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position one occupies in socitey

Car, Uniform

Examples of status

status set

all statuses that a person occupies at any particular time

mom, wife, teacher, woman, friend

example of status set

master status

can be achieved or ascribed; they significantly affect the likelihoods of achieving other social statuses

celebrity, convicted criminal, the pope

examples of master statuses

ascribed status

neither earned or chosen; assigned to us

male, female, teenager

examples of ascribed statuses

achieved status

is earned of chosen

CEO, president, team member

examples of achieved statuses

social structures

underlying patterns of relationships in a group

status inconsistency

when you occupy various statuses that don't seem to go together very well (ex: prodigy child)


an expected behavior associated with a particular status


behaviors that individuals expect from others


are behaviors you are expected to perform to others

role performance

is the actual conduct or behavior involved in carrying out (or performing) a role

social interaction

is the process of influencing each other as people relate; affects how well we preform


real life performance is

role conflict

exists when the performance of a role in one status clashes with the performance of a role in another (ex: teacher vs. being a mom and wife)

role strain

occurs when a person has trouble meeting the many roles connected with a single status (ex: too much going on, grading, paperwork)

set priorities, segregate roles

to deal with conflict and strain we...

status symbol

anything that conveys or transmits your status (ex: teacher's desk, uniform)


a negative master status (ex: convict, being poor)


something that just goes along with one's status that's true (ex: obama, 1st black president, male nurse)

teachers provide opportunities to learn for students

example of a status and its accompanying role set

conspicuous consumption

obvious and public display of luxury goods as a claim to high status

conspicuous waste

spending money on stuff thats not needed to show how rich you are


classified how they develop/function

social group

composed of people who share several futures

social category

is composed of people who share a social characteristic

red heads, left-handed, scientist

examples of social category

social aggregate

group of ppl happen to be at same place same time (random)

group of ppl at bus stop, seeing a movie

examples of social aggregate

primary group

composed of ppl who are emotionally close, know each other well, seek company (ex:family, friends)

primary relationship

emotional closeness caring and fullfilling

primary group

small size, face-face contact all the time, contact continious, roles appropriate, vested interest to be a part

functions of primary groups

emotional support, agent of socialization, to encourage conformity

secondary group

is impersonal and goal oriented (ex: weight watchers)

limited parts of personalities

secondary relationships involve only

sports team

example of secondary group

reference group

helps us evaluate ourselves, acquire attitudes, beliefs and norms in both positive and negative ways

social networking

extend our contact and let us form links to many other people

concert audience

example of aggregate group

sports teams positive; work together...sports team negative; influence to use steroids

example of positive/negative influences of reference group


requires extreme loyalty from its members to the exclusion of others (ex: cliques in h.s)


presumed awareness


feels opposition, antagonism, or competition toward the out group (ex: rival gangs (blood vs. cripts) rep vs. democrats)

group boundary

handshake, clothing, badges are examples of group ....?


smallest most fragile group (1 relationship- 2 ppl)


less intimate/fragile (3 relationships-3 pp)


groups to which they don't belong and maybe feel hostality (texan vs. new yorker)

normative function, comparitive function

2 main functions of reference groups

normative function

providing guidance concerning how to act

comparitive function

we can assess ourselves in relation to others

instrumental leader

primarily concerned with making decisions that will help the group achieve its goals

expressive leader

concentrates on keeping the group's morale high


are collections of individuals who share a social status

why ppl join social groups

to relate to others in order to enjoy a measure of intimacy and combat loneliness and to accomplish goals they would have difficult achieving

farming-industry, growth of modern city, move away from ascribed but more towards achieved statuses

what trends in society may account for the decreasing importance of primary groups and the increasing importance of secondary groups?

group dynamics

refers to the reciprocal influence between the individual and the small group

authoritarian leader

assigns tasks, makes major decisions for group, little attention to concerns of followers , good in crisis

democratic leader

encourages group discussion and input, works to build group consensus, creates groups that are more satisfied and work better, not good in emergency situations

laissez-faire leader

highly non-directive, lets group members make own decisions w/out much help or input, less effective/popular, gives group members chance to think on their own


ppl with larger and stronger networks tend to be more...

younger ppl

have more non family connections

older ppl and ppl in rural areas

tend to be have less extensive networks


large number of ppl in a specific geographic area who are connected by a variety of social bonds (ex: cities, towns. neighborhoods)


segments of a population that receive different amounts of scarce resources (ex: social classes, races, genders, ages)

social institutions

established predictable ways of meeting the basic needs of society

family economy political system religion education

what are the 5 core social institutions?

formal organizations

large secondary group designed to accomplish specific tasks through an elaborate internal division of labor


example of formal organization


purpose is to complete routine tasks as efficiently as possible and involve large numbers of ppl

george ritzer

identified mcdonaldization

informal structure

exists w/in bureaucracies

institutional control

use of technology try to eliminate human error

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