refers to the methods by which individuals are allocated (distributed to) status-roles. Put another way, it describes how individuals acquire their status-roles, how they become incumbents in status-roles.
is situation in which a person occupies two or more social roles that make incompatible demands on that person. Example are professor and father; CEO and wife.
how are individuals allocated to status-roles
(1) qualities (e.g., sex, race, lineage)
(2) performance (e.g., high school graduation; number of quarterback sacks)
third major hypothesis
ALL SOCIETAL INSTITUTIONS HAVE POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE CONTINUATION OF THE CLASS STRUCTURE.
fourth major hypothesis
SOCIAL CLASS POSITION IS THE VARIABLE THAT MOST SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCES LIFE CHANCES, OPPORTUNITY, AND ROLE ALLOCATION.
three world global stratification
Most Industrialized, Industrializing, and Least Industrialized Nations.
emerged about 1970, as a subdiscipline of sociology that focuses on the relationship between human societies and the environment.
industrial catch up and competition
the most industrialized nations set the standard and push it, while industrializing nations try to catch up , and even more the least industrialized nations trying to catch up from even further behind.
What functional prerequisites are made more difficult to solve because of stratification?
Tension management, integration, goal attainment and adaptation
is highest in industrialized nations, and usually follows industrialization.
allocation to roles by qaulities
happens early when qualities are found to be present and usually never ends
consequences of early allocation
Less individual flexibility
Lower status anxiety
Lower societal productivity
Less societal flexibility
Less social disorder
allocation to roles by achievement
Training must wait until ability and motivation are known.
Allocation during late teens and early adulthood is common.
consequences of later allocation
Higher status anxiety
More individual flexibility
More societal flexibility
Higher levels of social disorder