World History Final

Song Dynasty (China)
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Terms in this set (210)
Quipu5 Pillars of IslamSunni/ShiaMartin LutherGerman priest and leader of the Protestant revolutionJesuits/Ignatius of LoyolaLeader of the Jesuits who were Christian missionaries that brought Western goods that made Chinese officials receptive to Western goods and they established schools throughout Europe, converted non-Christians to Catholicism through the use of missionaries all over the world and wanted to stop the spread of Protestantism and they were Christian missionaries who sailed over seasMachiavelliItalian diplomat who gave advice to monarchs on how they should rule and one of his key beliefs was that the ends justifies the means and he wrote "The Prince"Christopher ColumbusSailed for Spain to find a new route to Asia, but bumped into the West Indies and he first sailed across the Atlantic Ocean for the first time in 1492Vasco de GamaHe was the first to sail directly from Europe to IndiaFerdinand MagellanPortuguese navigator whose crew was the first to circumnavigate the world and there is a strait named after him and he named the Pacific OceanZheng HeMarco PoloIbn BattutaHernan CortesExplorer responsible for killing Montezuma and ending the Aztec EmpireFrancisco PizzaroExplorer that is responsible for conquering the Incan EmpireTlaxcalansMontezuma IILeaded of the Aztec empire and will be killed by the SpanishInvention of Printing PressProtestant ReformationA movement of religious reform that began from Luther's actions and it led to the founding of churches that did not accept the churches authorityCounter ReformationThe effort by the Catholic Church to defeat ProtestantismMaritime ReformationColumbian ExchangeA movement of disease, people, cultures, animals, and plants between the Eastern and Western hemispheresTriangular TradeEconomic pattern that imported and exported goods among the West Indies, England, Africa and the 13 original coloniesTreaty of Tordesillasa 1494 agreement between Portugal and spain that set the line of Demarcation or the imaginary line from the North Pole to the South Pole at 50 degrees longitude and Spain got everything to the west and Portugal got everything to the eastCollapse of the Aztec EmpireCollapse of the Incan EmpireHumanismMovement focusing on human potential and achievements and it valued history, literature, and philosophySecularismLess focus on religious ideas, more concerned with humans in the here and now and most people remained Catholic there was just less of a focus on it and it was more worldlyVernacularLanguage written in during the Renaissance that was the language of the common people instead of traditional Latin, it is the language that is spoken where they are from so in the United States it would be English and in Mexico it would be SpanishIndulgencesPardons that released someone from a punishment for a sin and the Catholic clergy sold them to fund church projectsPredestinationSays that God knows since the beginning of time who will be saves and that only an "elected" few people will have salvationGod/Gold/GloryThe three main goals of Spanish ExplorationConquistadorsSoldier-explorers who settled in the Americas in hopes of finding treasure and they were inspired by Columbus to seek fortune in the New World and many came from Extremadura in SpainManchusQuing DynastySuleiman the MagnificentOttoman EmpireJanissariesA group of trained soldiers in the Ottoman Empire that were converted to Islam at a young ageSafavid EmpireMughal EmpireAble to rule over a society that was predominately HinduKing Phillip II of SpainQueen Elizabeth IProtestant leader in England known for defeating the Spanish Armada and having a long powerful reignHuguenotsFrench Calvinists that made up 7% of the total population, but 50% of them were nobility and they were prosecuted in France during the wars of ReligionKing Louis XIVEnded French religious tolerance so thousands of Huguenots fledTokugawa ShogunateDefeat of Spanish Armada 1588Decline of Mughal EmpireEdict of Nantes, 1598Made France officially Catholic and said Huguenots were allowed to worship and hold public officeRussian ExpansionPeter the GreatThis leader moved Russia's capital to have access to Europe and he implemented Westernization to make Russia strongerJoint Stock CompaniesCorporations made up of individuals formed, sharing in the risk of funding explorations and when the sailings were successful, the investors made great profitsEthocentrismMandate of HeavenConcept that Chinese emperors claimed that they had the approval of the gods to rule their empireDivine Right of KingsIt was in England and said kings receive power from God and are only responsible to GodConfucianismA philosophy that influenced China and said family is the basis of society, the social order, harmony, and good government should be based on family relationships, education is valued for the welfare of people and society, and also that there needed to be respect for relationships in society, that the father and son both respected one another and both the subject and the ruler respected one anotherFoot BindingPractice in Chinese society during the Ming-Qing dynasty where women would wrap their feet very tight and break their arches and toes in order to try to obtain smaller feet.SultanShahGunpowder EmpiresCultural BlendingDevshirmeAbsolutismHaving total power as a ruler and it ended when William and Mary decided to rule together with ParliamentDaimyoMilitary lords that gave loyalty to the Shogun and they were the noble lords of Tokugawa Japan and they had to travel to Edo every two yearsShogunJapanese military rulersThomas HobbesThought humans were naturally selfish and quick to fightCopernicusPolish mathematician and astronomer who was the first to determine that the sun was at the center of the solar system and said the sun was the center of the UniverseJohannes KeplerGerman mathematician who was known for his laws of planetary motion in elliptical orbits around the sun and said planets move in an elliptical or oval orbitGalileoScientist that made improvements to the telescope helping to prove the Heliocentric theory and he was the first person to create the telescopeIsaac NewtonEnglish scientist that discovered the laws of motionVoltairePhilosopher who believed in religious tolerance and he was a big believer in freedom of speechMary WollstonecraftAn early proponent of women's rights and she believed women should have the right to vote, they should have equal rights and educations, and they could reasonJohn LockeSaid governments should guarantee their citizens life, liberty, and property and he said people have the right to abolish their government and create a new oneBaron de MontesquieuBelieved that to prevent tyranny in government there. should be a separation of powers, like dividing power among three branches of governmentJean-Jacques RousseauFrench enlightenment philosopher that believed the best form of government would be a direct democracy and that people were born good, but that society corrupted them and he wrote "The Social Contract"Scientific RevolutionSeries of events that led to the birth of modern scienceEnlightenmentThe new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of an individual to solve problemsEmpiricismGeocentricTheory that the earth was at the center of the universeHeliocentricTheory believed that the sun was at the center of the universeNewton's Laws of MotionGravityThe force that attracts objects to each other and keeps things from floating awayToussaint L'OuvertureGeneral of Haitian slave army and he assumed control of the Haitian slave rebellion in 1794King Louis XVILeader of France that called together the Estates-General, later will be beheaded and he lavished money on himself and residences like VersaillesMarie AntoinetteNational AssemblyCommittee of Public SafetyMaximilien RobespierreLeader of the Committee of Public Safety, had many people beheaded with the guillotineDirectoryNapoleon BonaparteEmperor of France after the French Revolution7 Years War/French and Indian WarAmerican RevolutionHaitian RevolutionFrench RevolutionMeeting of Estates GeneralTennis Court OathStorming of BastilleReign of TerrorRadical time period during the French revolution in which many people were beheadedIndustrial RevolutionBattle of WaterlooDeficit SpendingFactory SystemAssembly LineSteam EngineMass Production of GoodsDemocracy3 Estates of FranceBoxersChinese group that revolted against the spread of Christianity in ChinaSepoysBoersOpium WarBoxer RebellionTaiping RebellionTreaty of NanjingBoer WarColonyProtectorateSpheres of InfluenceAn area in which imperial power has complete rights and privileges in trade or investmentSocial DarwinismIdea that said that the most well adapted race/society deserved to take over lesser adapted races/societiesWhite Man's BurdenThe moral duty of the west to work to "civilize" the rest of the worldSuez CanalFrancis FerdinandTriple AllianceGermany, Austria-Hungary, and ItalyTriple EntenteFrance, Great Britain, and RussiaPolish/Irish/SlavsGavrilo PrincipCzar Nicholas IIRasputinSovietsCouncils of representatives of workers and soldiers that were located all over Russia and were largely socialistBolsheviksRadical soviet group that wanted industrial socialism in Russia and they gained power under the leadership of Vladimir LeninVladimir LeninLeader of the Russian Revolution and he led the communist ousting of Czar Nicholas and the Russian Royal FamilyWorld War ISinking of LousitaniaRussian RevolutionTreaty of VersaillesBattle of TannenbergBattle of GallipoliApril 1915, Allies attempt to open up front in Balkans, fail miserably and forced to withdrawMilitarismBelief that a government should maintain a strong military and aggressively prepare for war to defend national interestsAlliance SystemImperialismNationalismPride and loyalty in one's own countryConscriptionMandatory military serviceSchlieffen PlanGermany's plan to fight a two-front war with both France (invade them in the west) and Russia (hold them in the east)PropagandaIdeas spread to influence public opinion either for or against a causeTrench WarfareCombat in which each side fights from trenches dug for defensive purposes and it was a style of fighting that came to dominate the Western FrontReconnaissanceObserving and tracking enemy troopsWar of AttritionWar based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy lossesTotal WarCountries' completely mobilized their industries resources and people to fight the warPlanned EconomyEconomic systems directed by the governmentAdolf HitlerJoseph StalinBenito MussoliniHideki TojoEmperor HirohitoSpanish Civil WarGlobal Great DepressionMunich Conference/AgreementBattle of BritainBattle of StalingradBattle of MidwayBattle of Iwo JimaTotalitatianismAppeasementLeague of NationsCreated after World War I and had many weaknessesLebensraumAnschlussIsland HoppingIt was a tactic used in World War II and it was an American campaign to defeat the JapaneseUnited NationsCreated after World War II as a stronger organization meant to prevent future international warsHyperinflationMao ZedongMan who led the Communist Revolution in ChinaRed GuardMikhail GorbachevRonald ReagenLech WalesaSolidarityCold WarKorean/Vietnam WarSoviet-Afghan WarBerlin WallGreat Leap ForwardMao's plan for large collective farmsCultural RevolutionCommunismContainmentPerestroikaGlasnostCuban Missle CrisisDetenteFrench for relaxing and it war the period of cooling in the Cold WarS.A.L.TStrategic Arms Limitation Talks and they were major events during this period and were also called Nuclear Arms agreements and they were a continuation of earlier policies to limit Nuclear Arms in the worldMahatma GandhiIndian National CongressNelson MandelaGandhi's Salt MarchPartition of India/PakistanIranian RevolutionIsraeli/Palestine Conflict20th Century GenocidesCivil DisobedienceApartheidsystem of racial segregation in South Africa used from 1948 to the 1990s that Nelson Mandela actively fought againstShahHezbollahPLOHamasBased at the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and they are the terrorist group that represents Palestine