores more energy than it releases
exergonic reactions
releases more energy than it stores
endergonic
"energy in" reactions
endergonic
absorbs energy and yields rich potential energy
exergonic
releases energy and yields products that contain less potential energy then their reactants
photosynthesis
example of an endergonic reaction:
cellular respiration
example of an exergonic reaction:
thousands of chemical reactions
cells carry out...
cellular metabolism
the sum of endergonic and exergonic is...
energy coupling
uses exergonic reactions to fuel endergonic reactions
production of ATP
example of energy coupling:
ATP
_________ shuttles chemical energy and drives cellular work.
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
ATP
powers all forms of cellular work
adenine (nitrogenous base), ribose, and triphosphate
ATP consists of...
triphosphate
a chain of 3 phosphate groups which are negatively charged
in the bonds between the phosphate groups
where is the energy of an ATP molecule located?
hydrolysis
the phosphate groups are easily broken by...
energy is released
ATP becomes ADP when...
phosphorylation
ATP drives endergonic reactions by...
chemical, mechanical, and transport
3 types of cellular work:
chemical work
synthesis of molecules
proteins
example of chemical work:
energy; dehydration synthesis
ATP provides ________ for __________ to link amino acids together
mechanical work
movement of cell of body; any movement
muscle contractions
example of mechanical work:
phosphate group; changes
the transfer of _________ changes the _________ of contractive proteins
transport work
movement of substances across membranes
pumping ions across a cellular membrane
example of transport work:
phosphate group; ions
transfer of a __________ causes the receiving membrane protein to change shape-- enabling ________ to pass through.
ATP is a renewable source that cells regenerate
cellular work can be sustained because...
phosphorlated
ATP is..
enzymes
speed up the cell's chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers
reactions would not happen fast enough for a living thing
without enzymes...
energy of activation
for a chemical reaction to begin reactants must absorb some energy
a certain amount of energy
in order for a reaction to start, there has to be....
speeds up a rate of reaction by decreasing the energy activation needed to begin the reaction
an enzyme...
the activation requirement
enzymes lower..
enzyme; cellular reaction
a specific _________ catalyzes each __________ _________
enzymes
have unique 3-D shapes
substrate
specific reactant that the enzyme acts upon
active site
area of the enzyme where reactant fits; a pocket on surface; fits only one kind of substrate, making enzymes specific
induced fit
specific fit of reactant in active sight; when it slightly conforms
-ase
ezymes mostly end in
sucrase
the enzyme that breaks down sucrose