FeedbackThe receiver's response to a messagecomplementingenhance-gestures)repeatingthe use of nonverbal cues to convey the same meaning as the verbal messagecontradictingverbal and nonverbal messages that send conflicting messagesregulatingthe use of nonverbal cues to control the flow of communication;(maintains flow, rhythmic gestures)Substitutingthe use of nonverbal cues in place of oral messages when speaking is impossible, undesirable, or inappropriate; (when the non verbal message takes the place of the verbal message)Accentingnonverbal behaviors that emphasize part of a verbal message;gesture, movementEmblems, illustrators, adaptors, posture and gaitFacial expressionsCultural display rules... SADFISH, representation/presentational, facial management techniques... intensifying, de-intensifying, simulating, maskingKinesicsbody languageHapticsTypes of touch (stroke, brush, squeeze)
Location; self/other focused; Touch avoidanceOlfactics (unobservable)Attraction, memory, emotionProxemicsstudy of personal space; territorialityChronemics (cultural and informal)Monochronic and polychronic; individual time orientationParalinguistics (unobservable)Vocalics: emotion, "vocalic emblems", voice set, etc.Impression Management (all codes)... and impression formationFalseCommunication has a specific beginning and endingTrueCommunication has both content and relationship dimensionstrueyou cannot NOT communicateFalsecommunication is a good thingtruecommunication is metacommunicationaltruecommunication is punctuatedfalsemeanings are in wordstruecommunication is context based (are culturally bound)Falsemeanings are universaltruecommunication is rule governedfalsecommunication is reversiblefalsecommunication is repeatablefalseinterpersonal communication is intimate communicationconsensusDo other people react or behave in the same way as the person on whom I am focusing?
Yes (high consensus)
No (low consensus)ConsistencyDoes this person behave the same way in similar situations?
Yes (high consistency)
No (low consistency)DistinctivenessDoes this person react in similar ways in DIFFERENT situations?
Yes (low distinctiveness - - little change)
No (high distinctiveness - - great change)
When you see a change of behavior distinctiveness is highAttribution theoryPerceptual process by which we make sense out of the behavior/ communication of ourselves and others (explaining our own and others behaviors)Positive on the left, negative on the bottom and rightIf you are the bottom left corner, you have a negative relationship with the person on the bottom (hence the negative on bottom), however; you have a positive perception of the idea (the top of the triangle)
The other person has a negative perception (hence the right side of the triangle)Reinforcement theoryBasis: positive behaviors are rewarded, negative behaviors are punished. This happens in cycles until they become apart of usReinforcement TheoryThese cycles are often initiated by our significant others (parents, siblings, peers) in childhood
Parents reinforce behaviors in their children that align with their own: religion, ethics, etc
Children are rewarded for positive behaviors and punished for negative behaviorSelective perceptionWe choose the stimuli we are exposed to
Some things you don't pay attention to until you are told to focus in on themSelective exposure ++Selective attention ++Selective retention ==Attitudesa predisposition to respond to people, deas, and objects in an evaluative wayBeliefsour perception of reality (usually for a specific situation)Valuesrelatively long lasting judgments about the desirability of people, ideas, and objectsConsensus is low because no one else has quit this job
Consistency is high because he has quit this SAME job before
Distinctiveness is low because he has quit a number of various other jobs (his behavior hasn't changed)Ted has just quit his job. No one else we know has quit that job. Ted had quit a number of jobs in the last 5 years and has in fact quit this same job once before.fundamental attribution errorthe tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositionfundamental attribution error"people are more likely to assume that another's actions were caused by something internal than external"(overall)ultimate attribution errorassumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositionsultimate attribution error"fundamental attribution error" is particularly true if the behavior being attributed to another is "negative" (P. 112)Positivehalo effectNegativereverse halo effectimplicit personality theorySystem of rules that tells you which characteristics go with othersself-fulfilling prophecymaking predictions that come true because we take action/behave as if it were trueThree conditions of the self-fulfilling prophecyabove average, below average, controlPygmalion effectset up the situation where there were teachers who were told about a group of students they were going to be teaching for a period of time. They tell one group their attendance is good they are smart and then they tell the other group they are less bright, and the results were as expected, then they get debriefedperceptual accentuationwe see what we expect and want to see. We highlight characteristics which color our perceptions of other characteristicswe likeattractive, smartwe don't likedull, unattractivePrimacywhen what comes first exerts the most influence over our perceptionsRecencywhen what comes last exerts the most influence over our perceptionsPrimacywe tend to make snap judgements in the beginning of an interactionRecencysubsequent behaviors to reinforce or negate those first judgementsstereotypingis at work to some degree in all the perceptions we form about others; a fixed impression of a group of peoplehelicalbest model of communicationInterestmissing from the acronym SADFISH, which is associated with basic/universal facial expressionsWordsCommunication is symbolic. The most commonly understood symbols are:impression formation and impression managementThe broadest nonverbal code