Chapter 8 - Water & Minerals

controls thirst.
water losses through...
kidney, skin, lungs, feces
dietary recommendations of water
2-3 quarts/day or more for active people
homeostasis of water
maintained by kidney
sodium and chloride
primarily outside cells (interstitial fluids)
primarily inside cells (intracellular fluids)
moves water to most concentrated solute side of a membrane and regulates water balance within body compartments
antidiuretic hormone
signals kidneys to reabsorb water concentrating urine. sodium and dissolved minerals affect this
water intoxication occurs with too much water relative to sodium in blood
inorganic elements, they are not digested, but do regulate many body processes
major minerals
required in larger amounts. more than 100mg/day
minor (trace) minerals
just as necessary as major minerals but are required in smaller amounts
mineral functions
body structure, water balance, energy production, gene expression, cofactors in enzyme systems, interact with other nutrients and components of diet.
sodium(+), potassium(+), and chloride(-) maintain water balance and nerve transmission through their charges
electrolyte deficiency
problems with acid/base balance, muscle cramps, confusion, apathy constipation, heart beat and even death
electrolyte toxicity
potassium can cause heart to stop, sodium can cause high blood pressure in some individuals
maintain acid base balance in blood and water balance in body. also control much blood pressuer
major cation (+) in extracellular fluid - controlled by kidney
sodium deficiency. muscle cramps
sodium toxicity. or hypertension. may respond to salt restriction
major anion (-) in extracellular fluid maintaining fluid balance and pH of body fluids and source for hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion of foods
chloride sources
salts, meats, milk, processed foods
major cation (+) inside cells. most common electrolyte deficiency, may prevent or correct hypertension when balanced well with sodium. important in nerve impulse and muscle contraction. aids bone strength
potassium deficiency
muscle weakness and confusion
potassium toxicity
weakness and vomiting
potassium sources
bananas, fresh fruits, vegetables and legumes - low in most us diets
bone health
collagen (protein), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium and fluoride in proper concentrations
most abundant mineral in body. 99% in bones and teeth. provides rigidity
calcium deficiency
yields osteoporosis in later years or rickets in children and and osteopenia in young people
calcium toxicity
stones in soft tissues like kidneys and arteries, nausea, comiting, constipation and may interfere with zinc, iron, magnesium and phosphorous
calcium sources
milk, fish, greens, and legumes
85% in bones and teeth. rest in DNA, phospholipids and atp
phosphorous deficiency
rare in us causing weakness and bone pain, rickets and may be caused by over use of aluminum containg antiacids
phosphorous toxicity
low blood and bone calcium and can lead to calcification of soft tissues. ul 4000mg/day
phosphorous sources
animal foods and soft drinks
over half in bones, lots of enzymes, atp catalyst. mild to moderate deficiency is common in us
magnesium deficiency
severe weakness and confusion is rare, but can result from use of diuretics and some antibiotic use
magnesium toxicity
none from foods but some from supplements - diarrhea and dehydration. ul is 350 mg/day
magnesium sources
nutes, legumes, grains and fish
mostly in protein disulfide bridges, which shape protein molecules giving them functionality
sulfur sources
protein foods and some food preservatives
trace mineral. most common deficiency in us and world. most is found in hemoglobin. MFP. women need it more than men
iron toxicity
infection, liver injury, growth failure, heart problems. most common form of poisoning for children under 6 in us
iron sources
red meats, fish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits, enriched grains
involved in collagen manufacture and wound healing
copper toxicity
vomiting, diarrhea and liver damage. UL is 10 mg/day
copper sources
sea foods, nuts, whole grains, legumes
gene expression, many enzyme systems, immune functions, sexual maturity. better absorbed from animal foods. in blood also requires transferrin carrier thus competes with iron and copper
zinc deficience
in children retards growth, sexual maturity and impairs wound healing
zinc toxicity
vomiting, diarrhea, headache, exhaustion, suppressed immune system. UL 40 mg/day
zinc sources
protein foods, throat lozenges and galvanized metals
antioxidant. prevents free radical formation and reactions with many enzymes, part of glutahione preoxidase that protects cells from oxidative damage, may help prevent caner
selenium deficiency
heart disease inland china keshan disease
selenium toxicity
selenosis, epithelial, and nerve disorders. ul is 40micrograms/day
needed for thyroid hormone. thermostat regulating metabolism
iodine deficiency
goiter or creatinishm (physical and mental retardation in child) if woman is pregnant
iodine toxicity
also enlarges thyroid - goiter. ul is 1100 micrograms/day
iodine sources
seafood or iodized salt
enhances activity of insulin. chromium picolate is a popular athletic supplement thought to reduce body fat and increase muscle mass
chromium deficiency
yields diabetes type condition
chromium toxicity
chromium sources
meats, unrefined foods, yeast, fats
strengthens crystal deposits in bones and teeth. prevents cavities
fluoride toxicity
excess can stain teeth during formation or cause nerve damage
bones, liver, kidney and pancreas - cofactor for enzymes
manganese sources
nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables
cofactor for several metalloenzymes
molybdenum sources
legumes, creals, organ meats