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controls thirst.

water losses through...

kidney, skin, lungs, feces

dietary recommendations of water

2-3 quarts/day or more for active people

homeostasis of water

maintained by kidney

sodium and chloride

primarily outside cells (interstitial fluids)


primarily inside cells (intracellular fluids)


moves water to most concentrated solute side of a membrane and regulates water balance within body compartments

antidiuretic hormone

signals kidneys to reabsorb water concentrating urine. sodium and dissolved minerals affect this


water intoxication occurs with too much water relative to sodium in blood


inorganic elements, they are not digested, but do regulate many body processes

major minerals

required in larger amounts. more than 100mg/day

minor (trace) minerals

just as necessary as major minerals but are required in smaller amounts

mineral functions

body structure, water balance, energy production, gene expression, cofactors in enzyme systems, interact with other nutrients and components of diet.


sodium(+), potassium(+), and chloride(-) maintain water balance and nerve transmission through their charges

electrolyte deficiency

problems with acid/base balance, muscle cramps, confusion, apathy constipation, heart beat and even death

electrolyte toxicity

potassium can cause heart to stop, sodium can cause high blood pressure in some individuals


maintain acid base balance in blood and water balance in body. also control much blood pressuer


major cation (+) in extracellular fluid - controlled by kidney


sodium deficiency. muscle cramps


sodium toxicity. or hypertension. may respond to salt restriction


major anion (-) in extracellular fluid maintaining fluid balance and pH of body fluids and source for hydrochloric acid in stomach for digestion of foods

chloride sources

salts, meats, milk, processed foods


major cation (+) inside cells. most common electrolyte deficiency, may prevent or correct hypertension when balanced well with sodium. important in nerve impulse and muscle contraction. aids bone strength

potassium deficiency

muscle weakness and confusion

potassium toxicity

weakness and vomiting

potassium sources

bananas, fresh fruits, vegetables and legumes - low in most us diets

bone health

collagen (protein), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium and fluoride in proper concentrations


most abundant mineral in body. 99% in bones and teeth. provides rigidity

calcium deficiency

yields osteoporosis in later years or rickets in children and and osteopenia in young people

calcium toxicity

stones in soft tissues like kidneys and arteries, nausea, comiting, constipation and may interfere with zinc, iron, magnesium and phosphorous

calcium sources

milk, fish, greens, and legumes


85% in bones and teeth. rest in DNA, phospholipids and atp

phosphorous deficiency

rare in us causing weakness and bone pain, rickets and may be caused by over use of aluminum containg antiacids

phosphorous toxicity

low blood and bone calcium and can lead to calcification of soft tissues. ul 4000mg/day

phosphorous sources

animal foods and soft drinks


over half in bones, lots of enzymes, atp catalyst. mild to moderate deficiency is common in us

magnesium deficiency

severe weakness and confusion is rare, but can result from use of diuretics and some antibiotic use

magnesium toxicity

none from foods but some from supplements - diarrhea and dehydration. ul is 350 mg/day

magnesium sources

nutes, legumes, grains and fish


mostly in protein disulfide bridges, which shape protein molecules giving them functionality

sulfur sources

protein foods and some food preservatives


trace mineral. most common deficiency in us and world. most is found in hemoglobin. MFP. women need it more than men

iron toxicity

infection, liver injury, growth failure, heart problems. most common form of poisoning for children under 6 in us

iron sources

red meats, fish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits, enriched grains


involved in collagen manufacture and wound healing

copper toxicity

vomiting, diarrhea and liver damage. UL is 10 mg/day

copper sources

sea foods, nuts, whole grains, legumes


gene expression, many enzyme systems, immune functions, sexual maturity. better absorbed from animal foods. in blood also requires transferrin carrier thus competes with iron and copper

zinc deficience

in children retards growth, sexual maturity and impairs wound healing

zinc toxicity

vomiting, diarrhea, headache, exhaustion, suppressed immune system. UL 40 mg/day

zinc sources

protein foods, throat lozenges and galvanized metals


antioxidant. prevents free radical formation and reactions with many enzymes, part of glutahione preoxidase that protects cells from oxidative damage, may help prevent caner

selenium deficiency

heart disease inland china keshan disease

selenium toxicity

selenosis, epithelial, and nerve disorders. ul is 40micrograms/day


needed for thyroid hormone. thermostat regulating metabolism

iodine deficiency

goiter or creatinishm (physical and mental retardation in child) if woman is pregnant

iodine toxicity

also enlarges thyroid - goiter. ul is 1100 micrograms/day

iodine sources

seafood or iodized salt


enhances activity of insulin. chromium picolate is a popular athletic supplement thought to reduce body fat and increase muscle mass

chromium deficiency

yields diabetes type condition

chromium toxicity


chromium sources

meats, unrefined foods, yeast, fats


strengthens crystal deposits in bones and teeth. prevents cavities

fluoride toxicity

excess can stain teeth during formation or cause nerve damage


bones, liver, kidney and pancreas - cofactor for enzymes

manganese sources

nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables


cofactor for several metalloenzymes

molybdenum sources

legumes, creals, organ meats

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