Anatomy MidTerm (1,2,6,10,12)

the smallest living unit
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Terms in this set (164)
the buccal region is thecheeksthe popliteal region isthe posterior surface of the kneewhich organ is not found in the ventral body cavity?spinal cordthe ankle lies___to the thighdistala physician viewing an injury to the back would look at the the patient's ______ sideposteriorthe ___ body cavity contains the braindorsalas an anatomical region, lumbar refers tothe infero-medial aspect of the backthe chest is _____ to the abdomensuperiorThe brain is _______ to the skulldeepmuscles are ____ to the skindeepthe axillary region is ____ to the sternumlateralthe lip is ____ to the chinsuperiorthe eye is ___ to the occipital regionanteriorthe femoral region is ___ to the plantar regionproximalthe heart is ___ to the sternumdeepa frontal plane is the same as a ___ planecoronalthe cervical region is theneckwhich structure is not present in the mediastinum?lungwhich statement concerning the anatomical position is false?the person lying down, as straight as possiblethe femoral region is thethighwhat point or structure in the body is located farthest laterally?tip of thumbWhich part of the cytoskeleton is made of actin?microfilamentsWhich part of the cytoskeleton is responsible for creating the flagella in sperm?microtubuleTrue or False: ATP is created in the outer membrane of mitochondria.FalseWhere are peroxisomes found?liver and kidneywhat is the largest element of the cytoskeleton?microtubuleswhat cell element is flexible and bendable?microtubuleshow do peroxisomes break down toxins?create and break down hydrogen peroxide nwhat organelle makes proteins?ribosomeswhere do you find/store ribosomes?rough ERWhere does protein synthesis occur?rough ERwhere does lipid metabolism occur?smooth ERWhat Endoplasmic reticulum has nothing to do with lipids ?rough ERdoes the golgi aparatus have to do with DNA?nowhere does the golgi send stuff to?plasma membrane, extra cellular space, lysosomewhat do lysosomes do?digest foreign objects ( has digestive enzymes)what is the plasma membrane made of?lipid bi-layerwhat way do lipids face?towards each other ( tails touch)lipid tailshydrophobiclipid headshydrophilichow are hormones secreted?by exocytosisrole of golgi apparatusevery time something is set out in an enclosed vescileroles of mitochondria?produce ATPwhat organelle has DNA?mitochondriacan mitochondria self replicate?yesFunction of cell membranepartially permeable membrane which controls substances that move in and out of the cellwhat structure performs contractive forces?microfilamentswhat neutralizes free acids?peroxisomeswhat doesn't pass through the nuclear envelope pores ?chromatinfunction of nuclear envelopeseperate cytoplasm from nucleoplasmwhere does transcription occur?extended chromatinwhat phase of interphase is DNA replicated?Swhat are the phases of interphase?G1,S,G2when is there a full speration of cells?cytokinesiswhat are the microtubules called that attach to centrisomes?spindle fiberswhat occurs during anaphase?spindle fibers pull chromosomes to opposite polesall of the following are true regarding cartilage exceptit is easily deformed with compression and does not return to its original stateall of the following structures in the body contain cartilage exceptthe esophagusin an adult, the perichondriumacts like a girdle to prevent the matrix from pushing outward when the cartilage is compressedthe type of cartilage that forms the long bones of the embryonic skeleton ishyaline cartilagethe type of cartilage that comprises the epiglottis iselastic cartilagethe type of cartilage that forms the costal cartilages at the ends of the ribs ishyaline cartilagethe type of cartilage that can withstand the strongest compression and tension forces isfibrocartilagewhich of the following is true regarding the three types of cartilage?the high water content of hyaline cartilage allows it to resist compression wellwhich of the following cells is secreting cartilage matrix?chondrocytein growing cartilage, the chondroblasts associated with the perichondrium are responsible forappositional growthcartilage repairs slowly after adolescence becausechondrocytes no longer are able to divide and secrete new matrixwhich of the following is not a function of the bony skeleton?storage of parathyroid hormoneall of the following are true regarding the function of bones exceptthey do not play any role in hormone secretion or metabolismall of the following are true regarding the composition of bone tissue exceptelastin fibers are the most abundant organic components of bonethe cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is theosteoblastin the bone matrix, osteoblasts becomeosteocytesosteoid isthe organic part of bone matrix prior to the crystallization with calcium saltswhich of the following statements about a long bone is false?it must be more than 5 inches in lengthif a bone located in a limb longer than it is wide, that bone is a(n) ____ bonelongbones in the wrists and ankles areshort bonesThe kneecap, or patella, is an example ofsesamoid boneIf a bone is thin, flattened, and somewhat curved, that bone is a(n) ________ bone.flatif a long bone is fractured midshaft, which region of the bone has been damaged?diaphysisblood vessels to the diaphysis move through thenutrient foramena long bone is able to withstand extreme torsion or torsion stresses becausewithin each osteon the collagen fibers and mineral crystals in adjacent lamellae are aligned in opposite directionswhich these is true regarding the anatomical design of bone to deal with the stresses placed on it?trabeculae are aligned along the lines of stress within a bonewhich of these bony markings is not a site of muscle or ligament attachment?tuberclewhich of these bony markings is correctly paired with its function?fissure-openingmuscles are not likely to tear from their bones becausethe perforating fibers of collagen attach the tendons and periosteum to the cortical surfaces of bonean osteon is composed oflayers of bone lamellae surrounding a central canalwhich of the following is not present in the central canals of osteons?endosteumspongy bonecontains several layers of lamellaewithin a long bone of the skeleton, the circumferential lamellae are located in theexternal and internal regions of compact bonethe type of bone growth in which bones form directly from mesenchyme is calledintramembranous ossificationwhich of these is not a step in intramembraneous ossification?a bony collar forms around the bonethe only bone inferior to the skull that develops via intramembranous ossification is theclaviclewhich of the following statements about woven bone is false?it contains no trabeculaethe primary center of ossificationis in the diaphysiswhich of these is not a step in endochondral ossification?woven bone fills the primary ossification centerWhat are the properties of musclescontractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticityMyofilaments that are responsible for shortening of muscle cellscontractilitywhen an electrical impulse travels along the cell's plasma membrane and excites the muscleexcitabilityThe stretching of the muscleextensibilityRecoils after being stretchedelasticitywhat are the functions of muscleproducing movement, open and close passageways, maintain posture and stabilize joints, generate heatwhat does the skeletal muscle attach to?bone, skin, or cartilagewhat percent of body weight does skeletal muscle make up?40%Which muscle is voluntary and striatedskeletalWhere can you find cardiac muscle?walls of the heartwhat muscles is involuntary and striated?cardiacWhere can you find smooth musclewalls of hollow organsWhich muscle is involuntary an not striated?smoothThe release of what triggers all tree muscle typescalciumWhat is the connective tissue surrounding the muscle responsible forelasticityWhat structure surrounds the entire muscle?epimysiummuscle have a large supply ofbloodmuscles require what ?nutrients and oxygena bundle of cellsfascicleWhat happens during muscle contractionthe inception is pulled toward the originA muscle fiber isa cylinder formed by embryonic cellsWhere are thick and thin filaments found?a-bandWhere are the thin filaments found?I bandWhat does the sarcoplasmic reticulum do?stores calciumWhat does the sarcoplasmic reticulum surround?myofibrilsWhere is the sarcoplasmic reticulum located?muscle fibersWhat happens when the sarcolemma receives the impulse?excitabilityWhat is the role of titan?to keep the sarcomere from stretching too farWhat is concentric contraction?the Z-decks stretching togetherWhat is an eccentric contraction?the Z-decks are getting stretched outAch initiates what?impulse to muscle fibersWhat is a motor unit?a neuron and the fiber it innervatesWhich muscle fibers have the most mitochondria?Slow oxidative fibers (type 1)Which muscle fibers are most resistant to fatigue?Slow oxidative fibers (type 1)Which muscle fibers produce the most power?Fast glycolytic fiber (type 2)Which muscle fibers fatigue faster?Fast glycolytic fiber (type 2)What muscles are required to do multiple functions such as walking, running and jumping?a combo of muscle fiber typeswhich of these is not a function of the nervous system?secreting hormones into the bloodstream to affect faraway organswhich of the following is true regarding the basic divisions of the nervous system?the central nervous system is in charge of integrating incoming sensory information with past experiences and dictating motor responseswhich of the following is not considered a special somatic sense?paina somatic motor neuron carriesmotor commands to the skeletal musclea nerve cell is the same as aneuronwhich of the following is not a characteristic of neurons?ability to survive without oxygenthe region of the neuron contains a single nucleus surrounded by cytoplasmcell bodyganglia representgroups of neuron cell bodies in the PNSof the following,m which is the only structure that is in the PNS, as opposed to the CNSa ganglionthis region of a neuron is characterized by numerous, short cytoplasmic extensions and is often referred to as receiving regionsdendriteall of the following are characteristics of dendrites except that theyalways conduct action potentialsthe neuronal region transmits electrical impulses away from the cell bodyaxonthis tends to be the longest cytoplasmic projection from a neuronaxonmitochondria are particularly abundant hereaxon terminalthis is the site of communication between neuronssynapsemost synapses transmit communicating signals usingchemical signaling molecules-neurotransmittersIn an axodendritic synapse, the region of the postsynaptic neuron that binds the released neurotransmitter is the ________.dendritethe chemical substance that is released at axon terminals is called aneurotransmittersvesicles containing neurotransmitters are located inaxon terminalswhich of the following is the correct path an impulse takes across a synapse?axon of presynaptic neuron, synaptic cleft, dendrite of postsynaptic neuronthe majority of neurons in the body aremultipolarThe cartilage of the epiphyseal plates is organized into zones based upon the unique processes occurring in each of these regions. Identify the correct sequence of these processes, from the epiphyseal end toward the diaphysis.resting — proliferation — hypertrophy — calcification — ossification