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76 terms

Sociology Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
Status
position one occupies in socitey
Car, Uniform
Examples of status
status set
all statuses that a person occupies at any particular time
mom, wife, teacher, woman, friend
example of status set
master status
can be achieved or ascribed; they significantly affect the likelihoods of achieving other social statuses
celebrity, convicted criminal, the pope
examples of master statuses
ascribed status
neither earned or chosen; assigned to us
male, female, teenager
examples of ascribed statuses
achieved status
is earned of chosen
CEO, president, team member
examples of achieved statuses
social structures
underlying patterns of relationships in a group
status inconsistency
when you occupy various statuses that don't seem to go together very well (ex: prodigy child)
role
an expected behavior associated with a particular status
rights
behaviors that individuals expect from others
obligations
are behaviors you are expected to perform to others
role performance
is the actual conduct or behavior involved in carrying out (or performing) a role
social interaction
is the process of influencing each other as people relate; affects how well we preform
ad-libbed
real life performance is
role conflict
exists when the performance of a role in one status clashes with the performance of a role in another (ex: teacher vs. being a mom and wife)
role strain
occurs when a person has trouble meeting the many roles connected with a single status (ex: too much going on, grading, paperwork)
set priorities, segregate roles
to deal with conflict and strain we...
status symbol
anything that conveys or transmits your status (ex: teacher's desk, uniform)
stigma
a negative master status (ex: convict, being poor)
token
something that just goes along with one's status that's true (ex: obama, 1st black president, male nurse)
teachers provide opportunities to learn for students
example of a status and its accompanying role set
conspicuous consumption
obvious and public display of luxury goods as a claim to high status
conspicuous waste
spending money on stuff thats not needed to show how rich you are
groups
classified how they develop/function
social group
composed of people who share several futures
social category
is composed of people who share a social characteristic
red heads, left-handed, scientist
examples of social category
social aggregate
group of ppl happen to be at same place same time (random)
group of ppl at bus stop, seeing a movie
examples of social aggregate
primary group
composed of ppl who are emotionally close, know each other well, seek company (ex:family, friends)
primary relationship
emotional closeness caring and fullfilling
primary group
small size, face-face contact all the time, contact continious, roles appropriate, vested interest to be a part
functions of primary groups
emotional support, agent of socialization, to encourage conformity
secondary group
is impersonal and goal oriented (ex: weight watchers)
limited parts of personalities
secondary relationships involve only
sports team
example of secondary group
reference group
helps us evaluate ourselves, acquire attitudes, beliefs and norms in both positive and negative ways
social networking
extend our contact and let us form links to many other people
concert audience
example of aggregate group
sports teams positive; work together...sports team negative; influence to use steroids
example of positive/negative influences of reference group
in-group
requires extreme loyalty from its members to the exclusion of others (ex: cliques in h.s)
covert
presumed awareness
in-group
feels opposition, antagonism, or competition toward the out group (ex: rival gangs (blood vs. cripts) rep vs. democrats)
group boundary
handshake, clothing, badges are examples of group ....?
dyad
smallest most fragile group (1 relationship- 2 ppl)
triads
less intimate/fragile (3 relationships-3 pp)
out-group
groups to which they don't belong and maybe feel hostality (texan vs. new yorker)
normative function, comparitive function
2 main functions of reference groups
normative function
providing guidance concerning how to act
comparitive function
we can assess ourselves in relation to others
instrumental leader
primarily concerned with making decisions that will help the group achieve its goals
expressive leader
concentrates on keeping the group's morale high
categories
are collections of individuals who share a social status
why ppl join social groups
to relate to others in order to enjoy a measure of intimacy and combat loneliness and to accomplish goals they would have difficult achieving
farming-industry, growth of modern city, move away from ascribed but more towards achieved statuses
what trends in society may account for the decreasing importance of primary groups and the increasing importance of secondary groups?
group dynamics
refers to the reciprocal influence between the individual and the small group
authoritarian leader
assigns tasks, makes major decisions for group, little attention to concerns of followers , good in crisis
democratic leader
encourages group discussion and input, works to build group consensus, creates groups that are more satisfied and work better, not good in emergency situations
laissez-faire leader
highly non-directive, lets group members make own decisions w/out much help or input, less effective/popular, gives group members chance to think on their own
educated
ppl with larger and stronger networks tend to be more...
younger ppl
have more non family connections
older ppl and ppl in rural areas
tend to be have less extensive networks
community
large number of ppl in a specific geographic area who are connected by a variety of social bonds (ex: cities, towns. neighborhoods)
strata
segments of a population that receive different amounts of scarce resources (ex: social classes, races, genders, ages)
social institutions
established predictable ways of meeting the basic needs of society
family economy political system religion education
what are the 5 core social institutions?
formal organizations
large secondary group designed to accomplish specific tasks through an elaborate internal division of labor
bureaucracy
example of formal organization
bureaucracy
purpose is to complete routine tasks as efficiently as possible and involve large numbers of ppl
george ritzer
identified mcdonaldization
informal structure
exists w/in bureaucracies
institutional control
use of technology try to eliminate human error