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moves water to most concentrated solute side of a membrane and regulates water balance within body compartments
signals kidneys to reabsorb water concentrating urine. sodium and dissolved minerals affect this
body structure, water balance, energy production, gene expression, cofactors in enzyme systems, interact with other nutrients and components of diet.
sodium(+), potassium(+), and chloride(-) maintain water balance and nerve transmission through their charges
problems with acid/base balance, muscle cramps, confusion, apathy constipation, heart beat and even death
potassium can cause heart to stop, sodium can cause high blood pressure in some individuals
maintain acid base balance in blood and water balance in body. also control much blood pressuer
major anion (-) in extracellular fluid maintaining fluid balance and pH of body fluids and source for hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion of foods
major cation (+) inside cells. most common electrolyte deficiency, may prevent or correct hypertension when balanced well with sodium. important in nerve impulse and muscle contraction. aids bone strength
collagen (protein), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium and fluoride in proper concentrations
yields osteoporosis in later years or rickets in children and and osteopenia in young people
stones in soft tissues like kidneys and arteries, nausea, comiting, constipation and may interfere with zinc, iron, magnesium and phosphorous
rare in us causing weakness and bone pain, rickets and may be caused by over use of aluminum containg antiacids
low blood and bone calcium and can lead to calcification of soft tissues. ul 4000mg/day
over half in bones, lots of enzymes, atp catalyst. mild to moderate deficiency is common in us
severe weakness and confusion is rare, but can result from use of diuretics and some antibiotic use
none from foods but some from supplements - diarrhea and dehydration. ul is 350 mg/day
trace mineral. most common deficiency in us and world. most is found in hemoglobin. MFP. women need it more than men
infection, liver injury, growth failure, heart problems. most common form of poisoning for children under 6 in us
gene expression, many enzyme systems, immune functions, sexual maturity. better absorbed from animal foods. in blood also requires transferrin carrier thus competes with iron and copper
antioxidant. prevents free radical formation and reactions with many enzymes, part of glutahione preoxidase that protects cells from oxidative damage, may help prevent caner
goiter or creatinishm (physical and mental retardation in child) if woman is pregnant
enhances activity of insulin. chromium picolate is a popular athletic supplement thought to reduce body fat and increase muscle mass
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