MTTC Science

A fourth-grade teacher is assessing students' use of the inquiry process during a unit on electricity and magnetism. Which of the following assessments would be most effective for this purpose?
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A third-grade teacher is considering using an activity that she found on the Internet for her science class. However, when she looks up information for the materials used in the activity, she finds that one material is labeled "caustic." It would be wise for the teacher not to use this activity because caustic materials can:
The headline in a newsletter says "Common Garden Herb Fights Cancer." The article goes on to say that a study showed that 3000 subscribers to a health magazine who regularly used a common herb to flavor their dishes had 30% less stomach cancer than the general population. Which of the following best explains why the article in the newsletter is misleading?
A sixth-grade class is studying the geologic time periods, and discussing the extinction of dinosaurs and other animal and plant species at the end of the Cretaceous period. The teacher has the students read current theories about possible causes of the extinction, and then has them list some reasons why they support a particular theory. This activity is most effective for helping students:
In 1980 Luis and Walter Alvarez discovered that a layer of sediments found all over the world at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary contained a concentration of iridium hundreds of times greater than normal. Since iridium is very rare in the earth's crust and is more common in certain types of asteroids, the Alvarez team suggested that this was evidence of a catastrophic asteroid strike that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs and other Mesozoic lineages.
This passage best illustrates how scientific progress often occurs as a result of the:
A third-grade teacher provided students with cups of soil and bean seeds so that they could observe plant germination and growth. However, most of the students overwatered their seeds and they failed to germinate. In which of the following ways could the teacher use this experience to promote students' scientific analysis and reflection skills?
Students in a fourth-grade class are studying animal adaptations under different environmental conditions. Which of the following strategies would be most effective for the teacher to use in order to help the students develop a deeper understanding of this topic?assigning students a particular habitat and having them create an imaginary animal with adaptations specific to that habitatA second-grade class hatches painted lady butterfly eggs, raises them to adulthood, and then releases them outside. This activity is most effective for promoting the development of which of the following types of knowledge?the life cycles and development of insectsDuring a unit on animals' food consumption, a third-grade teacher puts a cupful of pebbles and a cupful of shelled nuts and seeds into a sturdy plastic container and screws the lid on tight. She then asks each member of the class to shake the container vigorously ten times. After all the students have had a turn shaking the container, she pours out the contents and asks the class to describe what has happened. This exercise would be most effective for demonstrating:how birds grind up their food without having teeth.Plant height in a particular species of plant is determined by a single gene. Plants with two copies of the dominant form of the gene (HH) grow to be about 3 feet tall. Plants with two copies of the recessive form of the gene (hh) grow to be only 1 foot tall. Which of the following will be the most likely distribution of plant heights in 100 offspring of a cross between a 3-foot-tall HH plant and a 1-foot-tall hh plant?All of the offspring will be 3 feet tall.A third-grade class has been studying the weather, including measuring the temperature, humidity, wind direction, and amount of rainfall every day. Which of the following strategies would be most effective for assessing the knowledge and skills of the students at the end of this weather unit?having each student use their collected weather data to explain the past weeks' weather in a written summaryThe highest tides usually occur during a full or new moon primarily because at that time the:sun, moon, and earth form a straight line.The Upper Peninsula of Michigan has the second highest average snowfall of any nonmountainous region of the world. Which of the following best explains the high average yearly snowfall in this area?Cold northern winds pick up large amounts of moisture as they blow over the relatively warm surface of Lake Superior and drop it as snow when they reach the colder shore.Which of the following is the most serious environmental effect of clear-cut logging in hilly regions of Michigan?increased soil erosion and silting of local streamsStudents do an activity in which they make their own instruments with boxes and rubber bands of different lengths and elasticities. The students pluck the rubber bands and compare the tones that the different rubber bands make. This activity would be most effective for helping students understand which of the following concepts about sound waves?pitch and frequencyWhich of the following is an example of a way in which a living organism chemically changes matter?A plant uses energy from the sun to produce sugars.Which of the following materials, when at room temperature, is a good conductor of both heat and electricity and is also both malleable and ductile?silverWhich of the following processes captures light energy and stores it as chemical energy?a solar panel charging a cell phoneWhich of the following examples from the natural world best illustrates Newton's third law, that every action has an equal and opposite reaction?A squid propels itself through the ocean by blowing water out its siphonEarth's tilt23.5 degreesNew MoonMoon phase that occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, at which point the Moon cannot be seen because its lighted half is facing the Sun and its dark side faces Earth.full moonphase that occurs when all of the Moon's surface facing Earth reflects lightCytoplasmall of the things within a cell, other than the nucleusGolgi apparatusorganelle that takes in proteinsGenotypegenetic makeup of an organism. Actual DNAPhenotypeAn organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.CentriolesCell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells onlyCytoskeletonthreadlike proteins that give a cell its shapeRNAA single-stranded nucleic acid that passes along genetic messagesDNADouble stranded. A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.CytokinesisCell splits into two daughter cellsTelophasethe final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.Anaphasecentromeres split in twoMetaphasephase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cellProphasefirst and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes condense and become visibleasexual reproductionprocess of creating offspring without a partner through mitosisintegumentary systemConsists of the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nail. Protects the internal parts of the bodyflower stamenplant male reproductive structureflower pistilfemale reproductive structure plantplant rootsprovide water and nutrient absorptionplant leaveswhere photosynthesis and gas exchange occursMoleculeA group of atoms bonded togetherCellsmallest unit of lifeTissueA group of similar cells that perform the same function.OrganA collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the bodyeukaryotescan be single or multi celled. Has a nucleusProkaryoteunicellular organism that lacks a nucleuscellular moleculesoxygen carbon nitrogen hydrogenMercury and Venus do not have..?moons or naturally occurring satellitesExothermicsource of body heat comes from the environmentastronomyThe study of the moon, stars, and other objects in spaceHypothesisA testable prediction, often implied by a theoryElectronnegatively charged particleLayers of the Earthcrust, mantle, outer core, inner corepotential energystored energy that results from the position or shape of an objectsedimentary rockA type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented togetherProducersorganisms that make their own food (plants)primary consumers (herbivores)consume plant matter deer cow donkeyionic bondthe attraction between oppositely charged ionsEndothermicheated from within the bodyVirusesThe smallest pathogens. Most difficult to destroyPlanets in order from the sunMercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptunechemical changeoccurs when bonds between atoms are made or brokenmechanical waveA wave that requires a medium through which to travelsolar eclipseOccurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth3 major climate zonespolar, temperate, tropicalgeologyStudy of the earthTropospherethe lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, where weather occursmetamorphic rockA type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.kinetic energythe energy an object has due to its motionplant stemstransport water and nutrientselectromagnetic wavesA form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space.Scientific Methodquestion research hypothesis experiment collect data graph data conclusionigneous rocka type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surfacelunar eclipseOccurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sunblack holesvery large starts collapse. Gravitational forces so strong light can't escapephysical changea change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical propertiesTheoryscientifically proven general principal offered to explain phenomenaGalaxiesA collection of stars, dust, and gas bound together by gravityNebulasa large cloud of gas and dust in interstellar space; a region in space where stars are born or where stars explode at the end of their livesOmnivoreA consumer that eats both plants and animalssecondary consumers (carnivores)consume herbivores cats hyenas polar bearstransverse waveA wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels (up and down.)Genescontains the code needed to produce a specific protein. Is a block of nucleotidesConductionThe direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.longitudinal waveA wave that moves the medium in a direction parallel to the direction in which the wave travels.atmosphere layers in order (earth to space)troposphere, ozone layer, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphereConvectionThe transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gasfive layers of ecology (smallest to largest)organisms populations communities ecosystems biosphereRadiationThe transfer of energy by electromagnetic waveslow pHmore acidic the solution isThermosphereThe uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases. Contains very thin airanemometermeasures wind speedbarometerAn instrument that measures atmospheric pressureStratosphereThe second-lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere. Contains jet streams. Gets warmer the higher you goMesosphere3rd layer of the atmosphere. Protects the earth from meteors. Gets colder the higher you gomolecular / covalent bonda chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atomsPhases of Mitosisinterphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophaseOrganismsAny living thing made up of at least one cell that can live on its ownNeutronno charge, located in the nucleusMitochondriaPowerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) productionCarbohydratessugars that act as a source of energy for all living thingsNucleusmembrane-bound organelle that contains a cell's DNARibosomesMakes proteinsnervous systemprocesses external stimuli and sends signals throughout the bodyMeiosisreproduction of sex cellsBiomesplant and animal communities that exists within specific climatesAutotrophAn organism that makes its own foodMitosiscell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomesChloroplastfood producers of a plant cellProtonsPositively charged particlestaxonic classification of organismskingdom phylum class order family genus speciesmembranethin layer of tissue covering a structure or cavityatomic numberthe number of protons in the nucleus of an atomBiofuelsFuels, such as ethanol or methanol, that are created from the fermentation of plants or plant products.biotic factorsAll the living organisms that inhabit an environmentabiotic factorsNonliving components of environment.IonsCharged atomselectric chargecreated by a difference in the balance of protons and electronsEukaryotic cellsContain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.covalent bondA chemical bond formed when two atoms share electronsBacteriasingle-celled organisms that lack a nucleusMoneraincludes bacteria with no nucleusLipidsa way for organisms to store energy and help with cell functioningFungieukaryotic organisms that have unique cell walls and obtain food from other organismsProtistssingle-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms. Have a nucleusendocrine systemcollection of organs that produce hormonesmicrobessmallest, simplest, and most abundant organisms on earthAtomBasic unit of matterVacuolesStores food, water, wastes, and other materials